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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 349: 12-29, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089816

RESUMO

The cholestatic liver injury could occur in response to a variety of diseases or xenobiotics. Although cholestasis primarily affects liver function, it has been well-known that other organs such as the kidney could be influenced in cholestatic patients. Severe cholestasis could lead to tissue fibrosis and organ failure. Unfortunately, there is no specific therapeutic option against cholestasis-induced organ injury. Hence, finding the mechanism of organ injury during cholestasis could lead to therapeutic options against this complication. The accumulation of potentially cytotoxic compounds such as hydrophobic bile acids is the most suspected mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of cholestasis-induced organ injury. A plethora of evidence indicates a role for the inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. Here, the role of nuclear factor-kB (NFkB)-mediated inflammatory response is investigated in an animal model of cholestasis. Bile duct ligated (BDL) animals were treated with sulfasalazine (SSLZ, 10 and 100 mg/kg, i.p) as a potent inhibitor of NFkB signaling. The NFkB proteins family activity in the liver and kidney, serum and tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tissue biomarkers of oxidative stress, serum markers of organ injury, and the liver and kidney histopathological alterations and fibrotic changes. The oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory-related indices were monitored in the kidney and liver at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, and 14 days after BDL operation). Significant increase in serum and urine markers of organ injury, besides changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and tissue histopathology, were evident in the liver and kidney of BDL animals. The activity of NFkB proteins (p65, p50, p52, c-Rel, and RelB) was significantly increased in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals. Serum and tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12, IL-17, IL-18, IL-23, TNF-α, and INF-γ) were also higher than sham-operated animals. Moreover, TGF- ß, α-SMA, and tissue fibrosis (Trichrome stain) were evident in cholestatic animals' liver and kidneys. It was found that SSLZ (10 and 100 mg/kg/day, i.p) alleviated cholestasis-induced hepatic and renal injury. The effect of SSLZ on NFkB signaling and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines could play a significant role in its protective role in cholestasis. Based on these data, NFkB signaling could receive special attention to develop therapeutic options to blunt cholestasis-induced organ injury.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colestase/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfassalazina/farmacologia , Animais , Colestase/metabolismo , Colestase/patologia , Ducto Colédoco/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Ligadura , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840140

RESUMO

Glucose oxidase is a subset of oxidoreductase enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from an oxidant to a reductant. Glucose oxidases use oxygen as an external electron acceptor that releases hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). Glucose oxidase has many applications in commercial processes, including improving the color and taste, increasing the persistence of food materials, removing the glucose from the dried egg, and eliminating the oxygen from different juices and beverages. Moreover, glucose oxidase, along with catalase, is used in glucose testing kits (especially in biosensors) to detect and measure the presence of glucose in industrial and biological solutions (e.g., blood and urine specimens). Hence, glucose oxidase is a valuable enzyme in the industry and medical diagnostics. Therefore, evaluating the structure and function of glucose oxidase is crucial for modifying as well as improving its catalytic properties. Finding different sources of glucose oxidase is an effective way to find the type of enzyme with the desired catalysis. Besides, the recombinant production of glucose oxidase is the best approach to produce sufficient amounts of glucose oxidase for various uses. Accordingly, the study of various aspects of glucose oxidase in biotechnology and bioprocessing is crucial.

3.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(6): 1191-1203, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527194

RESUMO

Cholestasis is a clinical complication with different etiologies. The liver is the primary organ influenced in cholestasis. Renal injury is also a severe clinical complication in cholestatic/cirrhotic patients. Several studies mentioned the importance of oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment as two mechanistically interrelated events in cholestasis-induced organ injury. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a flavoprotein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This molecule is involved in a distinct pathway of cell death. The current study aimed to evaluate the role of AIF in the pathophysiology of cholestasis-associated hepatic and renal injury. Bile duct ligation (BDL) was used as an animal model of cholestasis. Serum, urine, and tissue samples were collected at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, 14, and 28 days after BDL surgery). Tissues' AIF mRNA levels, as well as serum, urine, and tissue activity of AIF, were measured. Moreover, markers of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were assessed in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals. A significant increase in liver and kidney AIF mRNA levels, in addition to increased AIF activity in the liver, kidney, serum, and urine, was detected in BDL rats. DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were raised in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals, especially at the early stage of the disease. The apoptotic mode of cell death in the liver and kidney was connected to a higher AIF level. These data mention the importance of AIF in the pathogenesis of cholestasis-induced organ injury, especially at the early stage of this disease. Mitochondrial release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) seems to play a pathogenic role in cholestasis-associated hepatic and renal injury. AIF release is directly connected to oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in cholestatic animals.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010062

