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1.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(25): 5230-5236, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479080

RESUMO

Isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides (ISOPOOH) formed by the photooxidation of isoprene under low-NO conditions play an important role in the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosols, yet multiphase processes of ISOPOOH are poorly understood. By applying electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we observe that ISOPOOH undergoes aqueous-phase decomposition upon interacting with Fe(II) ions to form OH and organic radicals at room temperature. To reproduce the measured dependence of OH formation on the Fe concentrations by kinetic modeling, we postulate that Fe(II) ions react with ISOPOOH via Fenton-like reactions to form OH radicals with a rate constant of 7.3 × 10-18 cm3 s-1. At low concentrations, oxalate forms monocomplexes with Fe(II) ions, which can promote OH formation by ISOPOOH. However, at high concentrations, oxalate scavenges OH radicals, thereby lowering aqueous OH concentrations. These findings provide new insight for the atmospheric fate of ISOPOOH and reactive oxygen species generation in the aqueous phase.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12476-12484, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603666

RESUMO

The oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) by peroxides leads to the formation of sulfate in cloudwater, contributing to particulate matter (PM) formation. The reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considered to be the main cloud oxidation pathway. Previous studies have examined the oxidation of SO2 in cloudwater by small organic peroxides with one functional group; however, oxidation by multifunctional organic hydroperoxides, which are expected to have higher water solubility and reactivity, has not been examined. We investigate the aqueous oxidation of SO2 by the two main isomers of isoprene hydroxyl hydroperoxide (ISOPOOH), the primary low-NOx isoprene oxidation products in the atmosphere. Having large Henry's law constants and being among the most abundant multifunctional hydroperoxides, they are among the most important organic hydroperoxides present in clouds. The pH dependence of the reactions was investigated at cloud relevant pH of 3-6, and the results reveal their importance compared to the oxidation of SO2 via H2O2. Model simulations in GEOS-Chem, updated with the chemistry described herein, highlight the importance of these pathways for sulfate formation in regions with high isoprene emissions and low-NOx atmospheric conditions, especially if they maintain significant SO2 emissions.


Assuntos
Computação em Nuvem , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Butadienos , Hemiterpenos , Oxirredução , Pentanos , Sulfatos
3.
J Phys Chem A ; 122(30): 6292-6302, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29993247

RESUMO

Hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide (HMHP), formed in the reaction of the C1 Criegee intermediate with water, is among the most abundant organic peroxides in the atmosphere. Although reaction with OH is thought to represent one of the most important atmospheric removal processes for HMHP, this reaction has been largely unstudied in the laboratory. Here, we present measurements of the kinetics and products formed in the reaction of HMHP with OH. HMHP was oxidized by OH in an environmental chamber; the decay of the hydroperoxide and the formation of formic acid and formaldehyde were monitored over time using CF3O- chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The loss of HMHP by reaction with OH is measured relative to the loss of 1,2-butanediol [ k1,2-butanediol+OH = (27.0 ± 5.6) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1s-1]. We find that HMHP reacts with OH at 295 K with a rate coefficient of (7.1 ± 1.5) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1s-1, with the formic acid to formaldehyde yield in a ratio of 0.88 ± 0.21 and independent of NO concentration (3 × 1010 - 1.5 × 1013 molecules cm-3). We suggest that, exclusively, abstraction of the methyl hydrogen of HMHP results in formic acid, while abstraction of the hydroperoxy hydrogen results in formaldehyde. We further evaluate the relative importance of HMHP sinks and use global simulations from GEOS-Chem to estimate that HMHP oxidation by OH contributes 1.7 Tg yr-1 (1-3%) of global annual formic acid production.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(15): 8381-8389, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30004683

