Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 131
Filtrar
1.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 311: 102830, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592501

RESUMO

The photocatalytic technology illustrates an eco-friendly and sustainable route to overcome environmental and energy issues. The successful construction of a photocatalyst depends on four key elements: light absorption ability, the density of active sites, redox capacity, and photoinduced electron-hole recombination rate. Sincemost of intrinsic semiconductor photocatalysts cannot meet all these requirements, they are often modified to boost their photocatalytic properties. Many strategies have been adopted to design novel and efficient photocatalysts for diverse applications. Herein, we review the most efficient of these strategies and methods focused on effectively overcoming the efficiency limitations of photocatalysts to promote their large-scale application. Subsequently, a particular aim is put on the most current studies for photocatalytic applications, including CO2 reduction, N2 fixation, H2 evolution, and pollutants degradation. Finally, key challenges and future perspectives in designing and implementing semiconductor photocatalysts for large-scale applications are discussed. Therefore, it is foreseen that this review will work as a guide for future research and provides a variety of strategies to develop novel and high-performance photocatalysts for various applications.


Assuntos
Semicondutores
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249159, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339415

RESUMO

Abstract There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Resumo Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.


Assuntos
Animais , Galliformes , Escherichia coli , Fezes
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247181, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339388

RESUMO

Abstract The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Resumo Os protozoários incluem muitos patógenos humanos intracelulares. A detecção acurada desses patógenos é necessária para tratar as doenças. Na epidemiologia clínica, a identificação molecular de protozoários é considerada o método de identificação mais confiável e rápido do que a microscopia. Entre esses protozoários, o Cryptosporidium é considerado um dos importantes patógenos zoonóticos transmitidos pela água e uma das principais causas de uma doença diarreica denominada criptosporidiose em humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar Cryptosporidium em zoofelídeos (N = 56) pertencentes a diferentes zoológicos da China, mas acidentalmente Colpodella foi encontrada na amostra de zoofelídeos e os dados filogenéticos confirmaram essa amplificação inesperada de amostras fecais usando nested-PCR em duas etapas. A análise filogenética revelou o fato sobre os primers específicos usados ​​anteriormente por muitos pesquisadores e a amplificação entre gêneros. Ficamos sabendo que o amplicon sequenciado geneticamente fornece uma identificação mais acurada das espécies. Este estudo sugere mais investigação sobre Colpodella, que foi negligenciada anteriormente, mas ganha a atenção dos pesquisadores depois de identificada em humanos e animais e é conhecida por se correlacionar com sintomas neurológicos em pacientes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Filogenia , China , Fezes , Genótipo
4.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 126(46): 19726-19732, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466036

RESUMO

Substituting heteroatoms and non-benzenoid carbons into nanographene structure offers a unique opportunity for atomic engineering of electronic properties. Here we show the bottom-up synthesis of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with embedded fused BN-doped rubicene components on a Au(111) surface using on-surface chemistry. Structural and electronic properties of the BN-GNRs are characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) with CO-terminated tips supported by numerical calculations. The periodic incorporation of BN heteroatoms in the GNR leads to an increase of the electronic band gap as compared to its undoped counterpart. This opens avenues for the rational design of semiconducting GNRs with optoelectronic properties.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573032

RESUMO

This study investigated Saudi Arabian elementary school teachers' knowledge of strategies to teach reading components to hard of hearing students. The study focused on four of the five reading components the National Reading Panel (NPR, 2000) identified: phonemic awareness; phonics; vocabulary; and reading comprehension, and explored the relation between teachers' demographic characteristics and their knowledge of the strategies as well. An explanatory sequential mixed methods design was used that included two phases. The quantitative phase examined the knowledge of these Arabic reading components among 89 elementary school teachers of hard of hearing students, and the qualitative phase consisted of interviews with 10 teachers. The results indicated that the teachers have a great deal of knowledge (above the mean score) of strategies to teach reading components. Specifically, teachers' knowledge of strategies to teach the vocabulary component was the highest. The results also showed no significant association between teachers' demographic characteristics and their knowledge of strategies to teach reading components. The qualitative analysis revealed two themes: (1) teachers' lack of basic knowledge of strategies to teach reading components, and (2) the absence of in-service courses and training programs in reading for teachers.

