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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 4719-4723, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ethylmalonic encephalopathy 1 protein (ETHE1) plays an important role in sulfide catabolism and polysulfide formation. As sulfides and polysulfides have recently been identified as playing important roles in cancer, we hypothesized that ETHE1 expression would be increased in colon cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used tissue microarray analysis to compare ETHE1 expression in benign colonic epithelium compared to colonic adenocarcinoma. In total, 26 benign colonic epithelial samples were compared to 122 cases of colonic adenocarcinomas. RESULTS: Compared to benign colonic epithelium, ETHE1 expression was significantly increased (~two-fold) in colonic adenocarcinoma. Additionally, this expression increased with increasing colon cancer tumor grades. CONCLUSION: ETHE1 expression is increased in colon cancer compared to benign colonic epithelium. These data, combined with previous studies, suggest that ETHE1 may contribute to colon carcinogenesis by promoting tumor cell bioenergetics and polysulfide formation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4211-4214, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testicular cancer constitutes 1.0% of male cancer and typically carries a good prognosis. As far as we are aware, the role for hydrogen sulfide in testicular cancer and the level of hydrogen sulfide-synthesizing enzyme have never been addressed. Here we examined cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) expression in several germ-cell testicular tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue microarrays were employed to examine CSE expression in 32 benign testicular samples, 88 testicular seminomas, 34 embryonal carcinomas, 4 mature teratomas, and 16 yolk sac tumors, and CSE expression was compared to that seen in benign testicular tissue. RESULTS: Compared to benign testicular tissue, CSE expression was increased in all three types of testicular neoplasm but not in mature teratomas. Highest CSE expression was identified in embryonal carcinomas, which often show a relatively aggressive clinical course. CONCLUSION: For the first time, we show that CSE is increased in several common testicular germ-cell tumor types.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Embrionário/metabolismo , Cistationina gama-Liase/metabolismo , Tumor do Seio Endodérmico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Seminoma , Análise Serial de Tecidos
3.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 35(3): 269-292, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511219

RESUMO

Coronaviruses belong to the family Coronaviridae order Nidovirales and are known causes of respiratory and intestinal disease in various mammalian and avian species. Species of coronaviruses known to infect humans are referred to as human coronaviruses (HCoVs). While traditionally, HCoVs have been a significant cause of the common cold, more recently, emergent viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic. Here, we discuss coronavirus disease (COVID-19) biology, pathology, epidemiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and recent clinical trials involving promising treatments.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Animais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavirus/imunologia , Tosse/epidemiologia , Tosse/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/terapia , Febre , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Nitric Oxide ; 116: 47-64, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534626

RESUMO

Sulfides and persulfides/polysulfides (R-Sn-R', n > 2; R-Sn-H, n > 1) are endogenously produced metabolites that are abundant in mammalian and human cells and tissues. The most typical persulfides that are widely distributed among different organisms include various reactive persulfides-low-molecular-weight thiol compounds such as cysteine hydropersulfide, glutathione hydropersulfide, and glutathione trisulfide as well as protein-bound thiols. These species are generally more redox-active than are other simple thiols and disulfides. Although hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been suggested for years to be a small signaling molecule, it is intimately linked biochemically to persulfides and may actually be more relevant as a marker of functionally active persulfides. Reactive persulfides can act as powerful antioxidants and redox signaling species and are involved in energy metabolism. Recent evidence revealed that cysteinyl-tRNA synthetases (CARSs) act as the principal cysteine persulfide synthases in mammals and contribute significantly to endogenous persulfide/polysulfide production, in addition to being associated with a battery of enzymes including cystathionine ß-synthase, cystathionine γ-lyase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, which have been described as H2S-producing enzymes. The reactive sulfur metabolites including persulfides/polysulfides derived from CARS2, a mitochondrial isoform of CARS, also mediate not only mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics but also anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions. The physiological roles of persulfides, their biosynthetic pathways, and their pathophysiology in various diseases are not fully understood, however. Developing basic and high precision techniques and methods for the detection, characterization, and quantitation of sulfides and persulfides is therefore of great importance so as to thoroughly understand and clarify the exact functions and roles of these species in cells and in vivo.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3108, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035265

