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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(11)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148539

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding how to deliver interventions more effectively is a growing emphasis in Global Health. Simultaneously, health system strengthening is a key component to improving delivery. As a result, it is challenging to evaluate programme implementation while reflecting real-world complexity. We present our experience in using a health systems modelling approach as part of a mixed-methods evaluation and describe applications of these models. METHODS: We developed a framework for how health systems translate financial inputs into health outcomes, with in-country and international experts. We collated available data to measure framework indicators and developed models for malaria in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and tuberculosis in Guatemala and Senegal using Bayesian structural equation modelling. We conducted several postmodelling analyses: measuring efficiency, assessing bottlenecks, understanding mediation, analysing the cascade of care and measuring subnational effectiveness. RESULTS: The DRC model indicated a strong relationship between shipment of commodities and utilisation thereof. In Guatemala, the strongest model coefficients were more evenly distributed. Results in Senegal varied most, but pathways related to community care had the strongest relationships. In DRC, we used model results to estimate the end-to-end cost of delivering commodities. In Guatemala, we used model results to identify potential bottlenecks and understand mediation. In Senegal, we used model results to identify potential weak links in the cascade of care, and explore subnationally. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a complementary modelling approach to traditional evaluation methods. Although these models have limitations, they can be applied in a variety of ways to gain greater insight into implementation and functioning of health service delivery.

2.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 151(1): 109-116, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of an intervention package on maternal and newborn health indicators. METHODS: A randomized stepped-wedge non-blind trial was conducted across six subdistricts within two districts in Guatemala from January 2014 to January 2017. Data on outcomes were collected on all deliveries in all 33 health centers. The intervention package included distribution of promotional materials encouraging health center delivery; education for traditional birth attendants about the importance of health center delivery; and provider capacity building using simulation training. Main outcomes were number of health center deliveries, maternal morbidity, and perinatal morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Overall, there were 24 412 deliveries. Health center deliveries per 1000 live births showed an overall increase, although after adjustment for secular trends and clustering, the relative risk for the treatment effect was not statistically significant (aRR, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-1.11, P=0.242). Although not statistically significant, maternal morbidity (aRR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.60-1.02; P=0.068) and perinatal morbidity (aRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.68-1.05; P=0.133) showed a tendency toward a decrease. CONCLUSION: The present study represents one of the few randomized evaluations of an integrated approach to improve birth outcomes in a low-income setting. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT0315107.

3.
Trials ; 20(Suppl 2): 703, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stepped-wedge cluster randomized trials (SW-CRTs) are increasingly popular in health-related research in both high- and low-resource settings. There may be specific ethical issues that researchers face when designing and conducting SW-CRTs in low-resource settings. Knowledge of these issues can help to improve the ethical conduct of SW-CRTs in a global health context. METHODS: We performed an ethical analysis of two studies using SW-CRT designs in low-resource settings: the Que Vivan Las Madres study conducted from 2014 to 2017 in Guatemala and the Atmiyata study conducted from 2017 to 2018 in rural parts of India. For both case studies, we identified and evaluated the classification of the study as research or nonresearch and the ethical issues regarding the justification of the design, including the delayed rollout of an intervention that had a promising effect. RESULTS: In our case studies, some minor ethical issues surfaced about the registration and stakeholder pressure on the order of randomization, but both included good justification for the design and delayed rollout. Our analysis did, however, demonstrate that careful consideration of the role of randomization and registration of the trials is important. DISCUSSION: SW-CRTs can provide an opportunity for rigorous evaluation of interventions destined to be rolled out on the basis of limited evidence. Furthermore, in SW-CRTs, the underlying objective is often to provide a robust evaluation of the effectiveness for generalized dissemination, and this makes the SW-CRT no less a research study than any other form of cluster randomized trial. CONCLUSION: The design and conduct of stepped-wedge cluster randomized trials raises at least two ethical issues that need special consideration in both high- and low-resource settings: the justification for using the design, specifically the delayed rollout of the intervention to the control group, and the classification of the study as research or nonresearch. In our case studies, these issues did not seem to raise special ethical scrutiny in low-resource settings. Further ethical evaluation will hopefully result in specific ethical guidelines for the use of SW-CRTs in both high- and low-resource settings to contribute to responsible functioning of these trials and adequate protection of participants.


