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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0255043, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613980

RESUMO

Majority of Pakistani soils are deficient in phosphorus. Phosphorus is usually applied in form of synthetic fertilizer. However integrated use of P from synthetic and organic sources can be more profitable and beneficial on sustainable basis. Field trials were conducted at research farm University of Poonch, Rawalakot, AJK, Pakistan for two consecutive years to check the comparative effects of synthetic fertilizer and organic manures applied alone and in combinations on the phosphorus use efficiency (PUE), wheat yield and yield components. Shafaq-06 cultivar of wheat was used as test cultivar. Ten treatments were included: (I) Control (P0) without application of fertilizer; (II) SSP @ 60 kg/ha (P60SSP); (III) SSP @ 90 kg/ha (P90SSP); (IV) SSP @ 120 kg/ha (P120SSP); (V) PM @60 kg/ha (P60PM); (VI) PM @90 kg/ha (P90PM); (VII) PM @120 kg/ha (P120PM); (VIII) SSP @30 kg/ha + PM @30 kg/ha (P30SSP+30PM); (IX) SSP @45 kg/ha + PM @45 kg/ha (P45SSP+45PM); (X) SSP @60 kg/ha + PM @60 kg/ha (P60SSP+60PM) which were laid out under the Randomized Complete Block Design. Significantly higher values for yield of grain (2397 kg/ha) was recorded with PM + SSP @ 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 each. Likewise, FPUE, PIR of wheat and AFPUE was quite higher with combined use of PM and SSP i.e. P60SSP+60PM treatment. Additionally, increase in PUE, wheat yield and yield components associated with combined treated plot would help to minimize the use of high cost synthetic mineral fertilizers and represents an environmentally and agronomically sound management strategy.

2.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(4): 11-12, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470190

RESUMO

AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by impaired gut-brain interaction. Considering the paucity of evidence in the Indian setting, the current study was conducted to determine the sociodemographics, clinical profiles, management practices, and patients' perception among newly diagnosed patients with IBS. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, single-visit, observational, non-interventional, epidemiological study conducted across 12 centres. The primary objective was evaluation of sociodemographic and clinical profiles. The key secondary objective was assessment of gastrointestinal symptom severity including evaluation of anxiety and depression using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) scores. Knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) were evaluated as an exploratory objective. RESULTS: Out of 300 enrolled patients, 120 (40%) were aged 31-45 years (mean age: 38.55±12.45 years), and 204 were men (68%). Overall, 40% of patients belonged to the upper-middle-class, with a Kuppuswamy score of 16-25. Most patients (91%) did not work in night shifts. Only 13% of patients performed more than recommended physical activity. Stress and food were the leading triggers for IBS (29%). Abdominal pain and diarrhoea as cardinal symptoms were reported by 43.3% and 33.0% patients, respectively. Borderline abnormal anxiety and depression were reported by 21.3% and 26.7% of patients, respectively. KAP assessment revealed that 56.0% of patients had poor knowledge, 26.3% had moderate knowledge, and 17.7% had good knowledge about IBS; nevertheless, 43% of patients maintained high levels of precaution towards managing symptoms. CONCLUSION: Given the limited knowledge about IBS in India among newly diagnosed patients, strategies to enhance awareness about the condition are warranted.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Gene ; 750: 144725, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360839