RESUMO

The mammalian brain is highly vulnerable to oxygen deprivation, yet the mechanism underlying the brain's sensitivity to hypoxia is incompletely understood. Hypoxia induces accumulation of hydrogen sulfide, a gas that inhibits mitochondrial respiration. Here, we show that, in mice, rats, and naturally hypoxia-tolerant ground squirrels, the sensitivity of the brain to hypoxia is inversely related to the levels of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQOR) and the capacity to catabolize sulfide. Silencing SQOR increased the sensitivity of the brain to hypoxia, whereas neuron-specific SQOR expression prevented hypoxia-induced sulfide accumulation, bioenergetic failure, and ischemic brain injury. Excluding SQOR from mitochondria increased sensitivity to hypoxia not only in the brain but also in heart and liver. Pharmacological scavenging of sulfide maintained mitochondrial respiration in hypoxic neurons and made mice resistant to hypoxia. These results illuminate the critical role of sulfide catabolism in energy homeostasis during hypoxia and identify a therapeutic target for ischemic brain injury.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Quinona Redutases/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/genética , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Hipóxia , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Quinona Redutases/genética , Interferência de RNA , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
Redox Biol ; 43: 101982, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is involved in a global outbreak affecting millions of people who manifest a variety of symptoms. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is increasingly associated with cardiovascular complications requiring hospitalizations; however, the mechanisms underlying these complications remain unknown. Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are gasotransmitters that regulate key cardiovascular functions. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 68 COVID-19 patients and 33 controls and NO and H2S metabolites were assessed. H2S and NO levels were compared between cases and controls in the entire study population and subgroups based on race. The availability of gasotransmitters was examined based on severity and outcome of COVID-19 infection. The performance of H2S and NO levels in predicting COVID-19 infection was also analyzed. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify the effects of traditional determinants of gasotransmitters on NO and H2S levels in the patients with COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Significantly reduced NO and H2S levels were observed in both Caucasian and African American COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls. COVID-19 patients who died had significantly higher NO and H2S levels compared to COVID-19 patients who survived. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis of NO and H2S metabolites in the study population showed free sulfide levels to be highly predictive of COVID-19 infection based on reduced availability. Traditional determinants of gasotransmitters, namely age, race, sex, diabetes, and hypertension had no effect on NO and H2S levels in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: These observations provide the first insight into the role of NO and H2S in COVID-19 infection, where their low availability may be a result of reduced synthesis secondary to endotheliitis, or increased consumption from scavenging of reactive oxygen species.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gasotransmissores , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 169: 181-186, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887435

RESUMO

Hibernating mammals may suppress their basal metabolic rate during torpor by up to 95% to reduce energy expenditure during winter, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a ubiquitous signaling molecule, is a powerful inhibitor of respiration of liver mitochondria isolated from torpid 13-lined ground squirrels, but has a weak effect on mitochondria isolated during summer and hibernation arousals, where metabolic rate is normal. Consistent with these in vitro effects, we find strong seasonal variations of in vivo levels of H2S in plasma and increases of H2S levels in the liver of squirrels during torpor compared to levels during arousal and summer. The in vivo changes of liver H2S levels correspond with low activity of the mitochondrial H2S oxidizing enzyme sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) during torpor. Taken together, these results suggest that during torpor, H2S accumulates in the liver due to a low SQR activity and contributes to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, while during arousals and summer these effects are reversed, H2S is degraded by active SQR and mitochondrial respiration rates increase. This study provides novel insights into mechanisms underlying mammalian hibernation, pointing to SQR as a key enzyme involved in the control of mitochondrial function.


Assuntos
Hibernação , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Animais , Mitocôndrias , Respiração , Sciuridae
8.
Alzheimers Dement ; 17(8): 1391-1402, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710769

RESUMO

While heart disease remains a common cause of mortality, cerebrovascular disease also increases with age, and has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). We have described hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), a signaling molecule important in vascular homeostasis, as a biomarker of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesize that plasma H2 S and its metabolites also relate to vascular and cognitive dysfunction in ADRD. We used analytical biochemical methods to measure plasma H2 S metabolites and MRI to evaluate indicators of microvascular disease in ADRD. Levels of total H2 S and specific metabolites were increased in ADRD versus controls. Cognition and microvascular disease indices were correlated with H2 S levels. Total plasma sulfide was the strongest indicator of ADRD, and partially drove the relationship between cognitive dysfunction and white matter lesion volume, an indicator of microvascular disease. Our findings show that H2 S is dysregulated in dementia, providing a potential biomarker for diagnosis and intervention.

