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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247237, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339386

RESUMO

Abstract Novel coronavirus (nCoV) namely "SARS-CoV-2" is being found responsible for current PANDEMIC commenced from Wuhan (China) since December 2019 and has been described with epidemiological linkage to China in about 221 countries and territories until now. In this study we have characterized the genetic lineage of SARS-CoV-2 and report the recombination within the genus and subgenus of coronaviruses. Phylogenetic relationship of thirty nine coronaviruses belonging to its four genera and five subgenera was analyzed by using the Neighbor-joining method using MEGA 6.0. Phylogenetic trees of full length genome, various proteins (spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid) nucleotide sequences were constructed separately. Putative recombination was probed via RDP4. Our analysis describes that the "SARS-CoV-2" although shows great similarity to Bat-SARS-CoVs sequences through whole genome (giving sequence similarity 89%), exhibits conflicting grouping with the Bat-SARS-like coronavirus sequences (MG772933 and MG772934). Furthermore, seven recombination events were observed in SARS-CoV-2 (NC_045512) by RDP4. But not a single recombination event fulfills the high level of certainty. Recombination mostly housed in spike protein genes than rest of the genome indicating breakpoint cluster arises beyond the 95% and 99% breakpoint density intervals. Genetic similarity levels observed among "SARS-CoV-2" and Bat-SARS-CoVs advocated that the latter did not exhibit the specific variant that cause outbreak in humans, proposing a suggestion that "SARS-CoV-2" has originated possibly from bats. These genomic features and their probable association with virus characteristics along with virulence in humans require further consideration.


Resumo O novo coronavírus (nCoV), nomeadamente "SARS-CoV-2", foi considerado responsável pela pandemia atual iniciada em Wuhan (China) desde dezembro de 2019 e foi descrito com ligação epidemiológica à China em cerca de 221 países e territórios até agora. Neste estudo, caracterizamos a linhagem genética do SARS-CoV-2 e relatamos a recombinação dentro do gênero e subgênero dos coronavírus. A relação filogenética de 39 coronavírus pertencentes a seus quatro gêneros e cinco subgêneros foi analisada usando o método de Neighbour-joining usando MEGA 6.0. Árvores filogenéticas do genoma de comprimento total, várias proteínas (espícula, envelope, membrana e nucleocapsídeo), sequências de nucleotídeos foram construídas separadamente. A recombinação putativa foi testada via RDP4. Nossa análise descreve que o "SARS-CoV-2", embora mostre grande semelhança com as sequências de Bat-SARS-CoVs em todo o genoma (dando semelhança de sequência de 89%), exibe agrupamento conflitante com as sequências de coronavírus do tipo Bat-SARS (MG772933 e MG772934) Além disso, sete eventos de recombinação foram observados em SARS-CoV-2 (NC045512) por RDP4. Mas nem um único evento de recombinação preenche o alto nível de certeza. A recombinação está alojada mais em genes de proteína de pico, principalmente, do que no resto do genoma, indicando que o cluster de ponto de interrupção surge além dos intervalos de densidade de ponto de interrupção de 95% e 99%. Os níveis de similaridade genética observados entre "SARS-CoV-2" e Bat-SARS-CoVs defendem que o último não exibe a variante específica que causa surto em humanos, sugerindo que "SARS-CoV-2" tenha se originado possivelmente de morcegos. Essas características genômicas e sua provável associação com as características do vírus, juntamente com a virulência em humanos, requerem uma consideração mais aprofundada.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240219, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285585

RESUMO

Abstract Snow leopard (Panthera unica) is a felid which lives in the highly rugged areas of alpine regions in different mountain ranges of South and Central Asia. This solitary animal needs large spaces for its ranges but due to climate change and relatively faster rate of global warming in South Asian mountain ranges, its habitat is going to shrink and fragment by tree-line shifts and change in hydrology of the area. Vegetative modification of montane flora and competition with domestic goats will create its prey's population to decline along with a chance of a direct conflict and competition with the common leopard. Common leopard being more adaptable, grouped, and larger in size can be a significant stressor for a smaller and solitary snow leopard. Habitat would shrink, and snow leopard can possibly move upslope or northward to central Asian ranges and their predicted migratory patterns are unknown.