6.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 23(6): 628-633, 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36259303

RESUMO

AIM: This study will aid in determining the prevalence and risk factors for dental trauma. This will assist in developing a treatment budget plan, thereby, fend off complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was an observational study, having a cross-sectional design, in which information was obtained from 555 participants. Data were obtained using a non-probability convenient sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used as a study tool. Data were analyzed using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS, version 20). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Data were displayed as numbers and percentages, and the Chi-squared test was used to measure the association. RESULTS: Dental trauma was found to be 44% prevalent. Most of the injuries occurred in the 6-9-years age-group (19.1%) and were more common in boys (54.13%) than in girls. The majority of respondents (61%) identified "falls" as the most common cause of dental trauma, and the frequent location for the occurrence of dental injuries was found to be "home" (64.44%). Only 18% of parents reported that their kid's experienced nail-biting concerns, with the majority claimed that their kids never developed oral habits. Most dental injuries occurred during the summer season (48%). CONCLUSION: Young aged group and male gender group were more prone to dental injuries; dental injuries along with fall were found as the most common cause of dental trauma, whereas most of the dental traumas were reported to have occurred at home. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The study evaluated risk factors and the prevalence of dental trauma in the population of Ha'il, Saudi Arabia. It will be an effective tool for determining the need for treatment facilities.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Dentários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Traumatismos Dentários/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Dentários/etiologia
7.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(19)2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233999

RESUMO

In this study, photocatalysis was employed to degrade a wastewater pollutant (AB-29 dye) under visible light irradiation. For this purpose, nitrogen (N)- and neodymium (Nd)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared using the simple hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed an anatase phase structure of the Nd-N/TiO2 photocatalyst, whereas properties including the surface morphology, chemical states/electronics structure and optical structure were determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-visible (UV-vis.) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. Photocatalytic testing of the prepared nanomaterials was performed to remove acid blue-29 (AB-29) dye under visible-light exposure. The prepared Nd-N/TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated a superior photocatalytic activity and the decolorization efficiency was about 92% after visible-light illumination for 1 h and 20 min, while N/TiO2, Nd/TiO2 and TiO2 only showed a 67%, 43% and 31% decolorization efficiency, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the Nd-N/TiO2 photocatalyst was due to a decrease in the electron/hole's recombination and the increased absorption of TiO2 in the visible range. The reusability results showed that the average photocatalytic activity decrease for all the samples was only about 16% after five consecutive cycles, indicating a good stability of the prepared nanomaterials. Moreover, the radical scavenging activity of the prepared nanomaterials was evaluated using the DPPH method. The novel Nd-N/TiO2 exhibited a higher antioxidant activity compared to all the other samples.

8.
Science ; 378(6615): 68-78, 2022 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36201590

RESUMO

Establishing causal links between inherited polymorphisms and cancer risk is challenging. Here, we focus on the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs55705857, which confers a sixfold greater risk of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant low-grade glioma (LGG). We reveal that rs55705857 itself is the causal variant and is associated with molecular pathways that drive LGG. Mechanistically, we show that rs55705857 resides within a brain-specific enhancer, where the risk allele disrupts OCT2/4 binding, allowing increased interaction with the Myc promoter and increased Myc expression. Mutating the orthologous mouse rs55705857 locus accelerated tumor development in an Idh1R132H-driven LGG mouse model from 472 to 172 days and increased penetrance from 30% to 75%. Our work reveals mechanisms of the heritable predisposition to lethal glioma in ~40% of LGG patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Glioma , Isocitrato Desidrogenase , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Glioma/genética , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Camundongos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
Cancer Discov ; 12(12): 2930-2953, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108220

