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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245867, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285615

RESUMO

Abstract Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Resumo Os cães ferozes são caçadores bem organizados de ungulados em muitas partes do mundo, causando grandes danos à população de animais selvagens e, em última instância, ao ecossistema. No Paquistão, os impactos dos cães selvagens na vida selvagem ainda não foram documentados. Em um período de 15 anos (2006-2020), cães selvagens mataram centenas de markhor ameaçados no parque nacional Chitral gol (CGNP), Paquistão. Apesar da predação direta, outros impactos, incluindo distúrbios e competições com outros predadores naturais podem comprometer os esforços de conservação e manejo. A população de cães selvagens parece ter aumentado com o aumento dos locais de despejo pelas comunidades. Nossas descobertas sugerem que há necessidades urgentes para controlar a população de cães selvagens e erradicá-los da zona central do CGNP e das comunidades-tampão vizinhas. O abate convencional de cães deve ser combinado com técnicas modernas como castração e esterilização. As comunidades devem ser educadas sobre o meio ambiente limpo, o descarte adequado de resíduos domésticos e a conservação da biodiversidade.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246514, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285640

RESUMO

Abstract The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey's medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.


Resumo O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236496, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249245

RESUMO

Abstract Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (the skittering frog) is one of the most widespread species in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to know the presence of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis in urban and rural areas of Lower Dir, the North-western Pakistan. A total of 33 frogs were collected, including 15 from rural and 18 from urban areas. The frogs were caught by hands covered with gloves instead of using nets. The collection was managed from August to October 2016 and from April to May 2018. Morphometric analysis, coloration as well as photographs of the frogs have been provided in detail. Skittering frogs were seen frequent in swampy areas near the water bodies. These frogs were mostly seen after sunset.


Resumo Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (a rã que desliza) é uma das espécies mais comuns no Paquistão. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a presença de Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis em áreas urbanas e rurais de Lower Dir, noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 33 sapos foram coletados, incluindo 15 de áreas rurais e 18 de áreas urbanas. As rãs foram apanhadas com as mãos cobertas com luvas em vez de redes. A coleta foi gerenciada de agosto a outubro de 2016 e de abril a maio de 2018. Análises morfométricas, coloração e também fotografias das rãs foram fornecidas em detalhes. Rãs saltitantes foram vistas freqüentemente em áreas pantanosas próximas aos corpos d'água. Essas rãs eram vistas principalmente após o pôr do sol.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e225092, 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249256

RESUMO

Abstract A new species of the genus Lutziella (Rohde, 1966) Yamaguti, 1971 is described here and named Lutziella swatensis sp.nov. from the liver of rat (Rattus rattus L.). The new species is characterized by having body flat, smooth, longer than broad with maximum width at the level of the ovary, oral sucker with weak musculature, pharynx small; eosophagus long; caeca of irregular shape which bifurcate on the anterior border of the ovary in to unequal portions, acetabulum weakly muscular, post-testicular, testes lobed, cirrus pouch somewhat median, small in size containing winding seminal vesicle, prostatic complex and short ejaculatory duct. Genital pore median. Ovary post testicular, submedian; seminal receptacle overlapping ovary, laurer's canal present. Vitellaria follicular extending on each side from almost the level of testes to anterior portion of posterior half of the body. Uterus filled with eggs occupying most of the body, eggs oval rather small, numerous, brownish in colour, excretory vesicle tubular with terminal pore. Lutziella swatensis n. sp. is the second species of the genus known from Pakistan as well as the second species described from murid rodents in the world.