RESUMO

Pathogenesis of the beginning and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been clarified exactly. The osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) axis seems to play an imperative function in the onset and progression of this disease. The goal of the present study was to investigate the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) expression and plasma levels of RANKL and OPG cytokines in NAFLD patients and compare them with healthy group. Plasma levels of OPG and RANKL were determined with ELISA kits in 57 men with NAFLD and 25 healthy men as controls. Biochemical and anthropometric parameters tests were also evaluated in the study groups. RANKL and OPG mRNA contents were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. OPG contents were markedly decreased in NAFLD patients as compared with healthy patients [1.43 (1.05-5.45)] versus [2.94 (1.76-4.73)] ng/mL; P = 0.007). The levels of RANKL were significantly reduced in NAFLD patients [74.00 (56.26-203.52) ng/mL] than in healthy patients [119.37 (83.71-150.13) ng/mL]; (P = 0.03). Also, OPG and RANKL gene expression were significantly decreased in NAFLD patients in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that OPG may have a good capability to discriminate between NAFLD patients and normal individuals. A positive correlation was observed between OPG and RANKL in plasma sample (r = 0.495) (P = 0.000). Decreased plasma levels and gene expression of RANKL and OPG cytokines in NAFLD patients indicate that there is a relationship between these cytokines and the pathology of NAFLD disease. Confirmation of this association as well as the mechanism and role of these cytokines in NAFLD require further studies.

5.
Clin Pharmacol ; 12: 59-65, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607004

RESUMO

Aim: Opium addiction is a serious public health concern in the Middle East countries causing various illnesses. Opium use is associated with an increased risk of several cancers; however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully elucidated. Altered levels of adiponectin and its related main receptors, Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) have been associated with several malignancies. Opium users are at risk of various cancers. All together let us to the hypothesis that probable overexpression of AdipoRs in opium users might be linked to the occurrence of cancer in this population. Methods: One hundred opium users along with 100 healthy non-opium users were enrolled in the study. Opium users were followed up for 5 years (2014-2019) to evaluate the occurrence of malignancies. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expressions were measured using a flow cytometry method. Results: Expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was significantly higher in opium users compared with the healthy control group (P=0.0001 and 0.0001, respectively). Eight opium users developed cancer during the follow-up period. Subjects abusing opium developed cancer by 8.6 folds comparing to non-opium users (P=0.034; OR=8.6; 95% CI (1.06-70.1)). Expression of these two receptors was significantly higher in opium users developing cancer compared with cancer-free opium (P=0.001). Conclusion: Considering the significant overexpression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in opium users and in opium users who developed malignancies and the association between upregulation of these receptors in most cancers affecting opium users and assessment of AdipoRs may serve as an early detection tool of cancer in this population.

6.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(7): 5001-5012, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533401

