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1.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(535)2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188725

RESUMO

Acetaminophen/paracetamol (APAP) overdose is the leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure (ALF) in the United States and Europe. The progression of the disease is attributed to sterile inflammation induced by the release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and the interaction with receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). A specific, effective, and safe approach to neutralize the proinflammatory activity of HMGB1 is highly desirable. Here, we found that a heparan sulfate (HS) octadecasaccharide (18-mer-HP or hepatoprotective 18-mer) displays potent hepatoprotection by targeting the HMGB1/RAGE axis. Endogenous HS proteoglycan, syndecan-1, is shed in response to APAP overdose in mice and humans. Furthermore, purified syndecan-1, but not syndecan-1 core protein, binds to HMGB1, suggesting that HMGB1 binds to HS polysaccharide side chains of syndecan-1. Last, we compared the protection effect between 18-mer-HP and N-acetyl cysteine, which is the standard of care to treat APAP overdose. We demonstrated that 18-mer-HP administered 3 hours after a lethal dose of APAP is fully protective; however, the treatment of N-acetyl cysteine loses protection. Therefore, 18-mer-HP may offer a potential therapeutic advantage over N-acetyl cysteine for late-presenting patients. Synthetic HS provides a potential approach for the treatment of APAP-induced ALF.

2.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064587

RESUMO

Sickle cell trait (SCT) is the carrier state for sickle cell disease that results from the HBB rs334 missense mutation (p.Glu6Val) in the ß-globin chain of haemoglobin. While not associated with any impact on life expectancy, it has been established that SCT is associated with an increased risk of both venous thromboembolism (and in particular, pulmonary embolism) and chronic kidney disease. It is largely unknown what short- or long-term effect, if any, pregnancy has upon the risk or outcomes of these disorders. In addition, SCT has been linked with various adverse outcomes in pregnancy, ranging from maternal complications such as elevated risk of bacteriuria to potentially life-threatening entities such as pre-eclampsia and prematurity. In these scenarios also, no clear association with SCT has been established. Given the high worldwide prevalence of SCT, further studies addressing these issues are warranted.

3.
Blood ; 135(10): 755-765, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971571

RESUMO

Storage lesion-induced, red cell-derived microvesicles (RBC-MVs) propagate coagulation by supporting the assembly of the prothrombinase complex. It has also been reported that RBC-MVs initiate coagulation via the intrinsic pathway. To elucidate the mechanism(s) of RBC-MV-induced coagulation activation, the ability of storage lesion-induced RBC-MVs to activate each zymogen of the intrinsic pathway was assessed in a buffer system. Simultaneously, the thrombin generation (TG) assay was used to assess their ability to initiate coagulation in plasma. RBC-MVs directly activated factor XII (FXII) or prekallikrein, but not FXI or FIX. RBC-MVs initiated TG in normal pooled plasma and in FXII- or FXI-deficient plasma, but not in FIX-deficient plasma, suggesting an alternate pathway that bypasses both FXII and FXI. Interestingly, RBC-MVs generated FIXa in a prekallikrein-dependent manner. Similarly, purified kallikrein activated FIX in buffer and initiated TG in normal pooled plasma, as well as FXII- or FXI-deficient plasma, but not FIX-deficient plasma. Dual inhibition of FXIIa by corn trypsin inhibitor and kallikrein by soybean trypsin inhibitor was necessary for abolishing RBC-MV-induced TG in normal pooled plasma, whereas kallikrein inhibition alone was sufficient to abolish TG in FXII- or FXI-deficient plasma. Heating RBC-MVs at 60°C for 15 minutes or pretreatment with trypsin abolished TG, suggesting the presence of MV-associated proteins that are essential for contact activation. In summary, RBC-MVs activate both FXII and prekallikrein, leading to FIX activation by 2 independent pathways: the classic FXIIa-FXI-FIX pathway and direct kallikrein activation of FIX. These data suggest novel mechanisms by which RBC transfusion mediates inflammatory and/or thrombotic outcomes.