9.
medRxiv ; 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594385

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein (S) plays critical roles in host cell entry. Non-synonymous substitutions affecting S are not uncommon and have become fixed in a number of SARS-CoV-2 lineages. A subset of such mutations enable escape from neutralizing antibodies or are thought to enhance transmission through mechanisms such as increased affinity for the cell entry receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Independent genomic surveillance programs based in New Mexico and Louisiana contemporaneously detected the rapid rise of numerous clade 20G (lineage B.1.2) infections carrying a Q677P substitution in S. The variant was first detected in the US on October 23, yet between 01 Dec 2020 and 19 Jan 2021 it rose to represent 27.8% and 11.3% of all SARS-CoV-2 genomes sequenced from Louisiana and New Mexico, respectively. Q677P cases have been detected predominantly in the south central and southwest United States; as of 03 Feb 2021, GISAID data show 499 viral sequences of this variant from the USA. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the independent evolution and spread of at least six distinct Q677H sub-lineages, with first collection dates ranging from mid-August to late November 2020. Four 677H clades from clade 20G (B.1.2), 20A (B.1.234), and 20B (B.1.1.220, and B.1.1.222) each contain roughly 100 or fewer sequenced cases, while a distinct pair of clade 20G clusters are represented by 754 and 298 cases, respectively. Although sampling bias and founder effects may have contributed to the rise of S:677 polymorphic variants, the proximity of this position to the polybasic cleavage site at the S1/S2 boundary are consistent with its potential functional relevance during cell entry, suggesting parallel evolution of a trait that may confer an advantage in spread or transmission. Taken together, our findings demonstrate simultaneous convergent evolution, thus providing an impetus to further evaluate S:677 polymorphisms for effects on proteolytic processing, cell tropism, and transmissibility.

11.
Redox Biol ; 38: 101675, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202302

RESUMO

Recent evidence has revealed that exposing cells to exogenous H 2 S or inhibiting cellular H 2 S synthesis can modulate cell cycle checkpoints, DNA damage and repair, and the expression of proteins involved in the maintenance of genomic stability, all suggesting that H 2 S plays an important role in the DNA damage response (DDR). Here we review the role of H 2 S in the DRR and maintenance of genomic stability. Treatment of various cell types with pharmacologic H 2 S donors or cellular H 2 S synthesis inhibitors modulate the G 1 checkpoint, inhibition of DNA synthesis, and cause p21, and p53 induction. Moreover, in some cell models H 2 S exposure induces PARP-1 and g-H2AX foci formation, increases PCNA, CHK2, Ku70, Ku80, and DNA polymerase-d protein expression, and maintains mitochondrial genomic stability. Our group has also revealed that H 2 S bioavailability and the ATR kinase regulate each other with ATR inhibition lowering cellular H 2 S concentrations, whereas intracellular H 2 S concentrations regulate ATR kinase activity via ATR serine 435 phosphorylation. In summary, these findings have many implications for the DDR, for cancer chemotherapy, and fundamental biochemical metabolic pathways involving H 2 S.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Fosforilação
12.
Redox Biol ; 38: 101817, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310503

RESUMO

Oxidative stress drives the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia. In the cardiovascular system, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) serves as the primary enzyme producing hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a mammalian gasotransmitter that reduces oxidative stress. Using a case control study design in patients with and without AF and a mouse model of CSE knockout (CSE-KO), we evaluated the role of H2S in the etiology of AF. Patients with AF (n = 51) had significantly reduced plasma acid labile sulfide levels compared to patients without AF (n = 65). In addition, patients with persistent AF (n = 25) showed lower plasma free sulfide levels compared to patients with paroxysmal AF (n = 26). Consistent with an important role for H2S in AF, CSE-KO mice had decreased atrial sulfide levels, increased atrial superoxide levels, and enhanced propensity for induced persistent AF compared to wild type (WT) mice. Rescuing H2S signaling in CSE-KO mice by Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) supplementation or reconstitution with endothelial cell specific CSE over-expression significantly reduced atrial superoxide, increased sulfide levels, and lowered AF inducibility. Lastly, low H2S levels in CSE KO mice was associated with atrial electrical remodeling including longer effective refractory periods, slower conduction velocity, increased myocyte calcium sparks, and increased myocyte action potential duration that were reversed by DATS supplementation or endothelial CSE overexpression. Our findings demonstrate an important role of CSE and H2S bioavailability in regulating electrical remodeling and susceptibility to AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Remodelamento Atrial , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Endotélio Vascular , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
13.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 682, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203971