RESUMO

Cyclophosphamide (CPA) is used in the management of autoimmune conditions and malignant illnesses. However, its therapeutic use is limited because of its severe side effects, especially hepatotoxicity attributed to oxidative stress. Nasturtium officinale R. Br (watercress or WC) has pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammation, and antioxidant activities. Therefore, the present study was design to assess effects of WC or its active ingredient, quercetin (QE), against CPA-induced hepatotoxicity. For this study, 49 male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were randomly selected and categorized into seven equal groups. The animals were pre- and post-treated with both hydroalcoholic extract of WC (500 mg/kg) and quercetin (75 mg/kg) for 10 consecutive days, and intraperitoneal administration of CPA (200 mg/kg) was performed on only day 10, one hour before the last dose of WC or quercetin. On day 11, all the animals were sacrificed, and their blood and liver were gathered for evaluation of the liver enzyme, hepatic oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes activity, and hematoxylin and eosin staining. CPA significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PCO) and nitric oxide (NO) levels and liver biomarkers. Otherwise, hepatic catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), total thiol content (tSH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were considerably lower than the control group. Results showed that WC has the ability to reduce the changes (MDA, PCO, FRAP, CAT, ALT and AST) and QE (MDA, PCO, AST) induced by CPA (p < 0.05). Histopathological finding confirmed the indicated results. These findings propose that WC and QE have protective effect against the CPA-induced hepatotoxicity by decreasing oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Nasturtium/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Imunossupressores/toxicidade , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Quercetina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
Toxicol Lett ; 330: 144-158, 2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422328

RESUMO

Cholestatic liver disease is a clinical complication with a wide range of etiologies. The liver is the primary organ influenced by cholestasis. Other organs, rather than the liver (e.g., kidneys), could also be affected by cholestatic liver disease. Cholestasis-induced renal injury is known as cholemic nephropathy (CN). Although the structural and functional alterations of the kidney in cholestasis have been well described, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of CN are not well understood. Some studies mentioned the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in CN. Several cellular targets, including proteins, lipids, and DNA, could be affected by oxidative stress. Poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is an enzyme that its physiological activity plays a fundamental role in DNA repair. However, PARP-1 overexpression is associated with enhanced oxidative stress and cell death. The current study was designed to evaluate the role of PARP-1 activity in the pathogenesis of CN. Bile duct ligated (BDL) rats were treated with nicotinamide (NA) as a PARP-1 inhibitor. Kidney, urine, and plasma samples were collected at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, 14, and 28 days after BDL surgery). Serum and urine biomarkers of kidney injury, markers of oxidative stress and DNA damage, PARP-1 expression and activity in the kidney tissue, inflammatory response, renal fibrosis markers, and kidney histopathological alterations were assessed. Significant changes in the serum and urine biomarkers of kidney injury were evident in the BDL rats. Markers of oxidative stress were increased, and tissue ATP levels and antioxidant capacity were decreased in the kidney of cholestatic animals. A significant increase in PARP-1 expression and activity was evident in BDL rats (3, 7, 14, and 28 days after BDL). Moreover, inflammatory response (IL-1ß and TNF-α expression; and myeloperoxidase activity), renal tissue histopathological alterations, and kidney fibrosis (α-SMA and TGF-ß expression, as well as collagen deposition) were detected in cholestatic animals. It was found that the PARP-1 inhibitor, NA (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p), significantly mitigated cholestasis-induced renal injury. The positive effects of NA were more significant at a lower dose and the early stage of CN. These data indicate a pathogenic role for PARP-1 overexpression in CN.

8.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 198(2): 744-755, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157632

RESUMO

FDA has approved iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) coated with organic compounds as a safe material with less toxic effects compared with the naked metal ions and nanoparticles. In this study, the biological and physicochemical characteristics of a nanostructured iron-polysaccharide complexes (Nano-IPC) biosynthesized by Enterobacter sp. were evaluated. Furthermore, the serum biochemical parameters, tissue iron level, red blood cell parameters, and organ ferritin of rats were measured for investigating the effect of the Nano-IPCs in comparison with FeSO4 as a supplement for iron deficiency. The biosafety data demonstrated 35% increment of viability in Hep-G2 hepatocarcinoma cell lines when treated with nanoparticles (500 µg/mL) for 24 h. Besides, iron concentration in serum and tissue as well as the expression of ferritin L subunit in animals treated with the Nano-IPCs supplement were meaningfully higher than the FeSO4-supplemented and negative control animals. Moreover, the expression level of ferritin H subunit and biochemical factors remained similar to the negative control animals in the Nano-IPC-supplemented group. These results indicated that Nano-IPCs can be considered as a nontoxic supplement for patients carrying iron-deficiency anemia (IDA).