Resumo Uma nova espécie do gênero Lutziella (Rohde, 1966) Yamaguti, 1971 é descrita aqui e denominada Lutziella swatensis sp.nov. do fígado do rato (Rattus rattus L.). A nova espécie é caracterizada por ter corpo liso, liso, mais longo que largo com largura máxima ao nível do ovário, otário oral com musculatura débil, faringe pequena; eosôfago longo; ceco de forma irregular que se bifurca na borda anterior do ovário em porções desiguais, acetábulo fracamente muscular, pós-testicular, testículos lobados, bolsa cirrus um pouco mediana, pequeno em tamanho contendo vesícula seminal sinuosa, complexo prostático e ducto ejaculatório curto. Mediana dos poros genitais. Ovário pós testicular, submediano; ovário sobreposto do receptáculo seminal, canal de laurer presente. Vitellaria folicular que se estende de cada lado de quase o nível dos testículos para a porção anterior da metade posterior do corpo. Útero cheio de ovos que ocupam a maior parte do corpo, oval ovos bastante pequenos, numerosos, de cor acastanhada, vesícula excretor tubular com poro terminal. Lutziella swatensis n. sp. é a segunda espécie do gênero conhecida do Paquistão, bem como a segunda espécie descrita de roedores do mundo.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e249971, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278485

RESUMO

Abstract Stunting is a significant public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. This study assessed the prevalence of stunting and associated risk factors of stunting among preschool and school-going children in flood-affected areas of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting 656 households through multi-stage sampling. Respondent's anthropometric measurements, socio-demographic information and sanitation facilities were explored. A logistic regression model was used to determine determinants of stunting, controlling for all possible confounders. The overall prevalence of stunting in children was 40.5%, among children 36.1% boys and 46.3% of girls were stunted. The prevalence of stunting in under-five children was 50.7%. Female children (OR=1.35, 95% CI:0.94-2.0), children aged 13-24 months (OR=6.5, 95% CI: 3.0-13.9), mothers aged 15-24 years (OR=4.4, 95% CI: 2.6-7.2), joint family (OR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.4-3.0) did not have access to improved drinking water (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.9), and the toilet facility (OR=2.8, 95% CI, 1.9-4.3), while the children from district Nowshera (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2) were significantly (P<0.05) associated in univariate analysis. The regression model revealed that child age, maternal age, family type, quality of water, and toilet facility, were the significant (P<0.05) factors contributing to child stunting in the flood-hit areas. Identification of key factors might be helpful for policymakers in designing comprehensive community-based programs for the reduction of stunting in flood-affected areas. In disasters such as flood, the detrimental consequences of the stunting problem could be even more on children. Evidence-based education and care must be provided to the families in the flood-affected regions to reduce the stunting problem. The determinants of stunting should be targeted by making comprehensive policies regarding proper nutrition, livelihood, clean water, and sanitation facilities in flood-hit regions.


Resumo A baixa estatura é um problema significativo de saúde pública em países de baixa e média renda. Este estudo avaliou a prevalência de nanismo e os fatores de risco associados de nanismo entre crianças em idade pré-escolar e em idade escolar em áreas afetadas por inundações do Paquistão. Foi realizado um estudo transversal visitando 656 domicílios por meio de amostragem em múltiplos estágios. As medidas antropométricas do entrevistado, informações sociodemográficas e instalações de saneamento foram exploradas. Um modelo de regressão logística foi usado para determinar os determinantes do nanismo, controlando todos os possíveis fatores de confusão. A prevalência geral de baixa estatura em crianças foi de 40,5%, entre as crianças 36,1% dos meninos e 46,3% das meninas com baixa estatura. A prevalência de baixa estatura em crianças menores de 5 anos foi de 50,7%. Crianças do sexo feminino (OR = 1,35, IC de 95%: 0,94-2,0), crianças de 13-24 meses (OR = 6,5, IC de 95%: 3,0-13,9), mães de 15-24 anos (OR = 4,4, IC de 95%: 2,6-7,2), família conjunta (OR = 2,1, IC 95%: 1,4-3,0) não tiveram acesso a água potável de qualidade (OR = 3,3, IC 95%: 1,9-5,9) e a banheiro (OR = 2,8, IC de 95%, 1,9-4,3), enquanto as crianças do distrito de Nowshera (OR = 1,7, IC de 95%: 0,9-3,2) foram significativamente (P < 0,05) associadas na análise univariada. O modelo de regressão revelou que a idade da criança, idade materna, tipo de família, qualidade da água e banheiro foram os fatores significativos (P < 0,05) que contribuíram para a baixa estatura infantil nas áreas afetadas pelas enchentes. A identificação de fatores-chave pode ser útil para os formuladores de políticas no planejamento de programas comunitários abrangentes para a redução da baixa estatura em áreas afetadas pelas enchentes. Em desastres como enchentes, as consequências prejudiciais do problema de baixa estatura podem ser ainda maiores para as crianças. Educação baseada em evidências e cuidados deve ser fornecida às famílias nas regiões afetadas pelas enchentes para reduzir o problema de nanismo. Os determinantes do retardo de crescimento devem ser almejados pela formulação de políticas abrangentes sobre nutrição adequada, meios de subsistência, água potável e instalações de saneamento nas regiões afetadas pelas enchentes.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236494, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278489