RESUMO

Systematically investigating the scores of genes mutated in cancer and discerning disease drivers from inconsequential bystanders is a prerequisite for precision medicine but remains challenging. Here, we developed a somatic CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis screen to study 215 recurrent "long-tail" breast cancer genes, which revealed epigenetic regulation as a major tumor-suppressive mechanism. We report that components of the BAP1 and COMPASS-like complexes, including KMT2C/D, KDM6A, BAP1, and ASXL1/2 ("EpiDrivers"), cooperate with PIK3CAH1047R to transform mouse and human breast epithelial cells. Mechanistically, we find that activation of PIK3CAH1047R and concomitant EpiDriver loss triggered an alveolar-like lineage conversion of basal mammary epithelial cells and accelerated formation of luminal-like tumors, suggesting a basal origin for luminal tumors. EpiDriver mutations are found in ∼39% of human breast cancers, and ∼50% of ductal carcinoma in situ express casein, suggesting that lineage infidelity and alveogenic mimicry may significantly contribute to early steps of breast cancer etiology. SIGNIFICANCE: Infrequently mutated genes comprise most of the mutational burden in breast tumors but are poorly understood. In vivo CRISPR screening identified functional tumor suppressors that converged on epigenetic regulation. Loss of epigenetic regulators accelerated tumorigenesis and revealed lineage infidelity and aberrant expression of alveogenesis genes as potential early events in tumorigenesis. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 2711.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Epigênese Genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética
10.
J Clin Med ; 11(16)2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36013008

RESUMO

The Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) approved sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in 2018. The efficacy and safety of empagliflozin (EMPA) have been confirmed in the U.S., Europe, and Japan for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, analogous evidence is lacking for Saudi T2DM patients. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of EMPA in Saudi patients (n = 256) with T2DM. This is a 12-week prospective, open-label, observational study. Adult Saudi patients with T2DM who had not been treated with EMPA before enrolment were eligible. The exclusion criteria included T2DM patients less than 18 years of age, adults with type one diabetes, pregnant women, paediatric population. The results related to efficacy included a significant decrease in haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (adjusted mean difference -0.93% [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.32, -1.54]), significant improvements in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (-2.28 mmol/L [95% CI -2.81, -1.75]), and a reduction in body weight (-0.874 kg [95% CI -4.36, -6.10]) following the administration of 25 mg of EMPA once daily as an add-on to ongoing antidiabetic therapy after 12 weeks. The primary safety endpoints were the change in the mean blood pressure (BP) values, which indicated significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BP (-3.85 mmHg [95% CI -6.81, -0.88] and -0.06 mmHg [95% CI -0.81, -0.88], respectively) and pulse rate (-1.18 [95% CI -0.79, -3.15]). In addition, kidney function was improved, with a significant reduction in the urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) (-1.76 mg/g [95% CI -1.07, -34.25]) and a significant increase in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (3.54 mL/min/1.73 m2 [95% CI 2.78, 9.87]). Furthermore, EMPA reduced aminotransferases (ALT) in a pattern (reduction in ALT > AST). The adjusted mean difference in the change in ALT was -2.36 U/L [95% CI -1.031, -3.69], while it was -1.26 U/L [95% CI -0.3811, -2.357] for AST and -1.98 U/L [95% CI -0.44, -3.49] for GGT. Moreover, in the EMPA group, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) significantly increased (0.29 mmol/L [95% CI 0.74, 0.15]), whereas a nonsignificant increase was seen in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (0.01 mmol/L [95% CI 0.19, 0.18]) along with a significant reduction in plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (-0.43 mmol/L [95% CI -0.31, -1.17]). Empagliflozin once daily is an efficacious and tolerable strategy for treating Saudi patients with insufficiently controlled T2DM as an add-on to ongoing antidiabetic therapy.