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Enterobacter/metabolismo , Ferritinas , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos , Ratos
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 6623830, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33490247

RESUMO

Background and Aims: This study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial property of an injectable platelet-rich fibrin (I-PRF) scaffold containing triple antibiotic mixture against an Actinomyces naeslundii (A. naeslundii) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilm in an infected immature root canal model. Methods: A dual-species biofilm was inoculated inside the root canals via a series of centrifugal cycles. The samples were allocated to three experimental groups (i.e., G1: triple antibiotic mixture, G2: I-PRF containing triple antibiotic mixture, and G3: antibiotic-free I-PRF scaffold) and two control groups (G4: seven-day biofilm untreated and G5: bacteria-free untreated). Results: Bacterial gene quantification change and the overall reduction of live bacteria were evaluated. The highest antibacterial activity against A. naeslundii belonged to G2. However, G1 and G2 had similar antibacterial property against E. faecalis (p value = 0.814). In general, experimental groups revealed higher levels of antibacterial activity against E. faecalis than against A. naeslundii (p value < 0.001). Notably, G2 could dramatically decrease the number of live bacteria up to near 92%. Conclusions: The current study provides insight into the antibacterial property of an antibiotic-eluting I-PRF scaffold against a dual-species biofilm colonized inside the root canal. The fabricated scaffold contains not only the antibiotics but also the growth factors, which favor the regeneration.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar , Fibrina Rica em Plaquetas , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Actinomyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente Pré-Molar/microbiologia , Dente Pré-Molar/cirurgia , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
10.
Heliyon ; 5(7): e02072, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334381

RESUMO

Introduction: Acetaminophen (APAP) as an analgesic and antipyretic drug can result to liver damages while using more than 4 g/day. Therefore, APAP toxicity causes the liver to dysfunction. This study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of watercress (WC) in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and methods: Randomly, twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six each. Groups named as control, APAP, APAP + WC and APAP + S for group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Group 1 received distilled water 1 ml/kg for 7 days. In group 2, 3, and 4, rats pretreated by receiving distilled water (1 ml/kg), WC extract (500 mg/kg), silymarin extract (mg/kg) for 7 days, respectively. Of note, to induce acute hepatotoxicity in groups 2, 3, and 4, rats posttreated by orally intoxicated with single dose of APAP (2 g/kg) on the sixth day. The animals were sacrificed on the seventh day. Alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), protein carbonyl (PCO), total thiol (T-SH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in plasma. It should be noted that the chemical composition of WC extract was identified by GC-MS analysis. Results: The results have shown that there was a significant increase in AST, ALT, FRAP and PCO content in APAP group in comparison to control. Also, there was a significant reduction in T-SH levels and GPx activity in APAP group compared to control. However, administration of WC extract and silymarin not only causes a significant decrease in AST activity, but they markedly increased T-SH content and GPx activity compared to APAP group. GC-MS analysis showed the major compositions were found to be benzenepropanenitrile (48.30 %), Phytol (10.10 %), α-cadinene (9.50%) and linolenic acid (8.0). Conclusions: It is concluded that the WC extract reduces APAP-induced toxicity through its hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity in rats.

11.
Iran J Pharm Res ; 17(2): 535-542, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29881411

RESUMO

Organophosphate pesticides are considered as endocrine disruptors that interfere with reproductive functions. The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine gland that produces progesterone, a crucial hormone for a successful beginning and maintenance of pregnancy. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) facilitates the rate-limiting transfer of cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner organelle membranes. We investigated the effect of Diazinon (DZN), an organophosphate, on StAR mRNA expression by Sybergreen Real Time-PCR in a time-dependent manner in luteal phase. Fifty immature female Wistar rats (24-day-old) were injected with a single injection of Pregnant mare's Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) followed by a single injection of human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), 48 h later. Then, DZN was administered in a single dose (70 mg/kg bw, I.P), controls received only the vehicle, 12 h post-hCG injection. Ovaries were collected in 4 h. intervals from 8 to 24 h post-hCG injection. Then, hCG stimulation transcript levels of StAR gene were significantly altered in the hormone-stimulated rats following DZN treatment. In addition, histological study showed that the CL diameter in DZN-treated group was smaller than control group (p = 0.000). Our findings suggest that the critical step in the function of CL is disrupted by DZN and may correlates with female reproductive damage.