RESUMO

Abstract Sucking pests are major threat to cotton field crop which cause unbearable losses to the crop yield. Aim of the current study was to record seasonal dynamics of major sucking insect pests including whitefly, jassid, thrips and their natural arthropod predators i.e. green lacewings and spiders in cotton field plots. The effects of surrounding field crops on pests' density and predatory efficiency of predators were also recorded. For sampling and survey of insects, the visual counting was found to be the most efficient method for recording the abundance of insects, trailed by net sweeping and tapping. Whitefly was the most dominant sucking pest found on the vegetative stage of cotton, followed by jassid and thrips. Fluctuated populations of predatory arthropods, spiders and green lacewings were also recorded during whole cropping season however, the densities of pests and predators varied with crop phenology. Spiders' population was encouraging at both vegetative and flowering stage and also the same trend of jassid and whitefly were observed at both stages of the crop. Surrounding habitats showed non-significant effect on population densities of insect pests and predators. For abiotic factors, the spiders showed strong positive correlation with humidity and temperature. However, green lacewing was only positively correlated with humidity. On the other hand, the populations of whitefly, jassid and thrips showed non-significant correlation with both temperature and humidity. Overall densities of sucking insect pests were found above economic threshold level. The plant age, crop stage and surrounding habitats effect on the population fluctuation of pests as well as the predators' abundance. The future studies are also warranted to investigate the altered habitats and multiple trap cropping to find out their impact on unattended insect predators and parasitoids in cotton crop.


Resumo As pragas sugadoras são uma grande ameaça para a cultura do algodão, causando perdas insuportáveis no rendimento da cultura. O objetivo do estudo atual foi registrar a dinâmica sazonal das principais pragas de insetos sugadores, incluindo mosca-branca, jassid, tripes e seus artrópodes predadores naturais, ou seja, crisopídeos e aranhas verdes em parcelas de algodão. Os efeitos das plantações circundantes na densidade de pragas e na eficiência predatória de predadores também foram registrados. Para amostragem e pesquisa de insetos, a contagem visual foi considerada o método mais eficiente para registrar a abundância de insetos, seguido por varredura e batida de rede. A mosca-branca foi a praga sugadora mais dominante encontrada na fase vegetativa do algodoeiro, seguida pelo jassid e tripes. Populações flutuantes de artrópodes predadores, aranhas e crisálidas também foram registradas durante toda a safra, no entanto as densidades de pragas e predadores variaram com a fenologia da cultura. A população de aranhas foi encorajadora tanto na fase vegetativa como na floração e também a mesma tendência de jassid e mosca-branca foi observada em ambas as fases da cultura. Os habitats circundantes mostraram efeito não significativo nas densidades populacionais de insetos-praga e predadores. Para os fatores abióticos, as aranhas apresentaram forte correlação positiva com umidade e temperatura. No entanto, lacewing verde foi apenas positivamente correlacionado com a umidade. Por outro lado, as populações de mosca-branca, jassid e tripes apresentaram correlação não significativa com temperatura e umidade. As densidades gerais de pragas sugadoras de insetos foram encontradas acima do nível do limiar econômico. A idade da planta, o estágio da cultura e os habitats circundantes afetam a flutuação populacional de pragas, bem como a abundância de predadores. Os estudos futuros também são necessários para investigar os habitats alterados e cultivo com armadilhas múltiplas para descobrir seu impacto sobre predadores de insetos e parasitoides desacompanhados na cultura do algodão.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e241110, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278500