Assuntos
Grupos Controle , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Recursos em Saúde/ética , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/ética , Projetos de Pesquisa , Análise por Conglomerados , Guatemala , Humanos , Índia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/economia
4.
Rev. Col. Méd. Cir. Guatem ; 156(1): 23-29, 2017 jul. Tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-981058

RESUMO

La hemorragia vaginal post parto continúa siendo una de las primeras causas de muerte materna en países con desarrollo social y económico pobre o detenido. Existen a la fecha intervenciones de éxito que son utilizadas a nivel hospitalario y comunitario en países con altas tasas de parto en el hogar . Propósito: Sugerir intervenciones que mejoren la salud materna de la población indígena, rural y pobre del país. Material y método: Se realizó un análisis secundario de bases de datos sobre vigilancia de muerte materna . Se revisó la base de datos del Sistema Gerencial de Salud (SIGSA y SIGSA2) sobre muertes en mujeres de edad fértil y muertes maternas de 17 municipios y 19 distritos del departamento de Alta Verapaz y 32 municipios de del departamento de Huehuetenango, previamente analizados por los comités de mortalidad materna. ..AU


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Saúde Materna , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna
5.
Soc Sci Med ; 184: 99-107, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28511055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite recommendations that women give birth with a skilled birth attendant (SBA), 70% of births in Guatemala occur outside health facilities with informally trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs). To increase SBA in rural, indigenous communities, a professional midwifery school accredited by the government is scheduled to open in 2017. Drawing from Filby's model on barriers to the successful integration of professional midwifery into health systems, this paper aims to identify threats - and facilitators-toward professional midwifery's re-introduction in Guatemala. METHODS: To elucidate perceptions, attitudes and expectations towards professional midwifery, qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with 32 physicians, nurses, and TBAs in six health centers and with key decision makers and professional midwives (PMs) in Guatemala City. We conducted open and axial coding in Atlas.ti and performed normative comparisons of participants' attitudes, perceptions, and expectations with the National Vision for professional midwifery and relative comparisons within and across disciplinary subgroups. RESULTS: Unprompted, physicians, nurses and TBAs were unable to correctly define professional midwifery. Yet, when professional midwifery was defined for them, they expressed willingness to work with PMs, seeing them as a needed human resource, instrumental in providing intercultural care and strengthening facility relationships with TBAs. Some stakeholders anticipated resistance toward PMs due to provider turf issues. Notable differences in expectations among all groups included ideas for supervision of and by the PMs and the PM's role in monitoring women and conducting births in communities alongside TBAs. CONCLUSIONS: Facilitators to professional midwifery's success include national political will, stakeholders' uniformity of vision, and the potential for improved intercultural care. Barriers are mostly professional in nature, including impediments to autonomous practice by PMs, hierarchical challenges, and turf issues. A specific road map addressing the identified barriers is needed for professional midwifery to succeed in reducing maternal health disparities in Guatemala.


Assuntos
Atitude , Tocologia/normas , Percepção , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Grupos Focais , Guatemala , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Serviços de Saúde Materna/provisão & distribução , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
6.
Rev. Col. Méd. Cir. Guatem ; 155(1): 19-27, jul. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-835548

RESUMO

Introducción: El aumento de la operación cesárea ha sido catalogado como un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. Esto debido aque el aumento del número de operaciones realizadas está llegando a cifras inadmisibles. Desde la década de los ochenta del siglopasado los profesionales de la salud de todo el mundo han mantenido y aceptado la tasa ideal de cesárea sugerida por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), según la cual la proporción debería oscilar entre el 10% y el 15% del total de partos. En el año 2015 la OMS publicó la nueva declaración sobre la tasa de cesárea endonde cuestiona la tasa ideal mencionada anteriormente; sin embargo, enfatiza que las tasas superiores al 10% no están asociadas con una reducción en la razón de mortalidad materna nien la reducción de la tasa de mortalidad perinataly neonatal, y que las cesáreas son eficaces para salvar la vida de las madres y los neonatos cuando son necesarias por motivos médicos...