12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6842, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29717202

RESUMO

The objective of the present study is to conjugate L-thyroxine PEI derivative onto another PEI to compensate the amine content of the whole structure which has been utilized for the ligand conjugation. Since αvß3 integrin receptors are over-expressed on cancer cells and there is binding site for L-thyroxine on these receptors, PEI conjugation by L-thyroxine along with restoring the PEI amine content might be an efficient strategy for targeted delivery using polymeric nanoparticles. The results demonstrated the ability of the PEI conjugate in the formation of nanoparticles with the size of around 210 nm with higher buffering capacity. The conjugated PEI derivative increased the transfection efficiency in the cell lines over-expressing integrin by up to two folds higher than unmodified PEI, whereas in the cell lines lacking the integrin receptors there was no ligand conjugation-associated difference in gene transfer ability. The specificity of transfection demonstrated the delivery of plasmid DNA through integrin receptors. Also, the results of in vivo imaging of the polyplexes revealed that 99mTc-labeled PEI/plasmid DNA complexes accumulated in kidney and bladder 4 h post injection. Therefore, this PEI derivative could be considered as an efficient targeted delivery system for plasmid DNA.


Assuntos
Integrina alfaVbeta3/genética , Nanopartículas/química , Polietilenoimina/química , Transfecção/métodos , Animais , DNA/administração & dosagem , DNA/química , DNA/farmacocinética , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/farmacocinética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tamanho da Partícula , Plasmídeos/administração & dosagem , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/farmacocinética
13.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 346: 9-18, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574210

RESUMO

Side effects of methotrexate (MTX) especially hepatotoxicity limits clinical applications of this anticancer agent. Carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) is administrated for the treatment of elevated plasma concentrations of MTX. In this study, we have investigated the intracellular delivery of CPG2 fused to the transactivator transduction domain (TAT) and its protective effects against MTX-induced cell death of HepG2 cells. We have observed that both native and denatured forms of the enzyme transduced into the HepG2 cells efficiently in a concentration and time-dependent manner. The denatured protein transduced with higher efficiency than the native form and was functional inside the cells. MTX exposure significantly decreased HepG2 cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The cell viability after 24 and 48 h of incubation with 100 µM MTX was reduced to 44.37% and 17.69%, respectively. In cells pretreated with native and denatured TAT-CPG2 protein the cell viability was 98.63% and 86.31% after 24 and 48 h, respectively. Treatment with MTX increased the number of apoptotic HepG2 cells to 90.23% after 48 h. However, the apoptosis percentage in cells pretreated with native and denatured TAT-CPG2 was 21.49% and 22.28%, respectively. Our results showed that TAT-CPG2 significantly prevents MTX-induced oxidative stress by decreasing the formation of ROS and increasing the content of glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity. Our finding indicates that both native and denatured TAT-CPG2 strongly protect HepG2 cells against MTX-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Hence, intracellular delivery of CPG2 might provide a new therapeutic strategy for protecting against MTX mediated cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transativadores/farmacologia , gama-Glutamil Hidrolase/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
14.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 45(5): 1036-1044, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27357209

RESUMO

In the present investigation, polyethylenimine (PEI) was conjugated with succinic anhydride at four substitution degrees and the efficiency of the modified PEI derivatives in transferring the plasmid encoding interleukin-12 gene was evaluated. The results revealed that the conjugated PEI derivatives enhanced the transfection efficiency by up to 3-fold relative to unmodified PEI, with the highest increase occurring at conjugation degrees around 30%. The results demonstrated the ability of the modified PEI derivatives in condensation of the plasmid into the nanoparticles in the size range of approximately 100 nm. Also, the PEI derivatives exhibited substantial decrease in cell-induced toxicity.