RESUMO

Abstract Plasmodium vivax is the most common human malaria parasite in Asian countries including Pakistan. Present study was designed to explore the genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax genotypes based on Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3βgenes using allelic specific nested PCR and RFLP assays markers from field isolates in district Mardan, Pakistan. Blood samples of 200 P. vivax malarial patients were collected after taking their written informed consent. Genetic diversity in nested PCR products was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) utilizing Alu1 and PstI restriction enzymes for alpha and beta gene products digestion, respectively. For analysis the genetic diversity of the sub allelic variants of Pvmsp3α and Pvmsp3β genes, Chi-Square test was performed by utilizing Minitab programming software 18. The P value 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. For Pvmsp-3α genes after gel electrophoresis of digested products, four distinct genotypes were obtained from total of 50 samples; type A: 35 (70%) (1.5-2.0 kb), 12 of type B (24%) (1.5-1.7 kb), 2 of type C (4%) (0.5-1.5) and one for type D (2%) (0.5-0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 9 allelic pattern (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), in which A3 remained the most predominant. For Pvmsp-3βgenes, three distinct genotypes were obtained from 50 samples; 40(80%) of type A (1.5-2.5 kb), 9 (18%) of type B (1.0-1.5kb) and 1(2%) of type C (0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 6 allelic patterns (A1-A3, B1-B2, and C1). Most dominant one in Type A was A1 alleles which were noted (46%), while in Type B, the most dominant were B1 (10%).This study is the first ever report of molecular epidemiology and genetic variation in Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3β genes of P. vivax isolates by using PCR/RFLP from District Mardan and showed a remarkable level of genetic diversity in the studied genes of circulating parasites in the study area. The results of this study will contribute in future studies about the genetic structure of parasite and vaccine development against the malaria.


Resumo O Plasmodium vivax é o parasita da malária humana mais comum nos países asiáticos, incluindo o Paquistão. O presente estudo foi desenhado para explorar a diversidade genética de genótipos de Plasmodium vivax baseados nos genes Pvmsp-3α e Pvmsp-3β, usando marcadores de ensaios alélicos nested PCR e RFLP de isolados de campo no distrito de Mardan, Paquistão. Amostras de sangue de 200 pacientes com malária por P. vivax foram coletadas após assinatura do termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido. A diversidade genética em produtos de PCR nested foi determinada por polimorfismo de fragmento de restrição (RFLP) utilizando as enzimas de restrição Alu1 e PstI para a digestão dos produtos dos genes alfa e beta, respectivamente. Para análise da diversidade genética das variantes subalélicas dos genes Pvmsp3α e Pvmsp3β, o teste Qui-quadrado foi realizado utilizando o software de programação Minitab 18. O valor P = 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Para os genes Pvmsp-3α, após eletroforese em gel de produtos digeridos, quatro genótipos distintos foram obtidos de um total de 50 amostras; tipo A: 35 (70%) (1,5-2,0 kb), 12 do tipo B (24%) (1,5-1,7 kb), 2 do tipo C (4%) (0,5-1,5) e um para o tipo D (2%) (0,5-0,65 kb), que podem ser caracterizados em nove padrões alélicos (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), em que A3 permaneceu como o mais predominante. Para Pvmsp-3βgenes, três genótipos distintos foram obtidos a partir de 50 amostras; 40 (80%) do tipo A (1,5-2,5 kb), 9 (18%) do tipo B (1,0-1,5 kb) e 1 (2%) do tipo C (0,65 kb), que podem ser caracterizados em seis padrões alélicos (A1-A3, B1-B2 e C1). Os mais dominantes no tipo A foram o alelo A1, observados em 46%, enquanto, no tipo B, os mais dominantes foram B1 (10%). Este estudo é o primeiro relato de epidemiologia molecular e variação genética em Pvmsp-3α. Os genes Pvmsp-3β de isolados de P. vivax utilizando PCR/RFLP do Distrito Mardan mostraram um nível notável de diversidade genética nos genes estudados de parasitas circulantes na área de estudo. Os resultados desse estudo contribuirão em estudos futuros sobre a estrutura genética do parasita e o desenvolvimento de vacinas contra a malária.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238096, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278519