RESUMO

Methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of death linked with illicit drug use. Here we show that Sigmar1 is a therapeutic target for methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy and defined the molecular mechanisms using autopsy samples of human hearts, and a mouse model of "binge and crash" methamphetamine administration. Sigmar1 expression is significantly decreased in the hearts of human methamphetamine users and those of "binge and crash" methamphetamine-treated mice. The hearts of methamphetamine users also show signs of cardiomyopathy, including cellular injury, fibrosis, and enlargement of the heart. In addition, mice expose to "binge and crash" methamphetamine develop cardiac hypertrophy, fibrotic remodeling, and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to contractile dysfunction. Methamphetamine treatment inhibits Sigmar1, resulting in inactivation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), decreased expression of mitochondrial fission 1 protein (FIS1), and ultimately alteration of mitochondrial dynamics and function. Therefore, Sigmar1 is a viable therapeutic agent for protection against methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores sigma/metabolismo , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/prevenção & controle , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Esquema de Medicação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metanfetamina/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores sigma/genética
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(23): e017195, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208022

RESUMO

Background The mutated α-B-Crystallin (CryABR120G) mouse model of desmin-related myopathy (DRM) shows an age-dependent onset of pathologic cardiac remodeling and progression of heart failure. CryABR120G expression in cardiomyocytes affects the mitochondrial spatial organization within the myofibrils, but the molecular perturbation within the mitochondria in the relation of the overall course of the proteotoxic disease remains unclear. Methods and Results CryABR120G mice show an accumulation of electron-dense aggregates and myofibrillar degeneration associated with the development of cardiac dysfunction. Though extensive studies demonstrated that these altered ultrastructural changes cause cardiac contractility impairment, the molecular mechanism of cardiomyocyte death remains elusive. Here, we explore early pathological processes within the mitochondria contributing to the contractile dysfunction and determine the pathogenic basis for the heart failure observed in the CryABR120G mice. In the present study, we report that the CryABR120G mice transgenic hearts undergo altered mitochondrial dynamics associated with increased level of dynamin-related protein 1 and decreased level of optic atrophy type 1 as well as mitofusin 1 over the disease process. In association with these changes, an altered level of the components of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex regulatory proteins occurs before the manifestation of pathologic adverse remodeling in the CryABR120G hearts. Mitochondria isolated from CryABR120G transgenic hearts without visible pathology show decreased electron transport chain complex activities and mitochondrial respiration. Taken together, we demonstrated the involvement of mitochondria in the pathologic remodeling and progression of DRM-associated cellular dysfunction. Conclusions Mitochondrial dysfunction in the form of altered mitochondrial dynamics, oxidative phosphorylation and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex proteins level, abnormal electron transport chain complex activities, and mitochondrial respiration are evident on the CryABR120G hearts before the onset of detectable pathologies and development of cardiac contractile dysfunction.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Desmina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Cadeia B de alfa-Cristalina
16.
Adv Ther ; 37(10): 4149-4164, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845472

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Folic acid is the most important dietary determinant of homocysteine (Hcy). Hcy serves as a critical intermediate in methylation reactions. It is created from methionine and either converted back to methionine or transformed into cysteine. This process is aided through several enzymes and three vitamins, folic acid, B12, and B6. Daily supplementation with 0.5-5.0 mg of folic acid typically lowers plasma Hcy levels by approximately 25%. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a known risk factor for coronary artery disease. In this regard, elevated levels of Hcy have been found in a majority of patients with vascular disease. METHODS: A literature review of folic acid supplementation for various disease states including cardiovascular disease was conducted. This article is based on previously conducted studies and does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. RESULTS: In this review, we discuss the biochemistry of folic acid, Hcy biosynthesis, Hcy and hydrogen sulfide bioavailability, pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia and its role as a risk factor for disease, and treatment studies with folic acid supplementation in disease states. CONCLUSION: Folic acid supplementation should be recommended to any patient who has an elevated Hcy level, and this level should be measured and treated at an early age, since folic acid is easily obtained and may likely reduce vascular disease and other deleterious pathologic processes in high-risk populations.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico , Hiper-Homocisteinemia , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Homocisteína , Humanos , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco
17.
Redox Biol ; 36: 101660, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750667