Resumo O leopardo-das-neves (Panthera uncia) é um felídeo que vive nas áreas altamente acidentadas das regiões alpinas, em diferentes cadeias de montanhas do sul e do centro da Ásia. A revisão atual tem o objetivo de abordar a questão da possível perda de hábitat do leopardo da neve em razão da interferência humana nas montanhas do sul e do centro da Ásia. Esse animal solitário precisa de grandes espaços para suas faixas, mas, devido às mudanças climáticas e à taxa relativamente mais rápida de aquecimento global nas cadeias montanhosas do sul da Ásia, seu hábitat vai encolher e fragmentar-se por mudanças nas linhas de árvores e na hidrologia da área. Este artigo teve o objetivo de rever vários estudos sobre os impactos das mudanças climáticas em um futuro próximo e distante sobre os hábitats do leopardo-da-neve. O estudo revelou que a modificação vegetativa da flora da montanha e a competição com cabras domésticas poderiam ocasionar na diminuição da população de suas presas, com a chance de um conflito direto e competição com leopardo comum. Leopardo comum sendo mais adaptável, agrupado e maior em tamanho pode ser um estressor significativo para um leopardo-da-neve menor e solitário. Conclusão: devido ao encolhimento do hábitat, o leopardo-da-neve pode, possivelmente, mover-se para cima ou para o norte, para faixas da Ásia Central com padrões migratórios não previstos.

3.
Int Med Case Rep J ; 14: 773-776, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815718

RESUMO

Background: Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is an idiopathic condition characterized by serous retinal detachment and/or retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) detachment, the condition associated with a fluid leak through the RPE into subretinal space. This article reports on an unusual case of CSCR following taking adulterated honey mixed with tadalafil powder. Case Presentation: A 38-year-old male, not known to have any medical illnesses, came to our ophthalmology clinic complaining of sudden onset of blurred central vision in the left eye for five days after taking an adulterated honey which was claimed to improve sexual performance. On taking a history, the patient denied taking any medications or past eye trauma or surgery. On detailed ophthalmologic examination, the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/80 in the left eye. Dilated fundus examination of the right eye showed a flat retina, normal macular reflex, healthy optic nerve head and the left eye showed blunt foveal reflex with neurosensory retinal detachment at the macula and subretinal fluid. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the left eye showed marked macular thickening, leading to the impression of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Four weeks after stopping the adulterated honey, BCVA improved to 20/20 in the left eye, with complete resolution of subretinal fluids. Conclusion: Our case adds to recently reported cases of a link between tadalafil and CSCR.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive decline of immune response in HIV patients makes them susceptible to frequent bacterial infections. High usage of antibiotics influences the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and worsens the clinical outcomes. In this study, the occurrence of drug-resistant genes in Gram-negative bacterial isolates from HIV patients in South India was analyzed. METHODS: A total of 173 Gram-negative bacterial (GNB) isolates from HIV patients were screened for antibiotic susceptibility profile using the Kirby-Bauer diskdiffusion method. Positivity of drug-resistant genes was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction method. RESULTS: In this study, 72.8% of bacterial isolates were obtained from urine specimens, and Escherichia coli (47.4%) was the predominantly isolated bacterium. Overall, 87.3% and 83.2% of GNB were resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefotaxime and ceftazidime, respectively, 56.6% were resistant to cephamycin (cefoxitin) and 43% to carbapenem (imipenem) antibiotics. Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL) production was noted among 79.5% of GNB isolates, followed by AmpC (57.1%) and Metallo ß-lactamases (37.3%). Molecular analysis revealed that ESBL genes such as blaTEM (94.1%), blaCTX-M (89.2%), and blaSHV (24.2%) were detected at higher levels among GNB isolates. Carbapenemase-producing genes such as blaOXA-48 (20%), blaOXA-23 (2.6%), and both blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-51 like genes (2.6%) and AmpC producing genes such as blaCIT (26.7%), blaDHA (3.6%), and blaACC (1.8%) were detected at low-level. CONCLUSIONS: This study concludes that ESBL producing genes are detected at high level among gram-negative bacterial isolates from HIV patients in South India.