Introduction: The increase in caesarean sectionhas been listed as a public health problem worldwide.This is due to the increase number of operations performed, but even more for theunacceptable higher rates achieved. Since theeighties in the last century, health professionals around the world have maintained and accepted the ideal caesarean section rate suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and whichshould range between 10% and 15%. In 2015the WHO published the new statement on therate of caesarean section in which they questioned the ideal rate mentioned before, howeveremphasizes that at population level, higher rates of caesarean section above 10% are not associated with a reduction in the maternal mortality ratio, or in reducing the rate of perinatal and neonatal mortality and that the caesarean sections areeffective in saving the lives of mothers and new-born’s when needed for medical reasons...


Assuntos
Humanos , Cesárea , Cesárea/mortalidade , Guatemala
7.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 132(3): 359-64, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26797198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a low-technology simulation-based training scheme for obstetric and perinatal emergency management (PRONTO; Programa de Rescate Obstétrico y Neonatal: Tratamiento Óptimo y Oportuno) on non-emergency delivery practices at primary level clinics in Guatemala. METHODS: A paired cross-sectional birth observation study was conducted with a convenience sample of 18 clinics (nine pairs of intervention and control clinics) from June 28 to August 7, 2013. Outcomes included implementation of practices known to decrease maternal and/or neonatal mortality and improve patient care. RESULTS: Overall, 25 and 17 births occurred in intervention and control clinics, respectively. Active management of the third stage of labor was appropriately performed by 20 (83%) of 24 intervention teams versus 7 (50%) of 14 control teams (P=0.015). Intervention teams implemented more practices to decrease neonatal mortality than did control teams (P<0.001). Intervention teams ensured patient privacy in 23 (92%) of 25 births versus 11 (65%) of 17 births for control teams (P=0.014). All 15 applicable intervention teams kept patients informed versus 6 (55%) of 11 control teams (P=0.001). Differences were also noted in teamwork; in particular, skill-based tools were used more often at intervention sites than control sites (P=0.012). CONCLUSION: Use of PRONTO enhanced non-emergency delivery care by increasing evidence-based practice, patient-centered care, and teamwork.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/educação , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/normas , Mortalidade Infantil , Mortalidade Materna , Tocologia/educação , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Med Educ ; 15: 117, 2015 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26206373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite expanding access to institutional birth in Guatemala, maternal mortality remains largely unchanged over the last ten years. Enhancing the quality of emergency obstetric and neonatal care is one important strategy to decrease mortality. An innovative, low-tech, simulation-based team training program (PRONTO) aims to optimize care provided during obstetric and neonatal emergencies in low-resource settings. METHODS: We conducted PRONTO simulation training between July 2012 and December 2012 in 15 clinics in Alta Verapaz, Huehuetenango, San Marcos, and Quiche, Guatemala. These clinics received PRONTO as part of a larger pair-matched cluster randomized trial of a comprehensive intervention package. Training participants were obstetric and neonatal care providers that completed pre- and post- training assessments for the two PRONTO training modules, which evaluated knowledge of evidence-based practice and self-efficacy in obstetric and neonatal topics. Part of the training included a session for trained teams to establish strategic goals to improve clinical practice. We utilized a pre/post-test design to evaluate the impact of the course on both knowledge and self-efficacy with longitudinal fixed effects linear regression with robust standard errors. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between knowledge and self-efficacy. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between the number of goals achieved and knowledge, self-efficacy, and identified facility-level factors. RESULTS: Knowledge and self-efficacy scores improved significantly in all areas of teaching. Scores were correlated for all topics overall at training completion. More than 60 % of goals set to improve clinic functioning and emergency care were achieved. No predictors of goal achievement were identified. CONCLUSIONS: PRONTO training is effective at improving provider knowledge and self-efficacy in training areas. Further research is needed to evaluate the impact of the training on provider use of evidence-based practices and on maternal and neonatal health outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01653626.