4.
Blood ; 135(20): 1783-1787, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977004

RESUMO

Vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) is the primary cause of morbidity and hospitalization in sickle cell disease (SCD); however, only 4 therapies (hydroxyurea, l-glutamine, crizanlizumab, and voxeletor) are currently approved in SCD. These agents limit the duration, severity, and frequency of crises. Activation of coagulation is a hallmark of SCD. Studies in animal models of SCD have shown that coagulation contributes to the chronic inflammation and end-organ damage associated with the disease; however, it is unknown whether coagulation directly contributes to the microvascular stasis that causes VOC. Herein, we demonstrate that inhibition of tissue factor (TF) and the downstream coagulation proteases factor Xa and thrombin significantly attenuates heme-induced microvascular stasis in mouse models of VOC. Pharmacologic inhibition of the principal thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), as well as deficiency of PAR-1 in all nonhematopoietic cells, also reduces stasis in sickle mice. PAR-1 deficiency was associated with reduced endothelial von Willebrand factor expression, which has been shown to mediate microvascular stasis. In addition, TF inhibition reduces lung vaso-occlusion in sickle mice mediated by arteriolar neutrophil-platelet microemboli. In sum, these results suggest that prophylactic anticoagulation might attenuate the incidence of VOC.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(5): 496-520, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381464

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide updated recommendations about prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer. METHODS: PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs published from August 1, 2014, through December 4, 2018. ASCO convened an Expert Panel to review the evidence and revise previous recommendations as needed. RESULTS: The systematic review included 35 publications on VTE prophylaxis and treatment and 18 publications on VTE risk assessment. Two RCTs of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the treatment of VTE in patients with cancer reported that edoxaban and rivaroxaban are effective but are linked with a higher risk of bleeding compared with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in patients with GI and potentially genitourinary cancers. Two additional RCTs reported on DOACs for thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory patients with cancer at increased risk of VTE. RECOMMENDATIONS: Changes to previous recommendations: Clinicians may offer thromboprophylaxis with apixaban, rivaroxaban, or LMWH to selected high-risk outpatients with cancer; rivaroxaban and edoxaban have been added as options for VTE treatment; patients with brain metastases are now addressed in the VTE treatment section; and the recommendation regarding long-term postoperative LMWH has been expanded. Re-affirmed recommendations: Most hospitalized patients with cancer and an acute medical condition require thromboprophylaxis throughout hospitalization. Thromboprophylaxis is not routinely recommended for all outpatients with cancer. Patients undergoing major cancer surgery should receive prophylaxis starting before surgery and continuing for at least 7 to 10 days. Patients with cancer should be periodically assessed for VTE risk, and oncology professionals should provide patient education about the signs and symptoms of VTE.Additional information is available at www.asco.org/supportive-care-guidelines.