5.
AIMS Public Health ; 8(4): 563-580, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786420

RESUMO

Objectives: Among medical students, depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) are key public wellbeing challenges that require epidemiological research. We aimed to evaluate potential sources of these psychological disturbances and assess the contribution of academic and non-academic life stressors in psychological morbidity among medical students. Methods: This exploratory questionnaire-based survey was conducted in a Saudi Arabian public sector medical college. A total of 231 medical students were enrolled and completed the depression, anxiety, and stress scale-21 (DASS-21) questionnaire. Results: More than half of the medical students, 129 (55.8%), had depression, 106 (45.9%) students had anxiety, and 87 (37.7%) students had stress. Academic achievement was the largest explanatory factor for depression and stress, whereas bodily appearance constituted the largest explanatory factor of anxiety among the study sample. Academic and non-academic stressors score was significantly associated with depression (adjusted Odds Ratio, aOR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.19), anxiety (aOR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.12), and stress (aOR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.08-1.17). Conclusions: Medical students have a high incidence of negative emotional states. These negative psychological states were explained by academic achievement and bodily appearance. The studied stressors influenced medical students' psychological wellbeing.

6.
Obstet Gynecol ; 138(6): 944, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794158
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775646

RESUMO

The present research work describes development of dual drug-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNPs) of anticancer therapeutics for the management of colon cancer. The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-functionalized LPHNPs co-loaded with 5-fluorouracil (FU) and Sulforaphane (SFN) were prepared by one-step nanoprecipitation method. Box-Behnken design was applied for optimizing the material attributes and process parameters. The optimized LPHNPs revealed particle size 198 nm, polydispersity index 0.3, zeta potential -25.3 mV, and drug loading efficiency 19% to 20.3% for 5FU and SFN, respectively. EGF functionalization on LPHNPs was confirmed from positive magnitude of zeta potential to 21.3 mV as compared to the plain LPHNPs. In vitro drug release performance indicated sustained and non-Fickian mechanism release nature of the drugs from LPHNPs. Anticancer activity evaluation in HCT-15 colon cancer cells showed significant reduction (p < 0.001) in the cell growth and cytotoxicity of the investigated drugs from various treatments in the order: EGF-functionalized LPHNPs > plain LPHNPs > free drug suspensions. Overall, the research work corroborated improved treatment efficacy of EGF-functionalized LPHNPs for delivering chemotherapeutic agents for the management of colon carcinoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
J Prosthet Dent ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740459

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Minimally invasive dentistry is a technique for the maximal preservation of healthy tooth structures and has been a focus of attention in dental research. However, a detailed bibliometric analysis focusing on research related to minimally invasive dentistry is lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this bibliometric analysis was to analyze leading countries and organizations and to identify the preferred journals, the most productive authors, and the most commonly used keywords in the field of minimally invasive dentistry. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The search was performed by using the Scopus database, and publications pertinent to the field of minimally invasive dentistry from 1994 to 2021 were identified. A bibliometric analysis with reference to citations and documents, authors, journals, and keywords was performed. A total of 391 articles published in Scopus indexed journals between 1994 and January 2021 were analyzed by using a software program. RESULTS: A continuing yet steady increase in research publications was identified, with a substantial increase in publications since 2013. The United States and Germany were the countries that published the most articles (98 and 46, respectively), articles that received 1877 and 806 citations, respectively. Cardiff University, UK, was the most productive organization that received 212 citations. The most highly cited articles were from the Q1 category. Blum from King's College London was the highest-cited author in this field. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable advancement has been made in minimally invasive dentistry, as demonstrated by the increase in the number of publications linked with collaboration among various authors, nations, and institutes. This citation analysis gives a perspective on the progress of research in the field of minimally invasive dentistry and allows identification of the most significant and pertinent research areas.