11.
Clin Oral Investig ; 26(11): 6721-6732, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35906340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In previous studies, COVID-19 complications were reported to be associated with periodontitis. Accordingly, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that a history of periodontal therapy could be associated with lower risk of COVID-19 complications. METHODS: A case-control study was performed using the medical health records of COVID-19 patients in the State of Qatar between March 2020 and February 2021 and dental records between January 2017 and December 2021. Cases were defined as COVID-19 patients who suffered complications (death, ICU admissions and/or mechanical ventilation); controls were COVID-19 patients who recovered without major complications. Associations between a history of periodontal therapy and COVID-19 complications were analysed using logistic regression models adjusted for demographic and medical factors. Blood parameters were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: In total, 1,325 patients were included. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) analysis revealed that non-treated periodontitis was associated with significant risk of need for mechanical ventilation (AOR = 3.91, 95% CI 1.21-12.57, p = 0.022) compared to periodontally healthy patients, while treated periodontitis was not (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI 0.25-6.58, p = 0.768). Blood analyses revealed that periodontitis patients with a history of periodontal therapy had significantly lower levels of D-dimer and Ferritin than non-treated periodontitis patients. CONCLUSION: Among COVID-19 patients with periodontal bone loss, only those that have not received periodontal therapy had higher risk of need for assisted ventilation. COVID-19 patients with a history of periodontal therapy were associated with significantly lower D-dimer levels than those without recent records of periodontal therapy. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The fact that patients with treated periodontitis were less likely to suffer COVID-19 complications than non-treated ones further strengthen the hypothesis linking periodontitis to COVID-19 complications and suggests that managing periodontitis could help reduce the risk for COVID-19 complications, although future research is needed to verify this.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , COVID-19 , Periodontite , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/terapia , Periodontite/terapia , Periodontite/complicações , Biomarcadores
12.
Br J Pharmacol ; 179(20): 4792-4808, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35771623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory cutaneous diseases with unmet clinical needs. As a common ingredient found in several medicinal herbs with efficacy on cutaneous inflammatory diseases, Scutellarein (Scu) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Scu against AD and its underlying molecular mechanism. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Efficacy of Scu on AD was evaluated in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and carvacrol-induced dermatitis mouse models. Cytokine mRNA and serum IgE levels were examined using qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Voltage clamp recordings were used to measure currents mediated by transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In silico docking, site-direct mutagenesis, and covalent modification were used to explore the binding pocket of Scu on TRPV3. KEY RESULTS: Subcutaneous administration of Scu efficaciously suppresses DNFB and carvacrol-induced pruritus, epidermal hyperplasia and skin inflammation in wild type mice but has no additional benefit in Trpv3 knockout mice in the carvacrol model. Scu is a potent and selective TRPV3 channel allosteric negative modulator with an apparent affinity of 1.18 µM. Molecular docking coupled with site-direct mutagenesis and covalent modification of incorporated cysteine residues demonstrate that Scu targets the cavity formed between the pore helix and transmembrane helix S6. Moreover, Scu attenuates endogenous TRPV3 activity in human keratinocytes and inhibits carvacrol-induced proliferative and proinflammatory responses. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Collectively, these data demonstrate that Scu ameliorates carvacrol-induced skin inflammation by directly inhibiting TRPV3, and TRPV3 represents a viable therapeutic target for AD treatment.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Apigenina , Cimenos , Cisteína , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dinitrofluorbenzeno/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , RNA Mensageiro , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
13.
J Orthod Sci ; 11: 15, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35754410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Impacted canine (IC) is a dental anomaly that varies in its frequency according to the population of interest. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency and distribution pattern of maxillary ICs (MxIC) and mandibular ICs (MnIC) in the population of Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective study of all patients attended Taibah University Dental Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Inclusion criteria were individuals aged 15 years and older and no history of orthodontic treatment or craniofacial syndromes. Patients with incomplete dental records or missing/distorted Orthopantomograph (OPG) were excluded. All OPGs were taken using standardized equipment. Data were explored for frequency and pattern of canine impaction both in the maxilla and the mandible and statistically tested to detect significant differences. RESULTS: A total of 7466 individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria with mean age of 37.43 ± 14.5 years. Of the total sample, 173 individuals had at least one IC. MxIC alone occurred in 86.71% of the cases, while MnIC occurred in 8.67%. The remaining 4.62% had at least one IC in each jaw. Unilateral IC occurred in 89.2% of the cases with left-side predominance in the maxilla. CONCLUSION: In this sample, the frequency of MxIC was 2.1% and MnIC was 0.3%. Almost equal distribution of IC occurred between females and males (IC Odds ratio F:M 1:1.08). Further studies are required to investigate the potential association of IC incidence with other predictor variables.