6.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(1): 201-216, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma-derived (pd) or recombinant (r) therapeutic factor VIII proteins (FVIIIs) are infused to arrest/prevent bleeding in patients with hemophilia A (PWHA). However, FVIIIs are neutralized if anti-FVIII-antibodies (inhibitors) develop. Accumulating evidence suggests that pdFVIIIs with von Willebrand factor (VWF) are less immunogenic than rFVIIIs and that distinct rFVIIIs are differentially immunogenic. Since inhibitor development is T-helper-cell-dependent, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-class-II (HLAcII) molecules constitute an important early determinant. OBJECTIVES: Use dendritic cell (DC)-protein processing/presentation assays with mass-spectrometric and peptide-proteomic analyses to quantify the DP-bound, DQ-bound, and DR-bound FVIII-derived peptides in individual HLAcII repertoires and compare the immunogenic potential of six distinct FVIIIs based on their measured peptide counts. PATIENTS/METHODS: Monocyte-derived DCs from normal donors and/or PWHA were cultured with either: Mix-rFVIII, a VWF-free equimolar mixture of a full-length (FL)-rFVIII [Advate® (Takeda)] and four distinct B-domain-deleted (BDD)-rFVIIIs [Xyntha® (Pfizer), NovoEight® (Novo-Nordisk), Nuwiq® (Octapharma), and Afstyla® (CSL Behring GmBH)]; a pdFVIII + pdVWF [Beriate® (CSL Behring GmBH)]; Advate ± pdVWF; Afstyla ± pdVWF; and Xyntha + pdVWF. RESULTS: We showed that (i) Beriate had a significantly lower immunogenic potential than Advate ± pdVWF, Afstyla - pdVWF, and Mix-rFVIII; (ii) distinct FVIIIs differed significantly in their immunogenic potential in that, in addition to (i), Afstyla + pdVWF had a significantly lower immunogenic potential than Beriate, while the immunogenic potential of Beriate was not significantly different from that of Xyntha + pdVWF; and (iii) rFVIIIs with pdVWF had significantly lower immunogenic potentials than the same rFVIIIs without pdVWF. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide HLAcII peptidomic level explanations for several important clinical observations/issues including the differential immunogenicity of distinct FVIIIs and the role of HLAcII genetics in inhibitor development.

7.
Haematologica ; 105(1): 218-225, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048354

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is associated with a high incidence of venous thromboembolism. Neutrophils have been shown to contribute to thrombosis in part by releasing neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). A recent study showed that increased plasma levels of the NET biomarker, citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit), are associated with venous thromboembolism in patients with pancreatic and lung cancer but not in those with other types of cancer, including breast cancer. In this study, we examined the contribution of neutrophils and NET to venous thrombosis in nude mice bearing human pancreatic tumors. We found that tumor-bearing mice had increased circulating neutrophil counts and levels of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, neutrophil elastase, H3Cit and cell-free DNA compared with controls. In addition, thrombi from tumor-bearing mice contained increased levels of the neutrophil marker Ly6G, as well as higher levels of H3Cit and cell-free DNA. Thrombi from tumor-bearing mice also had denser fibrin with thinner fibers consistent with increased thrombin generation. Importantly, either neutrophil depletion or administration of DNase I reduced the thrombus size in tumor-bearing but not in control mice. Our results, together with clinical data, suggest that neutrophils and NET contribute to venous thrombosis in patients with pancreatic cancer.

9.
Am J Hematol ; 95(3): 258-266, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840854

RESUMO

Higher and lower hemoglobin concentrations are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), but whether this risk is consistent across age, sex, and race is unclear. The Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study is an observational cohort study of 30 239 black, and white, adults aged 45 and older recruited 2003-7. Participants were included if they had hemoglobin measures, were CHD-free at baseline, and had all baseline variables. The primary outcome was incident CHD. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident CHD by hemoglobin concentration. This was expressed as a continuous variable and divided into age-, sex-, and race-specific quintiles. The 16 332 participants were included, contributing 114 362 person-years of follow-up and 915 incident CHD events. The mean age was 63 years, 35% were male, 41% were black, and the mean baseline hemoglobin was 13.6 g/dL (SD 1.4). A significant non-linear association between hemoglobin and CHD was identified (P < .001). This association differed significantly by race (P = .025) but not by sex or age. In whites, the risk for incident CHD was higher in the lowest (HR 2.28, 95% CI 1.61, 3.33) and highest (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.35, 2.79) hemoglobin quintiles relative to the third quintile. For blacks, only those in the lowest hemoglobin quintile had an increased risk for incident CHD events (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.20, 2.41). Hemoglobin is an independent risk factor for CHD in whites and blacks but with different hemoglobin concentrations conferring different risks.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Doença das Coronárias , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Blood Adv ; 3(21): 3241-3247, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698454