Assuntos
Emergências , Tocologia/educação , Neonatologia/educação , Obstetrícia/educação , Adulto , Idoso , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Autoeficácia , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/normas , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 13: 73, 2013 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23517050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal and perinatal mortality continue to be a high priority problem on the health agendas of less developed countries. Despite the progress made in the last decade to quantify the magnitude of maternal mortality, few interventions have been implemented with the intent to measure impact directly on maternal or perinatal deaths. The success of interventions implemented in less developed countries to reduce mortality has been questioned, in terms of the tendency to maintain a clinical perspective with a focus on purely medical care separate from community-based approaches that take cultural and social aspects of maternal and perinatal deaths into account. Our innovative approach utilizes both the clinical and community perspectives; moreover, our study will report the weight that each of these components may have had on reducing perinatal mortality and increasing institution-based deliveries. METHODS/DESIGN: A matched pair cluster-randomized trial will be conducted in clinics in four rural indigenous districts with the highest maternal mortality ratios in Guatemala. The individual clinic will serve as the unit of randomization, with 15 matched pairs of control and intervention clinics composing the final sample. Three interventions will be implemented in indigenous, rural and poor populations: a simulation training program for emergency obstetric and perinatal care, increased participation of the professional midwife in strengthening the link between traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the formal health care system, and a social marketing campaign to promote institution-based deliveries. No external intervention is planned for control clinics, although enhanced monitoring, surveillance and data collection will occur throughout the study in all clinics throughout the four districts. All obstetric events occurring in any of the participating health facilities and districts during the 18 months implementation period will be included in the analysis, controlling for the cluster design. Our main outcome measures will be the change in perinatal mortality and in the proportion of institution-based deliveries. DISCUSSION: A unique feature of this protocol is that we are not proposing an individual intervention, but rather a package of interventions, which is designed to address the complexities and realities of maternal and perinatal mortality in developing countries. To date, many other countries, has focused its efforts to decrease maternal mortality indirectly by improving infrastructure and data collection systems rather than on implementing specific interventions to directly improve outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov,http://NCT01653626.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Mortalidade Perinatal , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Tocologia , Assistência Perinatal , Gravidez , Melhoria de Qualidade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Marketing Social
10.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 27(1): 36-42, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23360940

RESUMO

Maternal and neonatal mortality in Northern Guatemala, a region with a high percentage of indigenous people, is disproportionately high. Initiatives to improve quality of care at local health facilities equipped for births, and increasing the number of births attended at these facilities will help address this problem. PRONTO (Programa de Rescate Obstétrico y Neonatal: Tratamiento Óptimo y Oportuno) is a low-tech, high-fidelity, simulation-based, provider-to-provider training in the management of obstetric and neonatal emergencies. This program has been successfully tested and implemented in Mexico. PRONTO will now be implemented in Guatemala as part of an initiative to decrease maternal and perinatal mortality. Guatemalan health authorities have requested that the training include training on cultural humility and humanized birth. This article describes the process of curricular adaptation to satisfy this request. The PRONTO team adapted the existing program through 4 steps: (a) analysis of the problem and context through a review of qualitative data and stakeholder interviews, (b) literature review and adoption of a theoretical framework regarding cultural humility and adult learning, (c) adaptation of the curriculum and design of new activities and simulations, and (d) implementation of adapted and expanded curriculum and further refinement in response to participant response.