RESUMO

Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion events to adapt to changes in the cellular environment. Aberrant mitochondrial fission has been associated with several types of cardiovascular dysfunction; inhibition of pathologically aberrant mitochondrial fission has been shown to be cardioprotective. Pathological fission is mediated by the excessive activation of GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), making it an attractive therapeutic target in numerous cardiovascular diseases. Mitochondrial division inhibitor (mdivi-1) is widely used small molecule reported to inhibit Drp1-dependent fission, elongate mitochondria, and mitigate injury. The purpose of our study was to understand the pleiotropic effects of mdivi-1 on mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial respiration, electron transport activities, and macro-autophagy. In this study, we found that mdivi-1 treatment decreased Drp1 expression, proteolytically cleaved L-OPA1, and altered the expression of OXPHOS complex proteins, resulting in increased superoxide production. The altered expression of OXPHOS complex proteins may be directly associated with decreased Drp1 expression, as Drp1 siRNA knockdown in cardiomyocytes showed similar effects. Results from an autophagy flux assay showed that mdivi-1 induced impaired autophagy flux that could be restored by Atg7 overexpression, suggesting that mdivi-1 mediated inhibition of macro-autophagy in cardiomyocytes. Treatment with mdivi-1 resulted in increased expression of p62, which is required for Atg7 overexpression-induced rescue of mdivi-1-mediated impaired autophagy flux. In addition, mdivi-1-dependent proteolytic processing of L-OPA1 was associated with increased mitochondrial superoxide production and altered expression of mitochondrial serine/proteases. Overall, the novel pleiotropic effect of mdivi-1 in cardiomyocytes included proteolytically cleaved L-OPA1, altered expression of OXPHOS complex proteins, and increased superoxide production, which together resulted in defects in mitochondrial respiration and inhibition of macro-autophagy.


Assuntos
Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Miócitos Cardíacos , Autofagia , Dinaminas/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Quinazolinonas/farmacologia , Respiração
19.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(4): 874-884, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131614

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide has emerged as an important gaseous signaling molecule and a regulator of critical biological processes. However, the physiological significance of hydrogen sulfide metabolites such as persulfides, polysulfides, and other reactive sulfur species (RSS) has only recently been appreciated. Emerging evidence suggests that these RSS molecules may have similar or divergent regulatory roles compared with hydrogen sulfide in various biological activities. However, the chemical nature of persulfides and polysulfides is complex and remains poorly understood within cardiovascular and other pathophysiological conditions. Recent reports suggest that RSS can be produced endogenously, with different forms having unique chemical properties and biological implications involving diverse cellular responses such as protein biosynthesis, cell-cell barrier functions, and mitochondrial bioenergetics. Enzymes of the transsulfuration pathway, CBS (cystathionine beta-synthase) and CSE (cystathionine gamma-lyase), may also produce RSS metabolites besides hydrogen sulfide. Moreover, CARSs (cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase) are also able to generate protein persulfides via cysteine persulfide (CysSSH) incorporation into nascently formed polypeptides suggesting a new biologically relevant amino acid. This brief review discusses the biochemical nature and potential roles of RSS, associated oxidative stress redox signaling, and future research opportunities in cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Cistationina gama-Liase/genética , Humanos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Polimorfismo Genético , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular
20.
Redox Biol ; 34: 101487, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173345

RESUMO

Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is a critical mediator of vascular function and vascular remodeling. NO is produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which is activated by calcium (Ca2+)-dependent and Ca2+-independent pathways. Here, we report that neurogranin (Ng), which regulates Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) signaling in the brain, is uniquely expressed in endothelial cells (EC) of human and mouse vasculature, and is also required for eNOS regulation. To test the role of Ng in eNOS activation, Ng knockdown in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) was performed using Ng SiRNA along with Ng knockout (Ng -/-) in mice. Depletion of Ng expression decreased eNOS activity in HAEC and NO production in mice. We show that Ng expression was decreased by short-term laminar flow and long-them oscillating flow shear stress, and that Ng siRNA with shear stress decreased eNOS expression as well as eNOS phosphorylation at S1177. We further reveled that lack of Ng expression decreases both AKT-dependent eNOS phosphorylation, NF-κB-mediated eNOS expression, and promotes endothelial activation. Our findings also indicate that Ng modulates Ca2+-dependent calcineurin (CaN) activity, which suppresses Ca2+-independent AKT-dependent eNOS signaling. Moreover, deletion of Ng in mice also reduced eNOS activity and caused endothelial dysfunction in flow-mediated dilation experiments. Our results demonstrate that Ng plays a crucial role in Ca2+-CaM-dependent eNOS regulation and contributes to vascular remodeling, which is important for the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Neurogranina , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Fosforilação
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