RESUMO

Etranacogene dezaparvovec (AMT-061) is a recombinant AAV5 vector including a gene cassette containing the factor IX (FIX) Padua variant under the control of a liver-specific promoter. A phase 2b study was conducted to confirm that a single dose of 2 × 1013 genome copies per kilogram of etranacogene dezaparvovec will result in FIX activity ≥5% 6 weeks after dosing. Secondary end points included FIX activity at other time points, bleed frequency, FIX replacement, and safety. Etranacogene dezaparvovec was administered as a single IV infusion to 3 adults with severe to moderately severe hemophilia B. Before treatment, participants had low levels of preexisting neutralizing antibodies to AAV5. This article reports a planned 26-week interim assessment. At week 6, mean FIX activity was 31% (23.9%-37.8%), increasing to 47% (33.2%-57.0%) at 26 weeks, with 2 subjects exhibiting sustained activity >40%. Consistent with the FIX activity, etranacogene dezaparvovec was associated with a complete bleed cessation with no need for FIX replacement therapy up to 26 weeks. Etranacogene dezaparvovec was generally well tolerated. No clinically significant elevations in levels of liver enzymes or inflammatory markers were observed, and no use of corticosteroids related to treatment was required. In individuals with severe to moderately severe hemophilia B, etranacogene dezaparvovec resulted in clinically relevant increases in FIX activity, cessation of bleeds, and abrogation of the need for FIX replacement, despite the presence of preexisting anti-AAV5 neutralizing antibodies detected by using a highly sensitive luciferase assay. Consistency of results in the 3 participants supported an expanded evaluation of the safety/efficacy of etranacogene dezaparvovec in the HOPE-B (Health Outcomes With Padua Gene; Evaluation in Hemophilia-B) phase 3 trial. The current trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03489291.

12.
eNeurologicalSci ; 16: 100201, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384675

RESUMO

Objective: The incidence and prevalence of cognitive decline and dementia are significantly higher among African Americans compared with non-Hispanic Whites. The aim of this study was to determine whether inheritance of the sickle cell trait (SCT) i.e. heterozygosity for the sickle cell mutation increases the risk of cognitive decline or dementia Among African Americans. Methods: We studied African American participants enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. SCT genotype at baseline and outcome data from cognitive assessments at visits 2, 4 and 5, and an MRI performed at visit 5 were analyzed for the association between SCT and risk of cognitive impairment and/or dementia. Results: There was no significant difference in risk factors profile between participants with SCT (N = 176) and those without SCT (N = 2532). SCT was not independently associated with a higher prevalence of global or domain-specific cognitive impairment at baseline or with more rapid cognitive decline. Participants with SCT had slightly lower incidence of dementia (HR = 0.63 [0.38, 1.05]). On the other hand, SCT seems to interact with the apolipoprotein E ε4 risk allele resulting in poor performance on digit symbol substitution test at baseline (z-score = -0.08, Pinteraction = 0.05) and over time (z-score = -0.12, Pinteraction = 0.04); and with diabetes mellitus leading to a moderately increased risk of dementia (HR = 2.06 [0.89, 4.78], Pinteraction = 0.01). Conclusions: SCT was not an independent risk factor for prevalence or incidence of cognitive decline or dementia, although it may interact with and modify other putative risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia.

13.
Am J Hematol ; 94(12): 1306-1313, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429114

RESUMO

Sickle cell trait (SCT) has been associated with hypercoagulability, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and ischemic stroke. Whether concomitant CKD modifies long-term ischemic stroke risk in individuals with SCT is uncertain. We analyzed data from 3602 genotyped black adults (female = 62%, mean baseline age = 54 years) who were followed for a median 26 years by the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Ischemic stroke was verified by physician review. Associations between SCT and ischemic stroke were analyzed using repeat-events Cox regression, adjusted for potential confounders. SCT was identified in 236 (7%) participants, who more often had CKD at baseline than noncarriers (18% vs 13%, P = .02). Among those with CKD, elevated factor VII activity was more prevalent with SCT genotype (36% vs 22%; P = .05). From 1987-2017, 555 ischemic strokes occurred in 436 individuals. The overall hazard ratio of ischemic stroke associated with SCT was 1.31 (95% CI: 0.95-1.80) and was stronger in participants with concomitant CKD (HR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.16-4.12) than those without CKD (HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.74-1.61); P for interaction = .04. The hazard ratio of composite ischemic stroke and/or death associated with SCT was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.01-1.42) overall, 1.44 (95% CI: 1.002-2.07) among those with CKD, and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.94-1.39) among those without CKD; P for interaction = .18. The long-term risk of ischemic stroke associated with SCT relative to noncarrier genotype appears to be modified by concomitant CKD.