RESUMO

Abstract Pakistan is the country with mega freshwater fish diversity of native and alien species. In the presence of enormous native fishes varies species of exotic fishes have been introduced into the freshwater bodies of Pakistan which are competing with native freshwater fish fauna and making them deprive of food and habitat as well. Intentional or accidental introductions of animals, plants and pathogens away from their native niche is considered as major leading problem for biodiversity of invaded habitat. Three years study (from January 2017 to December 2019) was conducted in freshwater bodies of Province Punjab, Pakistan. Study was designed to know exotic species impacts on the distribution of native species of fishes. During current survey a total of 68 (indigenous and exotic) fish species belonging to 14 families were recorded from head Qadirabad, head Baloki, Islam headworks and Rasul barrage. Statistical analysis showed that Shannon-Wiener diversity index was the highest (1.41) at both Rasul barrage and Islam headworks but, invasive species were present in very less number in these study sites i.e. Oreochromis mozambicus, O. niloticus, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Carassius auratus, Ctenophryngdon idella, Cyprinus carpio and H. molitrix. The diversity index showed that comparatively low diversity was present in both area head Qadirabad (1.30) and head Baloki (1.4) due to high pressure of invasive species. Direct observation of species and statistical analysis showed that aliens' species produced negative impact on the local fish fauna diversity, evenness, and numbers. It is concluded that many factors are impacts on the diversity of native fishes, but alien (invasive) species also play a major role to reduction of native species, because aliens' species produce competition for native species. So it is urgent need to analysis the aliens and native food web and roosting sites in Pakistan, in future.


Resumo O Paquistão é um país com ampla diversidade de espécies nativas e exóticas de peixes de água doce. Contudo, diversas espécies de peixes exóticos estão sendo introduzidas nos corpos de água doce paquistanês, as quais estão competindo com a fauna nativa de peixes, tornando-os privados de alimento e habitat. A introdução intencional ou acidental de animais, plantas e patógenos fora de seu nicho nativo é considerada o principal problema da biodiversidade do habitat recém-invadido. Assim, foi realizado um estudo de três anos, de janeiro de 2017 a dezembro de 2019, em corpos de água doce na província de Punjab, Paquistão. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida para conhecer os impactos de espécies exóticas na distribuição de espécies nativas de peixes. Durante a pesquisa, foi registrado um total de 68 espécies de peixes (nativas e exóticas), pertencentes a 14 famílias, nas nascentes dos rios Qadirabad, Baloki e Islam e na barragem de Rasul. A análise estatística mostrou que o índice de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener foi mais alto (1,41) na barragem Rasul (RB) e na nascente do rio Islam (IH); e que a maioria das espécies introduzidas estava presente em um número muito menor, isto é, Oreochromis mossambicus, Oreochromis niloticus, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Carassius auratus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio e Hypophthalmichthy smolitrix nessa área de estudo. Por outro lado, o índice Shannon-Wiener mostrou que a diversidade estava baixa nas nascentes dos rios Qadirabad (1,30) e Baloki (1,4) em razão da alta pressão de espécies invasoras. A observação direta das espécies e a análise estatística indicaram que as espécies invasoras produziram impacto negativo na diversidade, uniformidade e números de peixes da fauna local. Conclui-se que muitos fatores impactam na diversidade de peixes nativos, mas as espécies exóticas (invasoras) também desempenham um papel importante na redução das espécies nativas, em razão da competição existente entre elas. Portanto, é urgente uma análise futura das espécies invasoras e da teia alimentar nativa no Paquistão..

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e235612, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153466

RESUMO

Abstract The experiment was carried out on mango cv. Dusehri to investigate the effect of N, P and K fertilizers on vegetative, reproductive growth, yield and fruit quality. Eight different fertilizer combinations such as T1 (control), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) and T8 (NPK) were used. Individual or combine fertilizer application of N (1000 g), P (750 g) and K (750 g) were applied during growing season in February and August. All the treatments significantly influenced on vegetative growth, flowering, fruiting, yield and other physiochemical attributes of mango as compared to control. Least effect was observed with individual fertilizer application while combine fertilizer treatments enhanced most of the investigated parameters. Especially, qualitative traits showed non-significant differences between treated and untreated mango trees. However, among the different treatments T8 (NPK) showed significance for fruiting aspects such as maximum size of growth flushes (177.51 mm), total number of panicles/tree (845), total number of flowers/panicle (974), sex ratio (69.18%), fruit retention (13.85%), total number of fruits/tree (379), yield (82 kg/tree), fruit weight (197.5 g), pulp weight (135.5 g) and physiochemical parameters namely TSS (24.53), Vit. C (57.63 mg/100 mL) and total sugar (20.84%). In general, combine application of NPK (T8) were the most effective in enhancing fruiting aspects, yield, physiochemical characteristics as well as improved fruit quality of mango trees.