RESUMO

The uptake of medium-sized levoglucosan and 2,4-dinitrophenol to organic particles produced by α-pinene ozonolysis and to ammonium sulfate particles was studied from 10% to >95% relative humidity (RH). For aqueous sulfate particles, the water-normalized gas-particle partitioning coefficient of levoglucosan decreased from (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10-3 to (0.2 ± 0.1) × 10-3 (ng µg-1)particle/(ng m-3)gas from 40% to >95% RH, suggestive of a salting-in mechanism between levoglucosan and ionic ammonium sulfate solutions. For the organic particles, the levoglucosan partitioning coefficient increased from 10% to 40% RH and became invariant at (2.0 ± 0.4) × 10-3 (ng µg-1)/(ng m-3) above 40% RH. A kinetic limitation on uptake below 40% RH was implied, compared to a thermodynamic regime above 40% RH. The estimated diffusivity was 10-19±0.05 m2 s-1 at 40% RH. By comparison, the uptake of 2,4-dinitrophenol onto the organic particles was below detection limit, implying an upper limit on the partitioning coefficient of 6.8 × 10-6 (ng µg-1)/(ng m-3) at 80% RH. The results highlight that the molecular uptake of gases onto particles can be regulated by both kinetic and thermodynamic factors, either of which can limit the uptake of medium-sized organic molecules by atmospherically relevant particles.


Assuntos
Gases , Água , Aerossóis , Sulfato de Amônio
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(13): 7360-7370, 2018 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870662

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest overestimates in current U.S. emission inventories of nitrogen oxides (NO x = NO + NO2). Here, we expand a previously developed fuel-based inventory of motor-vehicle emissions (FIVE) to the continental U.S. for the year 2013, and evaluate our estimates of mobile source emissions with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emissions Inventory (NEI) interpolated to 2013. We find that mobile source emissions of NO x and carbon monoxide (CO) in the NEI are higher than FIVE by 28% and 90%, respectively. Using a chemical transport model, we model mobile source emissions from FIVE, and find consistent levels of urban NO x and CO as measured during the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) Study in 2013. Lastly, we assess the sensitivity of ozone (O3) over the Eastern U.S. to uncertainties in mobile source NO x emissions and biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The ground-level O3 is sensitive to reductions in mobile source NO x emissions, most notably in the Southeastern U.S. and during O3 exceedance events, under the revised standard proposed in 2015 (>70 ppb, 8 h maximum). This suggests that decreasing mobile source NO x emissions could help in meeting more stringent O3 standards in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Emissões de Veículos
6.
Sci Adv ; 4(4): eaar2547, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651460

RESUMO

Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emitted from human activities are believed to regulate the atmospheric oxidation capacity of the troposphere. However, observational evidence is limited for the low-to-median NO x concentrations prevalent outside of polluted regions. Directly measuring oxidation capacity, represented primarily by hydroxyl radicals (OH), is challenging, and the span in NO x concentrations at a single observation site is often not wide. Concentrations of isoprene and its photo-oxidation products were used to infer the equivalent noontime OH concentrations. The fetch at an observation site in central Amazonia experienced varied contributions from background regional air, urban pollution, and biomass burning. The afternoon concentrations of reactive nitrogen oxides (NO y ), indicative of NO x exposure during the preceding few hours, spanned from 0.3 to 3.5 parts per billion. Accompanying the increase of NO y concentration, the inferred equivalent noontime OH concentrations increased by at least 250% from 0.6 × 106 to 1.6 × 106 cm-3. The conclusion is that, compared to background conditions of low NO x concentrations over the Amazon forest, pollution increased NO x concentrations and amplified OH concentrations, indicating the susceptibility of the atmospheric oxidation capacity over the forest to anthropogenic influence and reinforcing the important role of NO x in sustaining OH concentrations.

7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(20): 11761-11770, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28976736

RESUMO

We report enhancements of glyoxal and methylglyoxal relative to carbon monoxide and formaldehyde in agricultural biomass burning plumes intercepted by the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the 2013 Southeast Nexus and 2015 Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus campaigns. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal were measured using broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy, which for glyoxal provides a highly selective and sensitive measurement. While enhancement ratios of other species such as methane and formaldehyde were consistent with previous measurements, glyoxal enhancements relative to carbon monoxide averaged 0.0016 ± 0.0009, a factor of 4 lower than values used in global models. Glyoxal enhancements relative to formaldehyde were 30 times lower than previously reported, averaging 0.038 ± 0.02. Several glyoxal loss processes such as photolysis, reactions with hydroxyl radicals, and aerosol uptake were found to be insufficient to explain the lower measured values of glyoxal relative to other biomass burning trace gases, indicating that glyoxal emissions from agricultural biomass burning may be significantly overestimated. Methylglyoxal enhancements were three to six times higher than reported in other recent studies, but spectral interferences from other substituted dicarbyonyls introduce an estimated correction factor of 2 and at least a 25% uncertainty, such that accurate measurements of the enhancements are difficult.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos , Glioxal , Compostos Orgânicos , Aeronaves , Biomassa , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aldeído Pirúvico
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(10): 5650-5657, 2017 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28441488