Assuntos
Cultura , Educação , Emergências , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/métodos , Enfermagem Materno-Infantil/educação , Adulto , Educação/métodos , Educação/organização & administração , Feminino , Guatemala , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Enfermagem Materno-Infantil/métodos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/terapia , Grupos Populacionais , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Melhoria de Qualidade
11.
PLoS One ; 7(10): e46426, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23115628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current educational strategies to integrate HIV care into primary medical care in Central America have traditionally targeted managers or higher-level officials, rather than local health care workers (HCWs). We developed a complementary online and on-site interactive training program to reach local HCWs at the primary care level in underserved communities. METHODS: The training program targeted physicians, nurses, and community HCWs with limited access to traditional onsite training in Panama, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The curriculum focused on principles of HIV care and health systems using a tutor-supported blended educational approach of an 8-week online component, a weeklong on-site problem-solving workshop, and individualized project-based interventions. RESULTS: Of 258 initially active participants, 225 (225/258=87.2%) successfully completed the online component and the top 200 were invited to the on-site workshop. Of those, 170 (170/200=85%) attended the on-site workshop. In total, 142 completed all three components, including the project phase. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation instruments included knowledge assessments, reflexive essays, and acceptability surveys. The mean pre and post-essay scores demonstrating understanding of social determinants, health system organization, and integration of HIV services were 70% and 87.5%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 17.2% (p<0.001). The mean pre- and post-test scores evaluating clinical knowledge were 70.9% and 90.3%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 19.4% (p<0.001). A survey of Likert scale and open-ended questions demonstrated overwhelming participant satisfaction with course content, structure, and effectiveness in improving their HIV-related knowledge and skills. CONCLUSION: This innovative curriculum utilized technology to target HCWs with limited access to educational resources. Participants benefited from technical skills acquired through the process, and could continue working within their underserved communities while participating in the online component and then implement interventions that successfully converted theoretical knowledge to action to improve integration of HIV care into primary care.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , América Central , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 116(2): 120-3, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22093500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the legal and clinical knowledge of Guatemalan obstetrician-gynecologists (OB/GYNs) regarding medical abortion and to determine factors associated with approval of its use for specific indications. METHODS: A trained interviewer administered a multiple-choice survey to 172 private-practice OB/GYNs across Guatemala. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses characterized medical abortion opinion and knowledge, and logistic regression identified influential factors. RESULTS: 73% of OB/GYNs knew that abortion is legally permitted when the woman's life is at risk. Although 92% knew that misoprostol can be used to induce abortion, only 35% knew the WHO-recommended dosage. Only 25% knew of mifepristone. Compared with older OB/GYNs, those under 40 years of age were 7 times more likely, and 40-49 year olds were twice as likely to approve of medical abortion for fetal death and severe eclampsia with fetal death, respectively. CONCLUSION: Current indications for abortion under Guatemalan law, as well as OB/GYN practices and beliefs regarding medical abortion, are hindering women's access to safe medical abortion and, therefore, potential reductions in maternal morbidity and mortality. Future research should aim to identify whether and why Guatemalan OB/GYNs are unfamiliar with these drugs, prefer to use other methods, or are completely against abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abortivos/administração & dosagem , Abortivos/uso terapêutico , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Adulto , Coleta de Dados , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Guatemala , Ginecologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mifepristona/administração & dosagem , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Análise Multivariada , Obstetrícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez
13.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 29(2): 103-7, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21437367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Low frequency of effective contraceptive use remains a challenging problem. This article examines the frequency of effective postpartum contraception and the methods used before discharge in public hospitals in Guatemala. It also discusses the need to implement best practices in providing family-planning and contraceptive services. METHODS: In March 2006, a surveillance system was implemented to collect data on the initiation of effective contraceptive methods. Postpartum women were monitored in 34 public hospitals. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed, and a chi-square test for linear trends was used to compare female surgical sterilization rates after vaginal delivery and cesarean section. RESULTS: Between 1 March 2006 and 31 December 2008, of the 218 656 women who had a postpartum event, 31% received an effective contraceptive method before hospital discharge. The frequency of initiation of effective postpartum methods varied across hospitals. Hospital results were consistent with national data on women of reproductive age. Among women who underwent surgical sterilization, differences between those who had delivered vaginally and those who had a cesarean section were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The overall frequency of initiation of effective postpartum contraceptive use is low in public hospitals in Guatemala. It is higher, however, in hospitals at lower health care levels with strong community ties. Routine data collection revealed specific areas for improvement, particularly the need to enhance health providers' knowledge of medical eligibility criteria for effective contraceptive use postpartum. The priority is to promote the provision of high-quality family-planning and contraceptive services in Guatemala's public health system.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto , Adulto , Cesárea , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados , Parto Obstétrico , Países em Desenvolvimento , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Feminino , Guatemala , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Humanos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona , Gravidez , Esterilização Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 29(2): 103-107, Feb. 2011. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-579015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Low frequency of effective contraceptive use remains a challenging problem. This article examines the frequency of effective postpartum contraception and the methods used before discharge in public hospitals in Guatemala. It also discusses the need to implement best practices in providing family-planning and contraceptive services. METHODS: In March 2006, a surveillance system was implemented to collect data on the initiation of effective contraceptive methods. Postpartum women were monitored in 34 public hospitals. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed, and a chi-square test for linear trends was used to compare female surgical sterilization rates after vaginal delivery and cesarean section. RESULTS: Between 1 March 2006 and 31 December 2008, of the 218 656 women who had a postpartum event, 31 percent received an effective contraceptive method before hospital discharge. The frequency of initiation of effective postpartum methods varied across hospitals. Hospital results were consistent with national data on women of reproductive age. Among women who underwent surgical sterilization, differences between those who had delivered vaginally and those who had a cesarean section were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The overall frequency of initiation of effective postpartum contraceptive use is low in public hospitals in Guatemala. It is higher, however, in hospitals at lower health care levels with strong community ties. Routine data collection revealed specific areas for improvement, particularly the need to enhance health providers' knowledge of medical eligibility criteria for effective contraceptive use postpartum. The priority is to promote the provision of highquality family-planning and contraceptive services in Guatemala's public health system.