Resumo O experimento foi realizado em manga cv. Dusehri para investigar o efeito dos fertilizantes N, P e K no crescimento vegetativo, reprodutivo, produtividade e de qualidade do fruto. Foram utilizadas oito combinações diferentes de fertilizantes: T1 (controle), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) e T8 (NPK). Cada tratamento de N (1.000 g), P (750 g) e K (750 g) foi aplicado duas vezes durante a estação de crescimento em fevereiro e agosto. Todos os tratamentos influenciaram significativamente o crescimento vegetativo, floração, frutificação, produtividade e outros atributos físico-químicos da manga em relação ao controle. Menos efeito foi observado com a aplicação individual de fertilizante, enquanto os tratamentos combinados aumentaram a maioria dos parâmetros investigados. Especialmente as características qualitativas mostraram diferenças não significativas entre mangueiras tratadas e não tratadas. No entanto, entre os diferentes tratamentos, T8 (NPK) apresentou significância para aspectos de frutificação, como tamanho máximo de folgas de crescimento (177,51 mm), número total de panículas/árvore (845), número total de flores/panícula (974), razão sexual (69,18%), retenção de frutos (13,85%), número total de frutos/árvore (379), produção (82 kg/árvore), peso do fruto (197,5 g) e peso da polpa (135,5 g), além de parâmetros físico-químicos, como TSS (24,53), vitamina C (57,63 mg/100 mL) e açúcar total (20,84%). Em geral, a aplicação combinada de NPK (T8) foi a mais eficaz no aprimoramento dos aspectos de frutificação, produtividade, características físico-químicas, além da melhoria da qualidade dos frutos das mangueiras.

10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 1183-1186, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605495

RESUMO

Self-inflicted wound can present with various scenarios. It is well known that the purpose of a self-inflicted wound is to avoid obligatory duties. During war, soldiers get self-inflicted wounds to seek medical leave in the hope to save their lives from deadly battle. Self-induced pneumomediastinum from oral lesion with valsalva maneuver was a rare practice among prisoners to get rid of that imprisoned life and to stay in the hospital. Self-inflicted wound is also commonly seen in patient with psychosomatic disorders. It relates observations from forensic medicine and psychiatry to specific clinical symptoms, toxicological circumstances and social influences e.g. stress incurred by everyday life, war, imprisonment etc. In particular cases, it clears up criminal and civil jurisdiction. It also gives importance to private insurers about cases of self-mutilation. There is also concern about insurers, forensic scientists and psychiatrist about their responsibilities and the procedure they follow in the examination, their jurisdiction and the treatment involving the cases of self-inflected injuries. To our knowledge, self-inflicted subcutaneous emphysema causing pneumomediastinum by a normal young boy out of curiosity and without any apparent ill motive, is an unusual finding and possibly no such case report was published before.


Assuntos
Enfisema Mediastínico , Automutilação , Humanos , Masculino , Enfisema Mediastínico/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiologia
11.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644726