RESUMO

The small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) family plays a vital role in the regulation of plant growth and development. We identified 80 MdSAUR genes in this study. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the SAUR proteins from Arabidopsis, rice, and apple were divided into six groups. Of the 80 MdSAURs, 71 were randomly distributed along the 17 chromosomes, while the remaining genes were located along unassigned scafoolds. Among them, a comprehensive overview of SAUR gene family is presented, including gene structures, chromosome locations, duplication and selection pressure analyses, synteny and promoter analyses, and protein interaction. The expression profiles based on microarray data found that 80 genes showed increased expression levels in at least one tissue including seed, seedling, root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit 100daa, and harvested fruit. MdSAUR7 possibly regulate the development of flower organs, and MdSAUR15, MdSAUR24, and MdSAUR80 promote the growth of fruits by regulating cell division. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated the expression levels of 79 MdSAUR genes in leaves under exogenous IAA treatment. MdSAUR4, MdSAUR22, MdSAUR37, MdSAUR38, MdSAUR49, and MdSAUR54 were up-regulated after IAA treatment compared with the control, indicating that they may play specific roles in the IAA signaling transduction pathway. This work provided a foundation for further investigations for the functional analyses of SAURs in apple.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Malus/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA/genética , Plântula/genética
4.
Folia Med (Plovdiv) ; 62(1): 208-213, 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337918

RESUMO

Dental fluorosis changes the colour and/or structure of enamel, leading to an unaesthetic appearance. One of the main goals in the treatment is aesthetic improvement of the affected teeth. Two clinical cases of patients with white spot fluorosis lesions on frontal teeth are presented. All treated teeth are infiltrated with low-viscous light-curing resin (ICON, DMG). A significant improvement in the aesthetic appearance of all the treated tooth surfaces is visible immediately after resin infiltration, and in most of the teeth - a complete disappearance of the white spots. Resin infiltration is an alternative micro-invasive approach for treatment of white spot lesions of different origin. It allows a quick and natural recovery of the affected teeth.


Assuntos
Fluorose Dentária/terapia , Resinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Biotechnol Rep (Amst) ; 25: e00423, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993345

RESUMO

The study investigated the effect of three fungicides Bavistin®, Aliette®, and Biomagic® at the rate of 2 g/L were tested In vitro and In vivo to control dry root rot and their impact on yield were evaluated at the rate of 4 g/L against R. bataticola while varieties used were Karak-1, Karak-2, Karak-3, and Sheenghar. Disease severity was recorded lowest (19 %) and highest yield (1467 Kg/ha), plant height (47.5 cm), number of pods/plant (15.0) and number of grain/pods (1.66) were recorded in cultivar Karak-1. Among the fungicides drugs, the Bavistin®, significantly reduced the disease severity (5 %) and Kg/ha), highest plant height (64.1 cm), highest grain yield (1488 Kg/ha), number of pods/plant (24.5) and number of grain/pods (2.25). It is concluded that the integrated use of Karak-1 and Bavistin®, fungicide drugs gave promising results for controlling dry root rot of chickpea, and increased plant height, number of pods/plant and number of grain/pods.

6.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(13): 1951-1955, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784315

RESUMO

The olive (Olea europaea L.) is a worldwide famous tree crop having valuable commercial role due to nutritional as well as therapeutic benefits obtained from its edible oil. Eight varieties of Olea europaea L. fruits were obtained from three Agricultural research institutes located in different areas of Pakistan including Quetta, Lorallia and Zhob to extract and determine their oil contents by conventional method as solvent extraction (soxhlet apparatus). Statistical analysis showed significant (p = 0.002) difference in oil composition of collected plants. Highest amount (percentage) of oil was obtained from Gemlik variety (65%) from Lorallia and lowest oil content from Dolece-agogia variety (17.5%) collected from Quetta. Further research is under consideration to rule out best suitable factors including some soil and environmental factors to obtained more potential cultivars of Olea europaea in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Frutas/química , Paquistão , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 8(4)2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653014