10.
World J Clin Oncol ; 12(9): 725-745, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631439

RESUMO

Secondary cancers of the liver are more than twenty times more common than primary tumors and are incurable in most cases. While surgical resection and systemic chemotherapy are often the first-line therapy for metastatic liver disease, a majority of patients present with bilobar disease not amenable to curative local resection. Furthermore, by the time metastasis to the liver has developed, many tumors demonstrate a degree of resistance to systemic chemotherapy. Fortunately, catheter-directed and percutaneous locoregional approaches have evolved as major treatment modalities for unresectable metastatic disease. These novel techniques can be used for diverse applications ranging from curative intent for small localized tumors, downstaging of large tumors for resection, or locoregional control and palliation of advanced disease. Their use has been associated with increased tumor response, increased disease-free and overall survival, and decreased morbidity and mortality in a broad range of metastatic disease. This review explores recent advances in liver-directed therapies for metastatic liver disease from primary colorectal, neuroendocrine, breast, and lung cancer, as well as uveal melanoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and sarcoma. Therapies discussed include bland transarterial embolization, chemoembolization, radioembolization, and ablative therapies, with a focus on current treatment approaches, outcomes of locoregional therapy, and future directions in each type of metastatic disease.

11.
J Family Community Med ; 28(3): 217-219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703383

RESUMO

Café au lait macules (CALMs), if solitary, are benign lesion with no clinical meaning, and are common in the general population. Multiple CALMs may be the hallmark of some disorders and need to be assessed by an interprofessional team. The diagnosis and evaluation of a patient with a suspected condition may include a team of pediatric neurologists, dermatologists, ophthalmologists, geneticists, and orthopedic surgeons. To evaluate the progression of the disease, an annual follow-up is required.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent decades focus of research has been toward an alternative antibacterial agent because of growing bacterial resistance and side effects of antibacterial agents. In the current study, the antibacterial activity of gold nanoparticles has been evaluated on selected human pathogens. METHODS: In this study, we used panchagavya (PG) to synthesize gold nanoparticles, and the resulting nanoparticles (PG-AuNPs) were characterized by several spectroscopic techniques. In addition, antibacterial activity of PG-AuNPs against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were studied by well diffusion method. RESULTS: The synthesis of AuNPs was affirmed by a colour change, which was further validated by UV-vis spectra with a maximum absorption peak at 527 nm. Bandgap energy was calculated as 2.13 eV by Tauc method from the UV result. The presence of amino acids and proteins in PG was responsible for the conversion of gold ions to AuNPs, according to FTIR analysis. (111), (200), (220), and (311) crystallographic planes were observed by XRD; further crystalline nature was validated by SAED analysis. The size and zeta value were found to be 53.29 nm and -9.8 mV respectively. Spherical shaped nanoparticles and elemental structure of PG-AuNPs were confirmed by HRTEM and EDS analysis. The antibacterial activity of PG-AuNPs showed the maximum and minimum zone of inhibition against K. pneumoniae (17.12 ± 0.14 mm) and B. subtilis (11.42 ± 0.58 mm). CONCLUSION: Antibacterial activity of PG-AuNPs was found to be strong against gram negative bacteria and moderate against gram positive bacteria. Based on the result, it was concluded that PG-AuNPs could be used to combat antibiotic drug resistance. Besides, in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies of PG-AuNPs should be conducted.

13.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579426

RESUMO

Herbal and traditional medicines can play a pivotal role in combating cancer and neglected tropical diseases. Ajuga bracteosa, family Lamiaceae, is an important medicinal plant. The genetic transformation of A. bracteosa with rol genes of Agrobacterium rhizogenes further enhances its metabolic content. This study aimed at undertaking the molecular, phytochemical, and in vitro biological analysis of A. bracteosa extracts. We transformed the A. bracteosa plant with rol genes and raised the regenerants from the hairy roots. Transgenic integration and expression of rolB were confirmed by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and qPCR analysis. The methanol: chloroform crude extracts of wild-type plants and transgenic regenerants were screened for in vitro antibacterial, antihemolytic, cytotoxic, anticancer, and leishmanial activity. Among all plants, transgenic line 3 (ABRL3) showed the highest expression of the rolB gene. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis confirmed the enhanced number of functional groups of active compounds in all transgenic lines. Moreover, ABRL3 exhibited the highest antibacterial activity, minimum hemolytic activity (CC50 = 7293.05 ± 7 µg/mL) and maximum antileishmanial activity (IC50 of 56.16 ± 2 µg/mL). ABRL1 demonstrated the most prominent brine shrimp cytotoxicity (LD5039.6 ± 4 µg/mL). ABRL3 was most effective against various human cancer cell lines with an IC50 of 57.1 ± 2.2 µg/mL, 46.2 ± 1.1 µg/mL, 72.4 ± 1.3 µg/mL, 73.3 ± 2.1 µg/mL, 98.7 ± 1.6 µg/mL, and 97.1 ± 2.5 µg/mL against HepG2, LM3, A549, HT29, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231, respectively. Overall, these transgenic extracts may offer a cheaper therapeutic source than the more expensive synthetic drugs.