RESUMO

Tapeworms of zoonotic importance have been described as a leading public health problem. Current research was aim to assess the prevalence of tapeworms among 5-12years school children residing in district Lower Dir, Pakistan from January 2019-December 2019. The wet mount preparation in saline/iodine/methods were used for stool examination. Data was analyzed using appropriate descriptive, static methods. Of the 400 children studied 71.7% were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. Single infection of cestode species was found in 69 individuals with 17.2% prevalence and multiple parasitic infections were identified in 19.7% (n=79/400) individuals. The multiple infection were comprised as 10% (n=40) double, 6.75% (n=27) triple and 3% (n=12) quadruple. A total of 9 species of helminths and one species of protozoan infection. Among the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent 33.1% (n=95), Taenia saginata 22.6% (n=65), hookworm 19.8% (n=57), Hymenolepis nana 18.8% (n=54), Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis diminuta 1.39% (n=4each), Trichuris trichura 1.04% (n=3), Toxocara spp 0.69% (n=2) and Schistosoma japonicum 0.34% (n=1) were reported. One protozoan species was Cryptosporidium spp 0.69% (n=2) in current study. In case of A.lumbricoides, hookworm, E.vermicularis, T.trichura, T.saginata, H.nana and H.diminuta the male children of below 8 years of age were highly infected. Other infections are reported in the same prevalence with slight difference if any. We conclude that there is a need for mass scale campaigns to create awareness regarding health and hygiene in children and the need for development of effective poverty control programs because deworming alone is not adequate to control parasitic infections.

13.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(10): 1457-1462, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657010

RESUMO

Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the effect on condylar guidance values with casts mounted by facebow transfer (Guichet's point as the third point of reference), Bonwill's, and radiographic method. Materials and Methods: The dentulous subject's casts were mounted to a semi-adjustable articulator (Artex Type AR) after facebow transfer with Guichet's point as the third point of reference and also by Bonwill's method. Protrusive records made earlier were utilized to program the right and left side condylar guidance value. Two digital lateral cephalograms were made, one in centric relation, and one in protrusion and the condyles were traced and overlapped. The condylar guidance readings obtained by Bonwill's method, facebow transfer, and lateral cephalometric tracings were compared in this study using the SPSS (Version 17.0 Illinois, Chicago, USA) software. Results: The condylar guidance values obtained from Bonwill's and the facebow transfer method (p < 0.001) was lesser than the radiographic method. The values obtained by casts mounted to the Bonwill's method differed significantly (p < 0.001) from the other two methods. Conclusion: The values obtained by facebow transfer were closer to the radiographic values whereas the values obtained by Bonwill's method mounting differed markedly.


Assuntos
Articuladores Dentários , Côndilo Mandibular , Cefalometria , Aparelhos de Tração Extrabucal , Humanos , Registro da Relação Maxilomandibular , Côndilo Mandibular/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248420, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495163

RESUMO

Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ecossistema , Animais , Humanos , Paquistão , Caramujos
15.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249104, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495168

RESUMO

The present study was designed to evaluate the strength of association of raised plasma homocysteine concentration as a risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factor. It was a case control study conducted at Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. A total of 210 subjects aged 25 to 60 years comprising of 105 newly admitted patients of CHD as cases and 105 age and sex matched healthy individuals with no history of CHD as control were recruited for the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from cases and controls. Plasma homocysteine was analyzed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method on automated immunoassay analyzer (Abbott IMX). Total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL cholesterol were analyzed using calorimetric kit methods. The concentration of LDL cholesterol was calculated using Friedewald formula. The patients were also assessed for traditional risk factors such as age, sex, family history of CVD, hypertension, smoking and physical activity, and were compared with control subjects. The collected data was entered in SPSS version 24 for analysis and interpretation.The mean age in controls and experimental groups were 43.00± 8.42 years and 44.72± 8.59 years with statistically same distribution (p- value= 0.144). The mean plasma homocysteine for cases was 22.33± 9.22 µmol/L where as it was 12.59±3.73 µmol/L in control group. Highly significant difference was seen between the mean plasma level of homocysteine in cases and controls (p˂0.001).Simple logistic regression indicates a strong association of coronary heart disease with hyperhomocysteinemia (OR 7.45), which remained significantly associated with coronary heart disease by multivariate logistic regression (OR 7.10, 95%C1 3.12-12.83, p=0.000). The present study concludes that elevated levels of Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factors and can be used as an indicator for predicting the future possibility for the onset of CVD.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Hiper-Homocisteinemia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Jejum , Humanos , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/diagnóstico , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
16.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 353-359, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508343