RESUMO

Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most important carcinogen in outdoor air among the 187 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), not including ozone and particulate matter. However, surface observations of HCHO are sparse and the EPA monitoring network could be prone to positive interferences. Here we use 2005-2016 summertime HCHO column data from the OMI satellite instrument, validated with high-quality aircraft data and oversampled on a 5 × 5 km2 grid, to map surface air HCHO concentrations across the contiguous U.S. OMI-derived summertime HCHO values are converted to annual averages using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. Results are in good agreement with high-quality summertime observations from urban sites (-2% bias, r = 0.95) but a factor of 1.9 lower than annual means from the EPA network. We thus estimate that up to 6600-12 500 people in the U.S. will develop cancer over their lifetimes by exposure to outdoor HCHO. The main HCHO source in the U.S. is atmospheric oxidation of biogenic isoprene, but the corresponding HCHO yield decreases as the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) decreases. A GEOS-Chem sensitivity simulation indicates that HCHO levels would decrease by 20-30% in the absence of U.S. anthropogenic NOx emissions. Thus, NOx emission controls to improve ozone air quality have a significant cobenefit in reducing HCHO-related cancer risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Formaldeído/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Material Particulado , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(5): 2519-2528, 2017 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28169528

RESUMO

Laboratory studies of atmospheric chemistry characterize the nature of atmospherically relevant processes down to the molecular level, providing fundamental information used to assess how human activities drive environmental phenomena such as climate change, urban air pollution, ecosystem health, indoor air quality, and stratospheric ozone depletion. Laboratory studies have a central role in addressing the incomplete fundamental knowledge of atmospheric chemistry. This article highlights the evolving science needs for this community and emphasizes how our knowledge is far from complete, hindering our ability to predict the future state of our atmosphere and to respond to emerging global environmental change issues. Laboratory studies provide rich opportunities to expand our understanding of the atmosphere via collaborative research with the modeling and field measurement communities, and with neighboring disciplines.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ozônio/química , Poluição do Ar , Atmosfera/química , Ecossistema , Humanos
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(52): 14910-14914, 2016 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27956628

RESUMO

Injecting sulfate aerosol into the stratosphere, the most frequently analyzed proposal for solar geoengineering, may reduce some climate risks, but it would also entail new risks, including ozone loss and heating of the lower tropical stratosphere, which, in turn, would increase water vapor concentration causing additional ozone loss and surface warming. We propose a method for stratospheric aerosol climate modification that uses a solid aerosol composed of alkaline metal salts that will convert hydrogen halides and nitric and sulfuric acids into stable salts to enable stratospheric geoengineering while reducing or reversing ozone depletion. Rather than minimizing reactive effects by reducing surface area using high refractive index materials, this method tailors the chemical reactivity. Specifically, we calculate that injection of calcite (CaCO3) aerosol particles might reduce net radiative forcing while simultaneously increasing column ozone toward its preanthropogenic baseline. A radiative forcing of -1 W⋅m-2, for example, might be achieved with a simultaneous 3.8% increase in column ozone using 2.1 Tg⋅y-1 of 275-nm radius calcite aerosol. Moreover, the radiative heating of the lower stratosphere would be roughly 10-fold less than if that same radiative forcing had been produced using sulfate aerosol. Although solar geoengineering cannot substitute for emissions cuts, it may supplement them by reducing some of the risks of climate change. Further research on this and similar methods could lead to reductions in risks and improved efficacy of solar geoengineering methods.