14.
Br J Cancer ; 121(5): 359-371, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327867

RESUMO

It has long been recognised that pancreatic cancer induces a hypercoagulable state that may lead to clinically apparent thrombosis. Although the relationship between pancreatic cancer and hypercoagulability is well described, the underlying pathological mechanism(s) and the interplay between these pathways remain a matter of intensive study. This review summarises existing data on epidemiology and pathogenesis of thrombotic complications in pancreatic cancer with a particular emphasis on novel pathophysiological pathways. Pancreatic cancer is characterised by high tumoural expression of tissue factor, activation of leukocytes with the release of neutrophil extracellular traps, the dissemination of tumour-derived microvesicles that promote hypercoagulability and increased platelet activation. Furthermore, other coagulation pathways probably contribute to these processes, such as those that involve heparanase, podoplanin and hypofibrinolysis. In the era in which heparin and its derivatives-the currently recommended therapy for cancer-associated thrombosis-might be superseded by direct oral anticoagulants, novel data from mouse models of cancer-associated thrombosis suggest the possibility of future personalised therapeutic approaches. In this dynamic era for cancer-associated thrombosis, the discovery of novel prothrombotic and proinflammatory mechanisms will potentially uncover pharmacological targets to prevent and treat thrombosis without adversely affecting haemostasis.

15.
Case Rep Hematol ; 2019: 2587597, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355021

RESUMO

We report the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with cancer of unknown primary treated with carboplatin and paclitaxel, followed by maintenance erlotinib. Her chemotherapy regimen was discontinued due to the development of profound hemolysis that was later identified to be due to paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). She was started on a complement inhibitory antibody, eculizumab 900 mg every 2 weeks, with marked suppression of hemolysis. Eight years after diagnosis of cancer, the patient remains on eculizumab with no signs of cancer recurrence on regular imaging. Regardless of whether the co-occurrence of cancer and PNH was any more than coincidental in this patient, the uniqueness of the case is emphasized by the remarkable and sustained response of not only PNH but also possibly the associated cancer to eculizumab.

16.
Blood Adv ; 3(9): 1429-1440, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053570

RESUMO

The immunogenicity of protein therapeutics is an important safety and efficacy concern during drug development and regulation. Strategies to identify individuals and subpopulations at risk for an undesirable immune response represent an important unmet need. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-associated peptide proteomics (MAPPs) assay directly identifies the presence of peptides derived from a specific protein therapeutic on a donor's MHC class II (MHC-II) proteins. We applied this technique to address several questions related to the use of factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy in the treatment of hemophilia A (HA). Although >12 FVIII therapeutics are marketed, most fall into 3 categories: (i) human plasma-derived FVIII (pdFVIII), (ii) full-length (FL)-recombinant FVIII (rFVIII; FL-rFVIII), and (iii) B-domain-deleted rFVIII. Here, we investigated whether there are differences between the FVIII peptides found on the MHC-II proteins of the same individual when incubated with these 3 classes. Based on several observational studies and a prospective, randomized, clinical trial showing that the originally approved rFVIII products may be more immunogenic than the pdFVIII products containing von Willebrand factor (VWF) in molar excess, it has been hypothesized that the pdFVIII molecules yield/present fewer peptides (ie, potential T-cell epitopes). We have experimentally tested this hypothesis and found that dendritic cells from HA patients and healthy donors present fewer FVIII peptides when administered pdFVIII vs FL-rFVIII, despite both containing the same molar VWF excess. Our results support the hypothesis that synthesis of pdFVIII under physiological conditions could result in reduced heterogeneity and/or subtle differences in structure/conformation which, in turn, may result in reduced FVIII proteolytic processing relative to FL-rFVIII.