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the phytochemical composition, heavy metals analysis and the antibacterial activity of six medicinal plants i.e., Terminalia chebula Retz (fruits), Aegle marmelos L., (fruits), Curcuma longa L., (rhizomes), Syzygium aromaticum L., (flower buds), Piper nigrum L., (seeds), Cinnamomum cassia L., (barks) and its two remedial recipes (recipe 1 and 2) used against diarrhea obtained from the local herbal practitioners (Hakeems). A preliminary phytochemical screening of the above-mentioned plants extract in methanol, chloroform, n-hexane and distilled water revealed the presence of various constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins by using standard procedures. The quantitative phytochemical studies shows that alkaloids, flavonoid and saponins were in maximum amount in Terminalia chebula. The concentration of Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe, Cr, Cu and Zn were investigated by using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The obtained analysis shows that Cr, Fe and Pb were present in the highest concentration in medicinal plants and their recipes. The antibacterial activities of the crude extract found in the recipes of methanol, chloroform, n-hexane and distilled water were analyzed by using agar well disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by broth dilution method against four bacterial strains, namely, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), respectively. The maximum zones of inhibition in methanol, water, chloroform and n-hexane extracts were seen in recipe 2 against Shigella (22.16 ± 0.47 mm), recipe 2 against Shigella (20.33 ± 0.24 mm), recipe 1 against Shigella (20.30 ± 0.29 mm) and recipe 2 against E. coli (30.23 ± 0.12 mm), respectively. Furthermore, the recipe extracts are more active against the tested bacterial strains than the extracts from individual plants. Therefore, it is concluded that the use of herbal plants and their recipes are the major source of drugs in a traditional medicinal system to cure different diseases.

8.
Int J Appl Basic Med Res ; 9(3): 148-153, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392177

RESUMO

Aims: This study was intended to assess the clinical profile of Indian diabetic patients with reduced gastrointestinal (GI) motility and to understand the role of itopride in addressing reduced GI motility (gastroparesis) symptoms and maintaining glycemic control. Material and Methods: Patients with established reduced GI motility (scintigraphy), with varying degree of GI symptoms, receiving itopride 150 mg as per physicians' discretion were enrolled. Clinical profile, changes in symptom severity, glycemic indices, tolerability, and quality of life (QoL) after 8-week therapy (Patient assessment of upper GI disorders-QoL [PAGI-QoL]) were assessed. Results: Mean ± standard deviation age of enrolled population (n = 41) was 51.8 ± 12.39 years. Average duration of gastroparesis since underlying etiology was 67.7 ± 59.76 months. Common symptoms reported at baseline were bloating (68.3%), postprandial fullness (61.0%), nausea (51.2%), early satiety (41.5%), heartburn (39.0%), and vomiting (9.8%). Itopride therapy resulted in significant improvement in all symptoms (P < 0.001), which correlated with improved QoL (PAGI-QoL score reduction: 13.8 ± 11.48; P < 0.0001). Moreover, significant improvement in glycemic indicators was also evident (mean change from baseline hemoglobinA1c -0.5 ± 1.18; fasting plasma glucose -15.3 ± 43.61; postprandial plasma glucose -24.6 ± 57.20). Conclusions: Itopride showed effectiveness in addressing symptoms of reduced GI motility in diabetics, with improved QoL. Significant improvement in glycemic indices was also evident posttreatment with itopride. This study sheds light on the role of prokinetics, not only for symptom relief but also for improving glycemic control in diabetic patients with reduced GI motility, thus providing a holistic approach for the management of these patients.

9.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 31(4): 541-543, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proposal writing before starting research study is the key component of the any research project and quality of the research depends upon how the proposal was designed and planned. Objectives of this study was to determine the frequency of most common errors in proposal writing by post graduate medical residents of College of physician and surgery of Pakistan (CPSP) at Peshawar. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried at Khyber College of Dentistry (KCD) Peshawar from August 2017 to May 2018. We conducted the reviewed of Form "S" of 43 proposals through convenience sampling. Each Form S consists of 34 questions. All the questions were dichotomous which were presented in the form of frequency and percentages. Data were analysed by SPSS-22. RESULTS: Out of 43 proposal, the result shows that 53.5% (n=23) of the candidates have not explained the introduction in their own words while suitable statistical tests were not mentioned in more than half of the 67.4% (n=29) proposal. References were not written in Vancouver style 51.2% (n=22) as well as hypothesis was not applicable in 62.8% (n=27) of the studies. However only 39.5% (n=60.5) of the trainees phrased the hypothesis properly. CONCLUSIONS: Majority of the candidates were unable to write the proposal according to the recommended guidelines. Application of the appropriate statistical measures was found as a challenge for the candidates. Similarly, objectives were not clearly defined in terms of SMART concept.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudantes de Odontologia , Redação , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisa em Odontologia , Humanos , Paquistão , Amostragem
10.
Braz J Microbiol ; 49 Suppl 1: 9-14, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739645