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(18): 9872-80, 2016 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27548285

RESUMO

With a large global emission rate and high reactivity, isoprene has a profound effect upon atmospheric chemistry and composition. The atmospheric pathways by which isoprene converts to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and how anthropogenic pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and sulfur affect this process are subjects of intense research because particles affect Earth's climate and local air quality. In the absence of both nitrogen oxides and reactive aqueous seed particles, we measure SOA mass yields from isoprene photochemical oxidation of up to 15%, which are factors of 2 or more higher than those typically used in coupled chemistry climate models. SOA yield is initially constant with the addition of increasing amounts of nitric oxide (NO) but then sharply decreases for input concentrations above 50 ppbv. Online measurements of aerosol molecular composition show that the fate of second-generation RO2 radicals is key to understanding the efficient SOA formation and the NOx-dependent yields described here and in the literature. These insights allow for improved quantitative estimates of SOA formation in the preindustrial atmosphere and in biogenic-rich regions with limited anthropogenic impacts and suggest that a more-complex representation of NOx-dependent SOA yields may be important in models.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Atmosfera/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Óxido Nítrico/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Oxirredução
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(22): 6125-30, 2016 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27185928

RESUMO

Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (<60 ppt). This abrupt shift in isoprene photooxidation, sparked by human activities, speaks to ongoing and possible future changes in the photochemistry active over the Amazon rainforest.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Butadienos/química , Radicais Livres/análise , Hemiterpenos/química , Óxido Nítrico/química , Pentanos/química , Fotoquímica , Floresta Úmida , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Acroleína/análise , Atmosfera , Butadienos/efeitos da radiação , Butanonas/análise , Hemiterpenos/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Oxirredução , Pentanos/efeitos da radiação , Peróxidos/química
14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(15): 10241-54, 2016 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27021601

RESUMO

We use a large laboratory, modeling, and field dataset to investigate the isoprene + O3 reaction, with the goal of better understanding the fates of the C1 and C4 Criegee intermediates in the atmosphere. Although ozonolysis can produce several distinct Criegee intermediates, the C1 stabilized Criegee (CH2OO, 61 ± 9%) is the only one observed to react bimolecularly. We suggest that the C4 Criegees have a low stabilization fraction and propose pathways for their decomposition. Both prompt and non-prompt reactions are important in the production of OH (28% ± 5%) and formaldehyde (81% ± 16%). The yields of unimolecular products (OH, formaldehyde, methacrolein (42 ± 6%) and methyl vinyl ketone (18 ± 6%)) are fairly insensitive to water, i.e., changes in yields in response to water vapor (≤4% absolute) are within the error of the analysis. We propose a comprehensive reaction mechanism that can be incorporated into atmospheric models, which reproduces laboratory data over a wide range of relative humidities. The mechanism proposes that CH2OO + H2O (k(H2O)∼ 1 × 10(-15) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1)) yields 73% hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide (HMHP), 6% formaldehyde + H2O2, and 21% formic acid + H2O; and CH2OO + (H2O)2 (k(H2O)2∼ 1 × 10(-12) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1)) yields 40% HMHP, 6% formaldehyde + H2O2, and 54% formic acid + H2O. Competitive rate determinations (kSO2/k(H2O)n=1,2∼ 2.2 (±0.3) × 10(4)) and field observations suggest that water vapor is a sink for greater than 98% of CH2OO in a Southeastern US forest, even during pollution episodes ([SO2] ∼ 10 ppb). The importance of the CH2OO + (H2O)n reaction is demonstrated by high HMHP mixing ratios observed over the forest canopy. We find that CH2OO does not substantially affect the lifetime of SO2 or HCOOH in the Southeast US, e.g., CH2OO + SO2 reaction is a minor contribution (<6%) to sulfate formation. Extrapolating, these results imply that sulfate production by stabilized Criegees is likely unimportant in regions dominated by the reactivity of ozone with isoprene. In contrast, hydroperoxide, organic acid, and formaldehyde formation from isoprene ozonolysis in those areas may be significant.