14.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 96: 107299, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751966

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mucormycosis is an opportunistic mycosis common in poorly-controlled insulin dependent diabetic patients particularly with ketoacidosis. Fungal osteomyelitis is a life-threatening condition affectation of the nose and paranasal sinuses within the orofacial region. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a 63-year-old diabetic male patient with maxillary mucormycotic osteomyelitis threatening his better seeing eye and review the clinical symptoms, relevant imaging, and management. DISCUSSION: We highlight a rare pattern of craniofacial fungal bone infection with maxillary and orbital involvement that ultimately spared the optic nerve. This case report offers the clinician a review of important clinical and diagnostic findings that can help direct the need for orbital exenteration. CONCLUSION: Maxillary mucormycotic osteomyelitis is an aggressive infection that needs to be addressed promptly to prevent fatal consequences.

15.
Cureus ; 14(2): e22039, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35340474

RESUMO

Background and objective Decision-making about syncope patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) is challenging since physicians must balance the minimal risks of life-threatening conditions with the unessential use of expensive imaging or unnecessary hospitalizations. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of ED visits, resource utilization, and admission rate patterns related to syncope in the United States (US) during the period 2005-2015. Methods Data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) on ED visits during the 11-year period from 2005 to 2015 were retrieved. ED visits for syncope were identified and compared against non-syncope ED visits. The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients, as well data on resource allocation and admission trends were captured and described for the syncope and the non-syncope groups. Results Syncope accounted for 1.11% of the total ED visits during the study period from 2005 to 2015. The incidence of syncope-related ED visits was higher among elderly females, whites, and non-Hispanics. The trend of admission rates showed a decline from about 30% in 2005-2010 to less than 20% in 2014 and 2015. Advanced imaging (CT or MRI) was ordered for 34% of syncope patients. Conclusion The percentage of syncope-related ED visits remained stable during the study period, but the admission rates declined while the use of advanced imaging in syncope-related ED visits remained substantially high despite the advances in research and availability of clinical guidelines. Future research is needed to rationalize healthcare utilization in syncope-related ED visits and precisely identify the high-risk population.

16.
Brain Inj ; 36(3): 353-358, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129403

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over the last decade advancements in computer processing have enabled the application of machine learning (ML) to complex medical problems. Convolutional neural networks (CNN), a type of ML, have been used to interrogate medical images for variety of purposes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential application of CNN in prognosticating patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Patients with moderate to severe TBI and evidence of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) were selected retrospectively. A CNN model was developed using a training subgroup and a holdout subgroup was used as a testing dataset. We reported the model characteristics including area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: We included a total of 38 patient, of which we generated 725 MRI sections. We developed a CNN model based on a modified AlexNet architecture that interpreted the brain stem injury to generate outcome predictions. The model was able to predict GOS outcomes with a specificity of 0.43 and a sensitivity of 0.997. It showed an AUC of 0.917. CONCLUSION: The utilization of machine learning MRI analysis for prognosticating patients with TBI is a valued method that require further investigation. This will require multicentre collaboration to generate large datasets.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesão Axonal Difusa , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Surg Educ ; 79(2): 492-499, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Correct identification of the surgical tissue planes of dissection is paramount at the operating room, and the needed skills seem to be improved with realistic dynamic models rather than mere still images. The objective is to assess the role of adding video prequels to still images taken from operations on the precision and accuracy of tissue plane identification using a validated simulation model, considering various levels of surgeons' experience. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted involving 15 surgeons distributed to three equal groups, including a consultant group [C], a senior group [S], and a junior group [J]. Subjects were asked to identify and draw ideal tissue planes in 20 images selected at suitable operative moments of identification before and after showing a 10- second videoclip preceding the still image. A validated comparative metric (using a modified Hausdorff distance [%Hdu] for object matching) was used to measure the distance between lines. A precision analysis was carried out based on the difference in %Hdu between lines drawn before and after watching the videos, and between-group comparisons were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The analysis of accuracy was done on the difference in %Hdu between lines drawn by the subjects and the ideal lines provided by an expert panel. The impact of videos on accuracy was assessed using a repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS: The C group showed the highest preciseness as compared to the S and J groups (mean Hdu 9.17±11.86 versus 12.1±15.5 and 20.0±18.32, respectively, p <0.001) and significant differences between groups were found in 14 images (70%). Considering the expert panel as a reference, the interaction between time and experience level was significant ( F (2, 597) = 4.52, p <0.001). Although the subjects of the J group were significantly less accurate than other surgeons, only this group showed significant improvements in mean %Hdu values after watching the lead-in videos ( F (1, 597) = 6.04, p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Adding video context improved the ability of junior trainees to identify tissue planes of dissection. A realistic model is recommended considering experience-based differences in precision in training programs.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Cirurgiões , Competência Clínica , Simulação por Computador , Dissecação , Humanos , Laparoscopia/educação , Estudos Prospectivos , Gravação em Vídeo
18.
Case Rep Dent ; 2022: 1379769, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36601645