17.
Haemophilia ; 25(4): 545-557, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115117

RESUMO

Gene therapy has the potential to revolutionise treatment for patients with haemophilia and is close to entering clinical practice. While factor concentrates have improved outcomes, individuals still face a lifetime of injections, pain, progressive joint damage, the potential for inhibitor development and impaired quality of life. Recently published studies in adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy have demonstrated improvement in endogenous factor levels over sustained periods, significant reduction in annualised bleed rates, lower exogenous factor usage and thus far a positive safety profile. In making the shared decision to proceed with gene therapy for haemophilia, physicians should make it clear that research is ongoing and that there are remaining evidence gaps, such as long-term safety profiles and duration of treatment effect. The eligibility criteria for gene therapy trials mean that key patient groups may be excluded, eg children/adolescents, those with liver or kidney dysfunction and those with a prior history of factor inhibitors or pre-existing neutralising AAV antibodies. Gene therapy offers a life-changing opportunity for patients to reduce their bleeding risk while also reducing or abrogating the need for exogenous factor administration. Given the expanding evidence base, both physicians and patients will need sources of clear and reliable information to be able to discuss and judge the risks and benefits of treatment.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Terapia Genética , Hemofilia A/terapia , Hemofilia B/terapia , Pacientes , Médicos , Terapia Genética/efeitos adversos , Hemofilia A/genética , Hemofilia B/genética , Humanos
18.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(6): e295-e305, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emicizumab, a subcutaneously administered, humanised, bispecific, monoclonal antibody, is approved to treat people with haemophilia A of all ages with and without coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors. HAVEN 4 assessed emicizumab prophylaxis administered as one dose every 4 weeks in adults and adolescents with haemophilia A, regardless of FVIII inhibitor status. METHODS: In this phase 3, multicentre, open-label, two-stage study, patients aged 12 years and older with severe congenital haemophilia A (<1% of normal FVIII activity in blood) or haemophilia A with FVIII inhibitors, undergoing treatment with either FVIII concentrates or bypassing agents were recruited from three sites in Japan and Spain for a run-in cohort, and from 17 sites in Australia, Belgium, Japan, Poland, Spain, and the USA for a subsequent expansion cohort. Participants in the run-in and expansion cohorts were given emicizumab subcutaneously 6 mg/kg every 4 weeks for 24 weeks or more; for patients in the expansion cohort this regimen was preceded by four loading doses of 3 mg/kg once weekly. In the run-in cohort, we assessed pharmacokinetics after single and multiple (every 4 weeks) subcutaneous administration of 6 mg/kg emicizumab and safety. In the expansion cohort, the efficacy endpoint was efficacy of prophylactic emicizumab in maintaining adequate bleed prevention, assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of emicizumab and reported as annualised bleed rates for treated bleeds, all bleeds (treated and untreated), treated spontaneous bleeds, treated joint bleeds, and treated target joint bleeds. Safety was assessed in all participants given emicizumab. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03020160, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Jan 30, 2017, and Feb 27, 2017, seven patients were enrolled into the initial run-in cohort, which confirmed the expected pharmacokinetic profile and safety of the regimen based on model-based simulations, providing sufficient evidence for opening of the expansion cohort (n=41), which was recruited and enrolled between May 24, 2017, and June 30, 2017. The annualised rate of treated bleeds was 2·4 (95% CI 1·4-4·3). 23 (56·1%; 95% CI 39·7-71·5) of 41 reported no treated bleeds and 37 (90%; 76·9-97·3) reported zero to three treated bleeds. The annualised bleed rate was 4·5 (95% CI 3·1-6·6) for all bleeds, 0·6 (0·3-1·5), for treated spontaneous bleeds, 1·7 (0·8-3·7) for treated joint bleeds, and 1·0 (0·3-3·3) for treated target joint bleeds. The most frequent treatment-related adverse event was injection-site reaction (nine [22%] of 41 patients). We observed no thrombotic events or development of de-novo antidrug antibodies with neutralising potential or FVIII inhibitors. INTERPRETATION: Emicizumab given once every 4 weeks showed clinically meaningful bleed control while being well tolerated. This regimen could improve patient care by decreasing treatment burden and increasing adherence to effective prophylaxis, potentially decreasing the development of secondary complications for people with haemophilia A. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche and Chugai Pharmaceutical.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Hemofilia A/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Inibidores dos Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Esquema de Medicação , Meia-Vida , Hemofilia A/patologia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Articulações/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringite/etiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Blood ; 133(23): 2529-2541, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952675