15.
J Geophys Res Atmos ; 121(16): 9849-9861, 2016 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29619286

RESUMO

We use a 0-D photochemical box model and a 3-D global chemistry-climate model, combined with observations from the NOAA Southeast Nexus (SENEX) aircraft campaign, to understand the sources and sinks of glyoxal over the Southeast United States. Box model simulations suggest a large difference in glyoxal production among three isoprene oxidation mechanisms (AM3ST, AM3B, and MCM v3.3.1). These mechanisms are then implemented into a 3-D global chemistry-climate model. Comparison with field observations shows that the average vertical profile of glyoxal is best reproduced by AM3ST with an effective reactive uptake coefficient γglyx of 2 × 10-3, and AM3B without heterogeneous loss of glyoxal. The two mechanisms lead to 0-0.8 µg m-3 secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from glyoxal in the boundary layer of the Southeast U.S. in summer. We consider this to be the lower limit for the contribution of glyoxal to SOA, as other sources of glyoxal other than isoprene are not included in our model. In addition, we find that AM3B shows better agreement on both formaldehyde and the correlation between glyoxal and formaldehyde (RGF = [GLYX]/[HCHO]), resulting from the suppression of δ-isoprene peroxy radicals (δ-ISOPO2). We also find that MCM v3.3.1 may underestimate glyoxal production from isoprene oxidation, in part due to an underestimated yield from the reaction of IEPOX peroxy radicals (IEPOXOO) with HO2. Our work highlights that the gas-phase production of glyoxal represents a large uncertainty in quantifying its contribution to SOA.

16.
Atmos Meas Tech ; 9(9): 4561-4568, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636831

RESUMO

Recent laboratory experiments have shown that a first generation isoprene oxidation product, ISOPOOH, can decompose to methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) on instrument surfaces, leading to overestimates of MVK and MACR concentrations. Formaldehyde (HCHO) was suggested as a decomposition co-product, raising concern that in situ HCHO measurements may also be affected by an ISOPOOH interference. The HCHO measurement artifact from ISOPOOH for the NASA In Situ Airborne Formaldehyde instrument (ISAF) was investigated for the two major ISOPOOH isomers, (1,2)-ISOPOOH and (4,3)-ISOPOOH, under dry and humid conditions. The dry conversion of ISOPOOH to HCHO was 3±2% and 6±4% for (1,2)-ISOPOOH and (4,3)-ISOPOOH, respectively. Under humid (RH= 40-60%) conditions, conversion to HCHO was 6±4% for (1,2)-ISOPOOH and 10±5% for (4,3)-ISOPOOH. The measurement artifact caused by conversion of ISOPOOH to HCHO in the ISAF instrument was estimated for data obtained on the 2013 September 6 flight of the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) campaign. Prompt ISOPOOH conversion to HCHO was the source for <4% of the observed HCHO, including in the high-isoprene boundary layer. Time-delayed conversion, where previous exposure to ISOPOOH affects measured HCHO later in flight, was conservatively estimated to be < 10% of observed HCHO and is significant only when high ISOPOOH sampling periods immediately precede periods of low HCHO.

17.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(9): 1441-51, 2016 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26327174

RESUMO

The atmospheric oxidation of isoprene by the OH radical leads to the formation of several isomers of an unsaturated hydroxy hydroperoxide, ISOPOOH. Oxidation of ISOPOOH by OH produces epoxydiols, IEPOX, which have been shown to contribute mass to secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We present kinetic rate constant measurements for OH + ISOPOOH using synthetic standards of the two major isomers: (1,2)- and (4,3)-ISOPOOH. At 297 K, the total OH rate constant is 7.5 ± 1.2 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for (1,2)-ISOPOOH and 1.18 ± 0.19 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for (4,3)-ISOPOOH. Abstraction of the hydroperoxy hydrogen accounts for approximately 12% and 4% of the reactivity for (1,2)-ISOPOOH and (4,3)-ISOPOOH, respectively. The sum of all H-abstractions account for approximately 15% and 7% of the reactivity for (1,2)-ISOPOOH and (4,3)-ISOPOOH, respectively. The major product observed from both ISOPOOH isomers was IEPOX (cis-ß and trans-ß isomers), with a ∼ 2:1 preference for trans-ß IEPOX and similar total yields from each ISOPOOH isomer (∼ 70-80%). An IEPOX global production rate of more than 100 Tg C each year is estimated from this chemistry using a global 3D chemical transport model, similar to earlier estimates. Finally, following addition of OH to ISOPOOH, approximately 13% of the reactivity proceeds via addition of O2 at 297 K and 745 Torr. In the presence of NO, these peroxy radicals lead to formation of small carbonyl compounds. Under HO2 dominated chemistry, no products are observed from these channels. We suggest that the major products, highly oxygenated organic peroxides, are lost to the chamber walls. In the atmosphere, formation of these compounds may contribute to organic aerosol mass.