Assuntos
Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/genética , Nanopartículas/química , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/genética , Polietilenoimina/química , Transfecção , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/toxicidade , Eritrócitos/citologia , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoimina/toxicidade
15.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 150: 426-436, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27847224

RESUMO

Targeted delivery by polymer-based nanoparticles has been considered as an efficient approach to transfer genetic materials into cells. Considering the over expression of integrin αVß3 receptor on tumor cells and the presence of the binding site for tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) on integrin receptor, we hypothesized that the conjugation of tetrac to polyethylenimine (PEI) might be an effective strategy for pDNA delivery into the cells over-expressing integrins on their surfaces. In order to test the hypothesis, tetrac conjugated PEI/plasmid DNA complexes were prepared and their ability in the delivery of plasmid encoding IL-12 gene was investigated. Moreover, the conjugates were characterized with respect to plasmid DNA condensation ability, particle size and zeta potential as well as cell-induced toxicity and plasmid protection against DNase degradation. The results demonstrated that tetrac conjugated derivatives of PEI were able to condense the plasmid and protect it against enzyme degradation. The results of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the formed nanoparticles were in the size range of 85-125nm. The highest level of IL-12 gene expression was achieved by terac-conjugated PEIs at the carrier to plasmid ratio of 8 where they could increase the level of gene expression up to 4 fold in the cell lines over-expressing integrin αVß3 receptor whereas no increase in the level of IL-12 expression in the cell lines lacking integrin receptors was observed. Also, the results of the competitive inhibition of the receptors demonstrated the specificity of transfection for the cells over expressing αvß3 receptor. On the other hand, tetrac conjugation of PEI significantly reduced the polymer-induced apoptotic effects. The results obtained in this investigation suggest the potential of tetrac as a small molecule mimicking the binding properties of integrin binding peptides (e.g., RGD) for targeted gene delivery.


Assuntos
Integrinas/química , Subunidade p35 da Interleucina-12/química , Polietilenoimina/química , Tiroxina/análogos & derivados , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Integrina alfaVbeta3/química , Integrina alfaVbeta3/genética , Integrinas/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Subunidade p35 da Interleucina-12/genética , Luz , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Peptídeos/química , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Polímeros/química , Espalhamento de Radiação , Tiroxina/química , Transfecção
16.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 179(2): 251-69, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26801817

RESUMO

Recombinant therapeutic proteins have been considered as an efficient category of medications used for the treatment of various diseases. Despite their effectiveness, there are some reports on the systemic adverse effects of recombinant therapeutic proteins limiting their wide clinical applications. Among different cytokines used for cancer immunotherapy, interleukin-12 (IL-12) has shown great ability as a powerful antitumor and antiangiogenic agent. However, significant toxic reactions following the systemic administration of IL-12 have led researchers to seek for alternative approaches such as the delivery and local expression of the IL-12 gene inside the tumor tissues. In order to transfer the plasmid encoding IL-12 gene, the most extensively investigated polycationic polymer, polyethylenimine (PEI), was modified by diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) to modulate the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of the polymer as well as its toxicity. DTPA-conjugated PEI derivatives were able to form complexes in the size range around 100-180 nm with great condensation ability and protection of the plasmid against enzymatic degradation. The highest gene transfer ability was achieved by the DTPA-conjugated PEI at the conjugation degree of 0.1 % where the level of IL-12 production increased up to twofold compared with that of the unmodified PEI. Results of the present study demonstrated that modulation of the surface positive charge of PEI along with the improvement of the polymer hydrophobic balance could be considered as a successful strategy to develop safe and powerful nanocarriers.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Interleucina-12/genética , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/terapia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Vetores Genéticos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Interleucina-12/biossíntese , Interleucina-12/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/genética , Tamanho da Partícula , Ácido Pentético/química , Ácido Pentético/uso terapêutico , Plasmídeos , Polietilenoimina/química , Polietilenoimina/uso terapêutico
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