RESUMO

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria increase plant growth and give protection against insect pests and pathogens. Due to the negative impact of chemical pesticides on environment, alternatives to these chemicals are needed. In this scenario, the biological methods of pest control offer an eco-friendly and an attractive option. In this study, the effect of two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains (Bacillus sp. strain 6 and Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K) on aphid population and wheat productivity was evaluated in an aphid susceptible (Pasban-90) and resistant (Inqlab-91) wheat cultivar. The seeds were inoculated with each PGPR strain, separately or the combination of both. The lowest aphid population (2.1tiller-1), and highest plant height (85.8cm), number of spikelets per spike (18), grains per spike (44), productive tillers (320m-2), straw yield (8.6Mgha-1), and grain yield (4.8Mgha-1) were achieved when seeds were inoculated with Bacillus sp. strain 6+Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K. The grain yield of both varieties was enhanced by 35.5-38.9% with seed inoculation with both bacterial strains. Thus, the combine use of both PGPR strains viz. Bacillus sp. strain 6+Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K offers an attractive option to reduce aphid population tied with better wheat productivity.


Assuntos
Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus/fisiologia , Pseudomonas/fisiologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Dinâmica Populacional , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum/microbiologia , Triticum/parasitologia
11.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 393, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29692787

RESUMO

Plants face a combination of different abiotic stresses under field conditions which are lethal to plant growth and production. Simultaneous occurrence of chilling and drought stresses in plants due to the drastic and rapid global climate changes, can alter the morphological, physiological and molecular responses. Both these stresses adversely affect the plant growth and yields due to physical damages, physiological and biochemical disruptions, and molecular changes. In general, the co-occurrence of chilling and drought combination is even worse for crop production rather than an individual stress condition. Plants attain various common and different physiological and molecular protective approaches for tolerance under chilling and drought stresses. Nevertheless, plant responses to a combination of chilling and drought stresses are unique from those to individual stress. In the present review, we summarized the recent evidence on plant responses to chilling and drought stresses on shared as well as unique basis and tried to find a common thread potentially underlying these responses. We addressed the possible cross talk between plant responses to these stresses and discussed the potential management strategies for regulating the mechanisms of plant tolerance to drought and/or chilling stresses. To date, various novel approaches have been tested in minimizing the negative effects of combine stresses. Despite of the main improvements there is still a big room for improvement in combination of drought and chilling tolerance. Thus, future researches particularly using biotechnological and molecular approaches should be carried out to develop genetically engineered plants with enhanced tolerance against these stress factors.

12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 9-14, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-974335

RESUMO

Abstract Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria increase plant growth and give protection against insect pests and pathogens. Due to the negative impact of chemical pesticides on environment, alternatives to these chemicals are needed. In this scenario, the biological methods of pest control offer an eco-friendly and an attractive option. In this study, the effect of two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains (Bacillus sp. strain 6 and Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K) on aphid population and wheat productivity was evaluated in an aphid susceptible (Pasban-90) and resistant (Inqlab-91) wheat cultivar. The seeds were inoculated with each PGPR strain, separately or the combination of both. The lowest aphid population (2.1 tiller−1), and highest plant height (85.8 cm), number of spikelets per spike (18), grains per spike (44), productive tillers (320 m−2), straw yield (8.6 Mg ha−1), and grain yield (4.8 Mg ha−1) were achieved when seeds were inoculated with Bacillus sp. strain 6 + Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K. The grain yield of both varieties was enhanced by 35.5-38.9% with seed inoculation with both bacterial strains. Thus, the combine use of both PGPR strains viz. Bacillus sp. strain 6 + Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K offers an attractive option to reduce aphid population tied with better wheat productivity.