OBJETIVO: La baja frecuencia del uso de métodos anticonceptivos eficaces sigue siendo un arduo problema. En este artículo se analiza la frecuencia con que se adopta un método de anticoncepción eficaz durante el puerperio y los diferentes métodos anticonceptivos empleados antes del egreso de los hospitales públicos de Guatemala. También se analiza la necesidad de mejorar las prácticas de los servicios de planificación familiar y anticoncepción. MÉTODOS: En marzo del 2006, se implantó un sistema de vigilancia para recopilar datos sobre el inicio de métodos anticonceptivos eficaces. Se hizo un seguimiento de mujeres durante el puerperio en 34 hospitales públicos. Se llevaron a cabo análisis de una sola variable y de dos variables, y se utilizó la prueba de la chi al cuadrado de las tendencias lineales con objeto de comparar las tasas de esterilización quirúrgica femenina después del parto vaginal y la cesárea. RESULTADOS: Entre el 1 de marzo del 2006 y el 31 de diciembre del 2008, de las 218 656 mujeres a las que se les hizo un seguimiento durante el puerperio, en 31 por ciento se inició un método anticonceptivo eficaz antes del alta hospitalaria. La frecuencia de inicio de un método anticonceptivo eficaz en el puerperio varió entre los diferentes hospitales. Los resultados hospitalarios concordaron con los datos nacionales sobre las mujeres en edad fecunda. En las mujeres que se sometieron a esterilización quirúrgica, las diferencias entre las que habían dado a luz por vía vaginal y las sometidas a una cesárea fueron estadísticamente significativas. CONCLUSIONES: En general, existe una baja frecuencia de inicio de un método anticonceptivo eficaz durante el puerperio en los hospitales públicos de Guatemala. Sin embargo, es mayor en los hospitales de inferior nivel de atención de salud cuyos vínculos con la comunidad son intensos. La recopilación sistemática de datos reveló que determinadas áreas debían ser objeto de mejora, en particular era necesario mejorar el conocimiento de los proveedores de servicios de salud en materia de criterios médicos sobre la indicación del uso de un método anticonceptivo eficaz durante el puerperio. La promoción de la provisión de servicios de planificación familiar y anticoncepción de alta calidad en el sistema de salud pública de Guatemala constituye una prioridad.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Anticoncepção , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto , Cesárea , Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados , Preservativos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção , Parto Obstétrico , Países em Desenvolvimento , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Guatemala , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona , Esterilização Reprodutiva
15.
Salud Publica Mex ; 53 Suppl 3: S312-22, 2011.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22344376