RESUMO

A 13-year-old female patient with Noonan's syndrome, intra-oral periodontitis, and associated periodontal lesions is presented in this case report. The patient suffered early onset severe molar pattern periodontitis and recurrent intra-oral inflammatory lesions, pyogenic granuloma, and plasmacytosis, which were excised and controlled using a strict oral hygiene protocol based on long-term use of chlorhexidine-based products as auxiliary aid to regular home care and brushing.

19.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943656

RESUMO

Lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and pneumonia are causing many global health problems. The COVID-19 pandemic has directed the scientific community's attention toward performing more research to explore novel therapeutic drugs for pulmonary diseases. Herein, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry tentatively identified 44 compounds in frankincense ethanol extract (FEE). We investigated the antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of FEE against Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, isolated from patients with respiratory infections. In addition, its in vitro immunomodulatory activity was explored by the detection of the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In addition, its anticancer activity against the A549 lung cancer cell line and human skin fibroblast (HSF) normal cell line was studied. Moreover, the in vivo lung protective potential of FEE was explored histologically and immunohistochemically in mice using a benzo(a)pyrene induced lung damage model. FEE exhibited antibacterial and antibiofilm activities besides the significant inhibition of gene expression of TNFα, IL-6, and NF-κB. FEE also exerted a cytotoxic effect against A549 cell line. Histological and immunohistochemical investigations with morphometric analysis of the mean area percentage and color intensity of positive TNF-α, COX-2, and NF-κB and Bcl-2 reactions revealed the lung protective activity of FEE. This study outlined the promising therapeutic activity of oleoresin obtained from B. dalzielii in the treatment of different pulmonary diseases.

20.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 107, 2021 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease with multiple drivers and complex regulatory networks. Periostin (Postn) is a matricellular protein involved in a plethora of cancer types and other diseases. Postn has been shown to be involved in various processes of tumor development, such as angiogenesis, invasion, cell survival and metastasis. The expression of Postn in breast cancer cells has been correlated with a more aggressive phenotype. Despite extensive research, it remains unclear how epithelial cancer cells regulate Postn expression. METHODS: Using murine tumor models and human TMAs, we have assessed the proportion of tumor samples that have acquired Postn expression in tumor cells. Using biochemical approaches and tumor cell lines derived from Neu+ murine primary tumors, we have identified major regulators of Postn gene expression in breast cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Here, we show that, while the stromal compartment typically always expresses Postn, about 50% of breast tumors acquire Postn expression in the epithelial tumor cells. Furthermore, using an in vitro model, we show a cross-regulation between FGFR, TGFß and PI3K/AKT pathways to regulate Postn expression. In HER2-positive murine breast cancer cells, we found that basic FGF can repress Postn expression through a PKC-dependent pathway, while TGFß can induce Postn expression in a SMAD-independent manner. Postn induction following the removal of the FGF-suppressive signal is dependent on PI3K/AKT signaling. CONCLUSION: Overall, these results reveal a novel regulatory mechanism and shed light on how breast tumor cells acquire Postn expression. This complex regulation is likely to be cell type and cancer specific as well as have important therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...