Assuntos
Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas/fisiologia , Bacillus/fisiologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum/microbiologia , Triticum/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Dinâmica Populacional
13.
Biomater Sci ; 5(7): 1204-1229, 2017 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28594019

RESUMO

Polydopamine is a dark brown-black insoluble biopolymer produced by autoxidation of dopamine. Although its structure and polymerization mechanism have not been fully understood, there has been a rapid growth in the synthesis and applications of polydopamine nanostructures in biomedical fields such as drug delivery, photothermal therapy, bone and tissue engineering, and cell adhesion and patterning, as well as antimicrobial applications. This article is dedicated to reviewing some of the recent polydopamine developments in these biomedical fields. Firstly, the polymerization mechanism is introduced with a discussion of the factors that influence the polymerization process. The discussion is followed by the introduction of various forms of polydopamine nanostructures and their recent applications in biomedical fields, especially in drug delivery. Finally, the review is summarized followed by brief comments on the future prospects of polydopamine.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Indóis/química , Nanoestruturas , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Polímeros/química , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacologia , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Polímeros/farmacologia , Engenharia Tecidual
14.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 1038, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27493649

RESUMO

The quantification of nitrogen (N) supplying capacity of organic amendments applied to a soil is of immense importance to examine synchronization, N release capacity, and fertilizer values of these added materials. The aims of the present study was to determine the potential N mineralization and subsequent nitrification of separate and combined use of poultry manure (PM), wheat straw residues (WSR), and urea N (UN) applied to a loam soil incubated periodically over 140 days period. In addition, changes in total soil N and carbon contents were also monitored during the study. Treatments included: PM100, WSR100, PM50 + WSR50, UN100, UN50 + PM50, UN50 + WSR50, UN50 + PM25 + WSR25, and a control (unfertilized). All the amendments were applied on an N-equivalent basis at the rate of 200 mg N kg(-1). Results indicated that a substantial quantity of N had been released from the added amendments into the soil mineral pool and the net cumulative N mineralized varied between 39 and 147 mg N kg(-1), lowest in the WSR and highest in the UN50 + PM50. Significant differences were observed among the amendments and the net mineral N derived from a separate and combined use of PM was greater than the other treatments. The net cumulative N nitrified (NCNN) varied between 16 and 126 mg kg(-1), highest in UN50 + PM50 treatment. On average, percentage conversion of added N into available N by different amendments varied between 21 and 80%, while conversion of applied N into NO3 (-)-N ranged between 9 and 65%, and the treatment UN50 + PM50 displayed the highest N recovery. Urea N when applied alone showed disappearance of 37% N (N unaccounted for) at the end while application of PM and WSR with UN reduced N disappearance and increased N retention in the mineral pool for a longer period. Organic amendments alone or in combination with UN improved organic matter buildup and increased soil N concentration. These results demonstrate the existence of substantial amounts of N reserves present in PM and WSR that can be utilized efficiently and effectively as potential N source for the management of nutrient poor soils and plant growth.

15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 122: 352-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26318970