RESUMO

To present the main results of the regional situation diagnosis and intervention plan developed in 2010 as part of the planning activities of the Mesoamerican Health System by the Working Group on Maternal, Reproductive and Neonatal Health. A group of experts and representatives from countries in the region (Central America and nine southern Mexican states) conducted an exhaustive review of available data to construct a situational analysis and a review of effective practices for improving maternal, reproductive and neonatal health. Finally, the group proposed a regional action plan, defining regional goals and specific interventions. The situational diagnosis suggests that, although there has been progress in the last 10 years, maternal and neonatal mortality rates are still unnaceptably high in the region, with a substantial variability across countries. The group proposed as a regional goal the reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality in accordance with the Millenium Development Goals. The regional plan recommends specific maternal and neonatal health interventions emphasizing obstetric and neonatal emergency care, skilled birth attendance and family planning. The plan also includes a five year implementation strategy, along with training and evaluation strategies. The regional plan for maternal, neonatal and reproductive health has the potential to be successful, provided it is effectively implemented.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Bem-Estar do Lactente , Bem-Estar Materno , Saúde Reprodutiva , Adolescente , Adulto , América Central , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/provisão & distribução , Países em Desenvolvimento , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Objetivos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Cooperação Internacional , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/provisão & distribução , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Regionalização , Adulto Jovem
17.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.3): s312-s322, 2011. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-625711

RESUMO

Presentar los principales resultados del diagnóstico situacional y plan regional de intervenciones en salud materna, reproductiva y neonatal elaborado como parte de los trabajos del Sistema Mesoamericano de Salud por el grupo de salud materna, reproductiva y neonatal (SMRN) en 2010. Se conformó un grupo de expertos y de representantes de los países de la región (que incluye Centroamérica y nueve estados del sur de México). Se hizo una revisión documental para conformar un diagnóstico situacional, una revisión de prácticas efectivas y se conformó un plan regional de acción. El diagnóstico situacional indica que las tasas de mortalidad materna y neonatal se mantienen inaceptablemente altas en la región. Se propuso como meta regional reducir la mortalidad materna y neonatal de acuerdo a los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio. Se conformó un plan regional que identifica intervenciones específicas en SMRN con énfasis en la atención adecuada a las emergencias obstétricas y neonatales, atención calificada al nacimiento, y en planificación familiar. Se sugiere asimismo un plan de implementación a cinco años y una estrategia de evaluación y de capacitación. El plan regional en SMRN puede tener éxito siempre y cuando los aspectos de implementación sean atendidos debidamente.


To present the main results of the regional situation diagnosis and intervention plan developed in 2010 as part of the planning activities of the Mesoamerican Health System by the Working Group on Maternal, Reproductive and Neonatal Health. A group of experts and representatives from countries in the region (Central America and nine southern Mexican states) conducted an exhaustive review of available data to construct a situational analysis and a review of effective practices for improving maternal, reproductive and neonatal health. Finally, the group proposed a regional action plan, defining regional goals and specific interventions. The situational diagnosis suggests that, although there has been progress in the last 10 years, maternal and neonatal mortality rates are still unnaceptably high in the region, with a substantial variability across countries. The group proposed as a regional goal the reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality in accordance with the Millenium Development Goals. The regional plan recommends specific maternal and neonatal health interventions emphasizing obstetric and neonatal emergency care, skilled birth attendance and family planning. The plan also includes a five year implementation strategy, along with training and evaluation strategies. The regional plan for maternal, neonatal and reproductive health has the potential to be successful, provided it is effectively implemented.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Bem-Estar do Lactente , Bem-Estar Materno , Saúde Reprodutiva , América Central , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/provisão & distribução , Países em Desenvolvimento , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Objetivos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Cooperação Internacional , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , México , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/provisão & distribução , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Regionalização
18.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s78-s84, 2011. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-597128