18.
J Geophys Res Atmos ; 120(7): 2990-3005, 2015 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26702368

RESUMO

Organosulfates are important secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components and good tracers for aerosol heterogeneous reactions. However, the knowledge of their spatial distribution, formation conditions, and environmental impact is limited. In this study, we report two organosulfates, an isoprene-derived isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) (2,3-epoxy-2-methyl-1,4-butanediol) sulfate and a glycolic acid (GA) sulfate, measured using the NOAA Particle Analysis Laser Mass Spectrometer (PALMS) on board the NASA DC8 aircraft over the continental U.S. during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3) and the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS). During these campaigns, IEPOX sulfate was estimated to account for 1.4% of submicron aerosol mass (or 2.2% of organic aerosol mass) on average near the ground in the southeast U.S., with lower concentrations in the western U.S. (0.2-0.4%) and at high altitudes (<0.2%). Compared to IEPOX sulfate, GA sulfate was more uniformly distributed, accounting for about 0.5% aerosol mass on average, and may be more abundant globally. A number of other organosulfates were detected; none were as abundant as these two. Ambient measurements confirmed that IEPOX sulfate is formed from isoprene oxidation and is a tracer for isoprene SOA formation. The organic precursors of GA sulfate may include glycolic acid and likely have both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Higher aerosol acidity as measured by PALMS and relative humidity tend to promote IEPOX sulfate formation, and aerosol acidity largely drives in situ GA sulfate formation at high altitudes. This study suggests that the formation of aerosol organosulfates depends not only on the appropriate organic precursors but also on emissions of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2), which contributes to aerosol acidity. KEY POINTS: IEPOX sulfate is an isoprene SOA tracer at acidic and low NO conditions Glycolic acid sulfate may be more abundant than IEPOX sulfate globally SO2 impacts IEPOX sulfate by increasing aerosol acidity and water uptake.

19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(17): 10330-9, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26207427

RESUMO

Gas-phase low volatility organic compounds (LVOC), produced from oxidation of isoprene 4-hydroxy-3-hydroperoxide (4,3-ISOPOOH) under low-NO conditions, were observed during the FIXCIT chamber study. Decreases in LVOC directly correspond to appearance and growth in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of consistent elemental composition, indicating that LVOC condense (at OA below 1 µg m(-3)). This represents the first simultaneous measurement of condensing low volatility species from isoprene oxidation in both the gas and particle phases. The SOA formation in this study is separate from previously described isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) uptake. Assigning all condensing LVOC signals to 4,3-ISOPOOH oxidation in the chamber study implies a wall-loss corrected non-IEPOX SOA mass yield of ∼4%. By contrast to monoterpene oxidation, in which extremely low volatility VOC (ELVOC) constitute the organic aerosol, in the isoprene system LVOC with saturation concentrations from 10(-2) to 10 µg m(-3) are the main constituents. These LVOC may be important for the growth of nanoparticles in environments with low OA concentrations. LVOC observed in the chamber were also observed in the atmosphere during SOAS-2013 in the Southeastern United States, with the expected diurnal cycle. This previously uncharacterized aerosol formation pathway could account for ∼5.0 Tg yr(-1) of SOA production, or 3.3% of global SOA.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Butadienos/análise , Hemiterpenos/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Pentanos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Atmosfera/química , Modelos Teóricos , Óxido Nítrico/química , Oxirredução , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Fatores de Tempo , Pressão de Vapor , Volatilização
20.
Science ; 348(6241): 1326, 2015 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26089508

RESUMO

Ye et al. have determined a maximum nitrous acid (HONO) yield of 3% for the reaction HO2·H2O + NO2, which is much lower than the yield used in our work. This finding, however, does not affect our main result that HONO in the investigated Po Valley region is mainly from a gas-phase source that consumes nitrogen oxides.

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