RESUMO

Phytotoxic effects of parthenium residues incorporation and parthenium-infested rhizospheric soil on emergence and seedling growth of winter crops (wheat and canola) and weed species (wild oat and canary grass) were examined in different pot studies. In first experiment, parthenium whole plant residues were incorporated at 6 and 8 g kg(-1) soil five days prior to sowing. Pots without residues incorporation were maintained as control. In a second study, parthenium-infested rhizospheric soil collected from different depths (15 and 22.5 cm) and collar regions (horizontal distance away from plant trunk, 15 and 22.5 cm), was used as growing medium. Parthenium-free soil was used as control. Parthenium residues amendment as well as its rhizospheric soil was detrimental for emergence and seedling growth of all test species. Incorporation of parthenium residues reduced the final emergence of canola, wild oat and canary grass by 11-20%, 20-29% and 20-27%, respectively; however wheat emergence was unaffected. Moreover, seedling biomass of wheat, canola, wild oat and canary grass was reduced in the range of 41-48%, 53-61%, 31-45% and 30-45% by parthenium residues incorporation. In second study, soil collected from a rhizospheric depth of 15 cm and collar distance of 15 cm reduced the emergence and seedling growth by 15% and 40%, respectively averaged across different test species. Parthenium residues incorporation and infested rhizospheric soil increased the soil phenolics, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and nitrogen contents over control soils with the exception of pH that was declined. All test species manifested reduced chlorophyll and increased phenolic contents in response to parthenium residues incorporation and infested rhizospheric soil. The inhibition in emergence and seedling growth of all test species was associated with increase in phenolic contents. Parthenium residues incorporation at 8 g kg(-1) soil and upper parthenium-infested rhizospheric soil (15 cm soil depth and 15 cm collar distance) were more phytotoxic for all test species.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/toxicidade , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/normas , Asteraceae/química , Asteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizosfera , Estações do Ano , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química
16.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 166(2): 236-44, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25690516

RESUMO

The present study was undertaken to appraise the role of selenium priming for improving emergence and seedling growth of basmati rice. Seeds of two fine rice cultivars (Super and Shaheen Basmati) were primed with concentrations of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 105 µmol L(-1) selenium. Untreated dry- and hydro-primed seeds were maintained as the control and positive control, respectively. Selenium priming resulted in early commencement of emergence, triggered seedling growth irrespective of rice cultivar over untreated control, and was more effective than hydro-priming except at higher concentrations. Lower electrical conductivity of seed leachates, reduced lipid peroxidation, greater α-amylase activity, higher soluble sugars, and enhanced activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)) were observed in seeds primed with selenium. Rice seedlings derived from selenium-primed seeds exhibited more chlorophyll contents, while total phenolics were comparable with those of the control seedlings. The improved starch metabolism, greater membrane stability, and increased activity of antioxidants were considered as possible mechanisms responsible for such improvements in emergence and seedling vigor of rice mediated by selenium priming. Priming with selenium (15-60 µmol L(-1)) favored rice emergence and seedling growth. Nevertheless, soaking seeds in relatively concentrated (90 and 105 µmol L(-1)) selenium solution had overall detrimental effects.


Assuntos
Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Selênio/farmacologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 5: 8101, 2015 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25631923

RESUMO

Seed priming is a commercially successful practice, but reduced longevity of primed seeds during storage may limit its application. We established a series of experiments on rice to test: (1) whether prolonged storage of primed and non-primed rice seeds for 210 days at 25°C or -4°C would alter their viability, (2) how long primed rice seed would potentially remain viable at 25°C storage, and (3) whether or not post-storage treatments (re-priming or heating) would reinstate the viability of stored primed seeds. Two different rice cultivars and three priming agents were used in all experiments. Prolonged storage of primed seeds at 25°C significantly reduced the germination (>90%) and growth attributes (>80%) of rice compared with un-stored primed seeds. However, such negative effects were not observed in primed seeds stored at -4°C. Beneficial effects of seed priming were maintained only for 15 days of storage at 25°C, beyond which the performance of primed seeds was worse even than non-primed seeds. The deteriorative effects of 25°C storage were related with hampered starch metabolism in primed rice seeds. None of the post-storage treatments could reinstate the lost viability of primed seeds suggesting that seeds become unviable by prolonged post-priming storage at 25°C.