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Medir la cobertura efectiva para once intervenciones de salud en nueve países de América Latina utilizando las encuestas de demografía y salud o registros administrativos que abarcan la salud infantil, de la mujer y el adulto. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron las intervenciones y se armonizaron definiciones y métodos de cálculo de acuerdo con la información disponible para lograr la comparabilidad entre países. RESULTADOS: Chile es el país con mejores indicadores de coberturas crudas y efectivas, seguido por México y Colombia, y existen brechas importantes entre regiones, departamentos o estados. CONCLUSIONES: La métrica de cobertura efectiva es un indicador sensible que relaciona la necesidad de las intervenciones en salud, su utilización y calidad, lo que permite valorar los programas de salud al aportar datos precisos de dónde y a quién deben dirigirse los recursos y esfuerzos nacionales para que los países alcancen los propósitos y metas planteados.


OBJECTIVE: To measure effective coverage for ll health interventions in Latin America including the children's, women's and adult health, as part of program evaluation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Interventions were selected; the definitions and calculation methods were harmonized according to the information available to ensure comparability between countries. RESULTS: Chile has better indicators of crude and effective coverage followed by Mexico and Colombia.There are significant gaps between regions, counties or states. CONCLUSIONS: The health metric on effective coverage is a sensitive indicator that links three important aspects: Coverage of health interventions, use of health services, and access to such services. Effective coverage is a good tool to evaluate health programs performance, and also provides data of where and to whom the system should address national efforts and resources to achieve the purposes and goals set.


Assuntos
Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Região do Caribe , Bem-Estar da Criança , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde , América Latina , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher
19.
Rev. centroam. obstet. ginecol ; 14(3): 104-109, jul.-sept. 2009.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-733736

RESUMO

La mortalidad materna continúa siendo un grave problema para los sistemas de salud de los países menos desarrollados. A pesar de los compromisos internacionales adquiridos por los gobiernos de turno y el compromiso de alcanzar los objetivos del milenio para el año 2015. Más de medio millón de mujeres mueren cada año debido a complicaciones durante el embarazo y el parto. La gran mayoría de estas muertes son prevenibles...


Assuntos
Humanos , Guatemala , Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Gravidez
20.
Contraception ; 80(1): 68-73, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19501218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overall situation in Guatemala, Central America, regarding programs caring for women's reproductive health has been lagging behind for some decades. Since the year 2000, 56% of Guatemalan families have lived below the poverty line. Guatemala has one of the highest fertility rates (lifetime births per woman) in Latin America and the Caribbean countries, comparable to those observed in less developed countries in Africa. Considering the lack of sex education, poor access to effective contraceptive methods and issues of unwanted pregnancy, Guatemalan women engage in illegal and unsafe abortions, which often causes harm and sometimes death. A key strategy designed to improve women's health is through free and informed access to contraceptive methods that are effective and accepted by Guatemalan women. STUDY DESIGN: From July 1, 2003, to December 31, 2006, specially hired trained facilitators visited 22 public hospitals for 1 week to train corresponding physician staff in postabortion counseling, enabling them to assist patients to select and use an effective contraceptive method. To monitor the progress achieved, the trained facilitators returned 4 weeks later. The main purpose of the training was to focus in strengthening the understanding and technical capacity of the hospital staff to implement postabortion contraceptive counseling and to enable women to obtain an effective contraceptive method prior to hospital discharge. RESULTS: Out of 22 hospitals, 21 managed to improve their record for counseling patients admitted for postabortion complications, from 31% to 96%. Furthermore, the percentage of women being discharged from the hospital with an effective contraceptive method rose from 20% to 64% from 2003 to 2006. CONCLUSION: The successful results obtained during this study to meet postabortion demands by Guatemalan women point out to the urgent need for the government to expand this initiative within the national health system, including health centers nationwide. This is one of the worldwide recommendations previously made by the World Health Organization.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos
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