14.
Oncogenesis ; 10(9): 61, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535639

RESUMO

Amplification of specific cancer genes leads to their over-expression contributing to tumor growth, spread, and drug resistance. Little is known about the ability of these amplified oncogenes to augment the expression of cancer genes through post-transcriptional control. The AU-rich elements (ARE)-mediated mRNA decay is compromised for many key cancer genes leading to their increased abundance and effects. Here, we performed a post-transcriptional screen for frequently amplified cancer genes demonstrating that ERBB2/Her2 overexpression was able to augment the post-transcriptional effects. The ERBB1/2 inhibitor, lapatinib, led to the reversal of the aberrant ARE-mediated process in ERBB2-amplified breast cancer cells. The intersection of overexpressed genes associated with ERBB2 amplification in TCGA datasets with ARE database (ARED) identified ERBB2-associated gene cluster. Many of these genes were over-expressed in the ERBB2-positive SKBR3 cells compared to MCF10A normal-like cells, and were under-expressed due to ERBB2 siRNA treatment. Lapatinib accelerated the ARE-mRNA decay for several ERBB2-regulated genes. The ERBB2 inhibitor decreased both the abundance and stability of the phosphorylated inactive form of the mRNA decay-promoting protein, tristetraprolin (ZFP36/TTP). The ERBB2 siRNA was also able to reduce the phosphorylated ZFP36/TTP form. In contrast, ectopic expression of ERBB2 in MCF10A or HEK293 cells led to increased abundance of the phosphorylated ZFP36/TTP. The effect of ERBB2 on TTP phosphorylation appeared to be mediated via the MAPK-MK2 pathway. Screening for the impact of other amplified cancer genes in HEK293 cells also demonstrated that EGFR, AKT2, CCND1, CCNE1, SKP2, and FGFR3 caused both increased abundance of phosphorylated ZFP36/TTP and ARE-post-transcriptional reporter activity. Thus, specific amplified oncogenes dysregulate post-transcriptional ARE-mediated effects, and targeting the ARE-mediated pathway itself may provide alternative therapeutic approaches.

15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 738459, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527656

RESUMO

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects outcomes of mothers and their offspring. This systematic review collated the worldwide literature on the prevalence rates of different types of IPV in pregnancy. Methods: Two reviewers independently identified cross sectional and cohort studies of IPV prevalence in pregnancy in online databases (PubMed, WOS and Scopus), selected and extracted data [participants' country, study quality, measurement tool (validation and purpose) and rates of IPV in pregnancy]. We considered a high quality study if it had a prospective design, an adequate sampling method, a sample size estimation, a response rate > 90%, a contemporary ascertainment of IPV in the index pregnancy, and a well-developed detailed IPV tool. We performed random effects meta-analysis and explored reasons for heterogeneity of rates. Results: One hundred fifty-five studies were included, of which 44 (28%) met two-thirds of the quality criteria. Worldwide prevalence of physical (126 studies, 220,462 participants), psychological (113 studies, 189,630 participants) and sexual (98 studies, 155,324 participants) IPV in pregnancy was 9.2% (95% CI 7.7-11.1%, I2 95.9%), 18.7% (15.1-22.9%, I2 98.2%), 5.5% (4.0-7.5%, I2 93.4%), respectively. Where several types of IPV were reported combined, the prevalence of any kind of IPV (118 studies, 124,838 participants) was 25.0% (20.3, 30.5%, I2 98.6%). IPV rates varied within and between continents, being the highest in Africa and the lowest in Europe (p < 0.001). Rates also varied according to measurement purpose, being higher for diagnosis than for screening, in physical (p = 0.022) and sexual (p = 0.014) IPV. Conclusions: IPV prevalence in pregnancy varies across countries, with one-quarter of mothers exposed on average globally. Routine systematic antenatal detection should be applied worldwide. Systematic Review Registration: identifier: CRD42020176131.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533747