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with chronic activation of coagulation and an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Erythrocyte sickling, the primary pathologic event in SCD, results in dramatic morphological changes in red blood cells (RBCs) because of polymerization of the abnormal hemoglobin. We used a mouse model of SCD and blood samples from sickle patients to determine if these changes affect the structure, properties, and dynamics of sickle clot formation. Sickling of RBCs and a significant increase in fibrin deposition were observed in venous thrombi formed in sickle mice. During ex vivo clot contraction, the number of RBCs extruded from sickle whole blood clots was significantly reduced compared with the number released from sickle cell trait and nonsickle clots in both mice and humans. Entrapment of sickled RBCs was largely factor XIIIa-independent and entirely mediated by the platelet-free cellular fraction of sickle blood. Inhibition of phosphatidylserine, but not administration of antisickling compounds, increased the number of RBCs released from sickle clots. Interestingly, whole blood, but not plasma clots from SCD patients, was more resistant to fibrinolysis, indicating that the cellular fraction of blood mediates resistance to tissue plasminogen activator. Sickle trait whole blood clots demonstrated an intermediate phenotype in response to tissue plasminogen activator. RBC exchange in SCD patients had a long-lasting effect on normalizing whole blood clot contraction. Furthermore, RBC exchange transiently reversed resistance of whole blood sickle clots to fibrinolysis, in part by decreasing platelet-derived PAI-1. These properties of sickle clots may explain the increased risk of venous thromboembolism observed in SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/patologia , Eritrócitos Anormais/patologia , Trombose/patologia , Trombose Venosa/patologia , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Animais , Eritrócitos/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Trombose/sangue , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/etiologia
20.
Blood ; 133(20): 2186-2197, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898858

RESUMO

Reactive and clonal neutrophil expansion has been associated with thrombosis, suggesting that neutrophils play a role in this process. However, although there is no doubt that activated monocytes trigger coagulation in a tissue factor-dependent manner, it remains uncertain whether stimulated neutrophils can also directly activate coagulation. After more than a decade of debate, it is now largely accepted that normal human neutrophils do not synthetize tissue factor, the initiator of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. However, neutrophils may passively acquire tissue factor from monocytes. Recently, the contact system, which initiates coagulation via the intrinsic pathway, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of thrombosis. After the recent description of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release by activated neutrophils, some animal models of thrombosis have demonstrated that coagulation may be enhanced by direct NET-dependent activation of the contact system. However, there is currently no consensus on how to assess or quantify NETosis in vivo, and other experimental animal models have failed to demonstrate a role for neutrophils in thrombogenesis. Nevertheless, it is likely that NETs can serve to localize other circulating coagulation components and can also promote vessel occlusion independent of fibrin formation. This article provides a critical appraisal of the possible roles of neutrophils in thrombosis and highlights some existing knowledge gaps regarding the procoagulant activities of neutrophil-derived extracellular chromatin and its molecular components. A better understanding of these mechanisms could guide future approaches to prevent and/or treat thrombosis.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea , Cromatina/metabolismo , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Trombose/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Humanos , Neutrófilos/citologia , Trombose/sangue
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