Assuntos
Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Preservação Biológica , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Brotos de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amido/metabolismo , Temperatura
18.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 65(11 Suppl 3): S100-4, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26878497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the treatment modalities of lateral epicondylitis in terms of pain relief. METHODS: The randomised controlled study was conducted at Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, Pakistan, from April 2013 to March 2014, and comprised cases of lateral epicondylitis. The patients were selected through consecutive sampling from the outpatient department and were randomly allocated to two equal groups; group A receiving corticosteroid injections, and group B receiving injection of platelet-rich plasma. The patients were followed up for three weeks to determine the effectiveness of intervention. RESULTS: The 102 patients in the study were divided into two groups of 51(50%) each. The over mean age was 33.9±10.3 years. Mean age of patients in the corticosteroid group was 34.2±10.2 years and in the other group it was 33.6±10.5 years. Mean baseline visual analogue score in group A were 6.5±1.2 and in group B it was 6.7±1.4. In group A, 74.5% of patients presented in moderate pain category and 25.5% presented in severe pain category. In group B, 70.6% presented in moderate with 29.4% presented in severe pain category. On follow-up, the mean pain score in group A was 4.0±2.6 and in group B it was 3.5±2.61. Group A showed effectiveness in 52.9% patients and group B showed effectiveness in 82.3% (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: PRP is an effective alternate to corticosteroid in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow).

19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(1): 441-9, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25081004

RESUMO

Little seed canary grass (LCG) is a pernicious weed of wheat crop causing enormous yield losses. Information on the interference and economic threshold (ET) level of LCG is of prime significance to rationalize the use of herbicide for its effective management in wheat fields. The present study was conducted to quantify interference and ET density of LCG in mid-sown (20 November) and late-sown (10 December) wheat. Experiment was triplicated in randomized split-plot design with sowing dates as the main plots and LCG densities (10, 20, 30, and 40 plants m(-2)) as the subplots. Plots with two natural infestations of weeds including and excluding LCG were maintained for comparing its interference in pure stands with designated densities. A season-long weed-free treatment was also run. Results indicated that composite stand of weeds, including LCG, and density of 40 LCG plants m(-2) were more competitive with wheat, especially when crop was sown late in season. Maximum weed dry biomass was attained by composite stand of weeds including LCG followed by 40 LCG plants m(-2) under both sowing dates. Significant variations in wheat growth and yield were observed under the influence of different LCG densities as well as sowing dates. Presence of 40 LCG plants m(-2) reduced wheat yield by 28 and 34% in mid- and late-sown wheat crop, respectively. These losses were much greater than those for infestation of all weeds, excluding LCG. Linear regression model was effective in simulating wheat yield losses over a wide range of LCG densities, and the regression equations showed good fit to observed data. The ET levels of LCG were 6-7 and 2.2-3.3 plants m(-2) in mid- and late-sown wheat crop, respectively. Herbicide should be applied in cases when LCG density exceeds these levels under respective sowing dates.


Assuntos
Phalaris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Biomassa , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Phalaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estações do Ano , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(5): 3342-60, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25354441

RESUMO

Global warming is one of the gravest threats to crop production and environmental sustainability. Rice, the staple food of more than half of the world's population, is the most prominent cause of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture and gives way to global warming. The increasing demand for rice in the future has deployed tremendous concerns to reduce GHG emissions for minimizing the negative environmental impacts of rice cultivation. In this review, we presented a contemporary synthesis of existing data on how crop management practices influence emissions of GHGs in rice fields. We realized that modifications in traditional crop management regimes possess a huge potential to overcome GHG emissions. We examined and evaluated the different possible options and found that modifying tillage permutations and irrigation patterns, managing organic and fertilizer inputs, selecting suitable cultivar, and cropping regime can mitigate GHG emissions. Previously, many authors have discussed the feasibility principle and the influence of these practices on a single gas or, in particular, in the whole agricultural sector. Nonetheless, changes in management practices may influence more than one gas at the same time by different mechanisms or sometimes their effects may be antagonistic. Therefore, in the present attempt, we estimated the overall global warming potential of each approach to consider the magnitude of its effects on all gases and provided a comprehensive assessment of suitable crop management practices for reducing GHG emissions in rice culture.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Oryza , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Gases , Efeito Estufa
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