RESUMO

Nephrotoxicity becomes a provoked problem as the kidneys are the target of many chemotherapies. For this reason, we aimed to study the protective effect of Galaxaura elongata extract (GE) against the vanadyl sulfate (Van) induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Forty Wistar albino rats (male) were divided into four groups (n = 10) as follows: control group: rats received 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Galaxa group: rats received GE at a dose (100 mg/kg orally) daily for 6 weeks. Van group: rats injected with Van at a dose (50 mg/kg i.p.) once weekly for 6 successive weeks. Galaxa + Van group: rats received GE at a dose (100 mg/kg orally) daily for 6 weeks concurrently with Van at a dose (50 mg/kg i.p.) for 6 weeks. Our results showed that Van significantly raised urea and creatinine serum levels as compared to the control group as well as disordered renal oxidative/antioxidant redox. Administration of GE with Van alleviated the adverse impact of Van over the kidney tissues. Furthermore, GE administration in Galaxa + Van group downregulates angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE1) mRNA expression, angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration, transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) mRNA expression and protein concentration and Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) mRNA expression as compared to Van group. Also, GE administration caused a noticeable upregulation of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expressions with a consequent decrease of DNA fragmentation % compared to Van group. The results of the current study show that simultaneous treatment with GE can alleviate nephrotoxicity caused by Van in diabetic rats. The GE treatment of the Van treated animals restored altered renal oxidative/antioxidant redox values towards normal and lessened fibrosis. These results are consistent with these effects being caused by interactions with the TGF-B/Smads and Nrf2/NF-κB signaling pathways.

17.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247237, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495154

RESUMO

Novel coronavirus (nCoV) namely "SARS-CoV-2" is being found responsible for current PANDEMIC commenced from Wuhan (China) since December 2019 and has been described with epidemiological linkage to China in about 221 countries and territories until now. In this study we have characterized the genetic lineage of SARS-CoV-2 and report the recombination within the genus and subgenus of coronaviruses. Phylogenetic relationship of thirty nine coronaviruses belonging to its four genera and five subgenera was analyzed by using the Neighbor-joining method using MEGA 6.0. Phylogenetic trees of full length genome, various proteins (spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid) nucleotide sequences were constructed separately. Putative recombination was probed via RDP4. Our analysis describes that the "SARS-CoV-2" although shows great similarity to Bat-SARS-CoVs sequences through whole genome (giving sequence similarity 89%), exhibits conflicting grouping with the Bat-SARS-like coronavirus sequences (MG772933 and MG772934). Furthermore, seven recombination events were observed in SARS-CoV-2 (NC_045512) by RDP4. But not a single recombination event fulfills the high level of certainty. Recombination mostly housed in spike protein genes than rest of the genome indicating breakpoint cluster arises beyond the 95% and 99% breakpoint density intervals. Genetic similarity levels observed among "SARS-CoV-2" and Bat-SARS-CoVs advocated that the latter did not exhibit the specific variant that cause outbreak in humans, proposing a suggestion that "SARS-CoV-2" has originated possibly from bats. These genomic features and their probable association with virus characteristics along with virulence in humans require further consideration.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quirópteros , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111917, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453899

RESUMO

In this paper, Magnesium Zinc Ferrite (MZF) nanoparticles (Mg0.8-xZnxFe2O4, where x = 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6) are successfully fabricated by combustion process. The prepared nanoparticles are characterized through XRD, FTIR, UV, SEM, EDS and TEM. It has been confirmed that the samples produced cubic spinel structure with crystal size in the range of 13-15 nm. From the ultraviolet spectrum, the optical band gap is calculated which ranges from 5.6 to 4.6 eV. TEM micrographs confirm the nanocrystalline nature of combustion derived ferrite nanoparticles with average particle diameter of 7-28 nm. Antibacterial studies confirmed that the nanoparticles are toxic to Pseudomonas aeruginosa consists of greatest zone of inhibition of 25 mm. The antibacterial and photocatalytic studies exhibited improved activity which is strongly influenced by the zinc doping. Photocatalytic degradation study reveal that the prepared nanoparticles function as perfect catalyst for degradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye and Textile Dyeing Waste Water (TDWW) under UV light, thus revealing their potential usage on organic pollutants.

19.
Saudi Pharm J ; 29(8): 843-856, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408545

RESUMO

The current study focuses on the development and evaluation of nano lipidic carriers (NLCs) for codelivery of sorafenib (SRF) and ganoderic acid (GA) therapy in order to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The dual drug-loaded NLCs were prepared by hot microemulsion technique, where SRF and GA as the drugs, Precirol ATO5, Capmul PG8 as the lipids, while Solutol HS15 and ethanol was used as surfactant and cosolvents. The optimized drug-loaded NLCs were extensively characterized through in vitro and in vivo studies. The optimized formulation had particle size 29.28 nm, entrapment efficiency 93.1%, and loading capacity 14.21%. In vitro drug release studies revealed>64% of the drug was released in the first 6 h. The enzymatic stability analysis revealed stable nature of NLCs in various gastric pH, while accelerated stability analysis at 25◦C/60% RH indicated the insignificant effect of studied condition on particle size, entrapment efficiency, and loading capacity of NLCs. The cytotoxicity performed on HepG2 cells indicated higher cytotoxicity of SRF and GA-loaded NLCs as compared to the free drugs (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the optimized formulation suppressed the development of hepatic nodules in the Wistar rats and significantly reduced the levels of hepatic enzymes and nonhepatic elements against DEN intoxication. The SRF and GA-loaded NLCs also showed a significant effect in suppressing the tumor growth and inflammatory cytokines in the experimental study. Further, histopathology study of rats treated SRF and GA-loaded NLCs and DEN showed absence of necrosis, apoptosis, and disorganized hepatic parenchyma, etc. over other treated groups of rats. Overall, the dual drug-loaded NLCs outperformed over the plain drugs in terms of chemoprotection, implying superior therapeutic action and most significantly eliminating the hepatic toxicity induced by DEN in Wistar rat model.

20.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 15: 1707-1715, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354346

RESUMO

Purpose: Dental fear is associated with the avoidance of dental visits and negative oral health outcomes. It is important to assess distribution of dental fear and preference for emergency dental treatment among adult population during COVID-19. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate dental fear and emergency dental treatment among adults in COVID-19 quarantine centers in Greater Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Male and female adults (N=606) in quarantine centers for COVID-19 participated in this cross-sectional study (June-July 2020). Dental Fear Survey was used to collect data on dental fear. The participants also provided their responses about emergency dental treatment/dental attendance patterns in addition to demographic information. Results: The mean DFS score of the sample was 39.08 ± 19.47, and 23.1% of the participants were a little fearful and 22.6% were highly fearful. About 36.8% reported that they would prefer to visit a dental office in case of dental emergency mostly for dental pain and fractured tooth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Only 10.4% of the participants reported visiting a dentist in less than 3 months, 35.8% in less than 6 months, 52.5% between 6 and 12 months and more, and 1.3% never visited the dentist. DFS scores significantly differed among participants who visited the dentist in less than 3 months (31.86 ± 14.57), less than 6 months (37.70 ± 18.57), between 6 and 12 months and more (40.78 ± 20.23), and never visited the dentist (65.75 ± 14.74) (P < 0.001). The timing of last dental visit (P < 0.001), female gender (P 0.039), and dental pain (P < 0.001) were the significant predictors of dental fear. Conclusion: Dental fear was common among adults with a predilection for the female gender. Increased dental fear was significantly related to dental pain and reduced dental attendance. Only one-third of adults were willing to perform emergency dental visits.

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