RESUMO

Curcumin is a potent antimicrobial herb used traditionally as a spice in culinary. This study was designed to evaluate the antiviral effects of curcuma longa extract against H9 influenza virus. A total of 60 embryonated eggs were equally divided into 5 groups with 12 eggs in each group. Group 1 (G1) served as uninfected negative control. Whereas Group 2 (G2) was kept as positive control infected with known virus @ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Group 3 (G3) was offered Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml and H9N2 virus (@ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Similarly, Group 4 (G4) was inoculated with extract of Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml per egg, whereas Group 5 (G5) was given Ribazole @ 0.2 ml/ egg. The crude extract and virus were administered on the 15th day of incubation and were checked after every 24 hours up to 96th hour post inoculation by random selection of 3 eggs. Death and survival rate were noted in all groups. Gross and histopathological lesions were also observed. Results revealed that Curcuma longa extract had significantly (p<0.05) reduced the mortality rate of embryos infected with H9N2 virus. In G3, increased lymphocytes and mild fatty changes were seen in liver. Whereas, mature RBCs, plasma cells and some lymphoblast's were observed in Spleen. Similarly, the bursa follicles were with lymphocytic aggregation. The G4 (Curcuma longa) and G5 (Ribazole) were with maximum embryo survival after 48 and 72 h post inoculation. This study revealed potential antiviral activity of Curcuma longa against H9N2 influenza viruses and can be opted as alternative to antibiotics and antiviral drugs to minimize the antimicrobial resistance in human and animal population.

17.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e240842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550279

RESUMO

This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Culex , Inseticidas , Animais , Hexanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
18.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247915, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550285

RESUMO

Wildlife trade is a profitable economic activity. Birds are among the most heavily traded animals worldwide, with numerous species threatened by pet trade. The present case study was stretched for period of one year to find out the status of wild birds' trade in Bannu and Dera Ismael Khan Divisions. The study was aimed to find out the types of species, commercial prices of bird, trade routes, overall income generated from birds' trade and the status of dealers whether licensed or not. Bimonthly visits were conducted to interview 52 bird dealers/pet shops owners/venders (23 in Dera Ismael Khan and 29 in Bannu). A sum of 16 conceivable sites were visited during the study period. Out of these, 8 sites were located in Dera Ismael Khan and 8 sites in Bannu Division. The highest priced species was Demoiselle crane (Grus virgo) and the lowest priced species was house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Total number of species traded in both regions were 8 and 14 while the income generated by bird trade was amounting to PkR 1,322,200 and 7,128,950 in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. Majority of the birds were trapped locally with the exception of few from adjacent areas. Commercial activity led by illegal bird traders was found 75% and 100% species in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. There was no significant difference between prices of birds, number of species sold and income generated by bird trade in two divisions.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Aves , Animais , Paquistão
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516382

RESUMO

A non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) is used to monitor the electrical pulse of the fetal heart. Decomposing the FECG signal from the maternal ECG (MECG) is a blind source separation problem, which is hard due to the low amplitude of the FECG, the overlap of R waves, and the potential exposure to noise from different sources. Traditional decomposition techniques, such as adaptive filters, require tuning, alignment, or pre-configuration, such as modeling the noise or desired signal to map the MECG to the FECG. The high correlation between maternal and fetal ECG fragments decreases the performance of convolution layers. Therefore, the masking region of interest based on the attention mechanism was performed to improve the signal generators' precision. The sine activation function was also used to retain more details when converting two signal domains. Three available datasets from the Physionet, including the A&D FECG, NI-FECG, and NI-FECG challenge, and one synthetic dataset using FECGSYN toolbox, were used to evaluate the performance. The proposed method could map an abdominal MECG to a scalp FECG with an average of 98% R-Square [CI 95%: 97%, 99%] as the goodness of fit on the A&D FECG dataset. Moreover, it achieved 99.7 % F1-score [CI 95%: 97.8-99.9], 99.6% F1-score [CI 95%: 98.2%, 99.9%] and 99.3% F1-score [CI 95%: 95.3%, 99.9%] for fetal QRS detection on the A&D FECG, NI-FECG and NI-FECG challenge datasets, respectively. Also, the distortion was in the very good and good ranges. These results are comparable to the state-of-the-art results; thus, the proposed algorithm has the potential to be used for high-performance signal-to-signal conversion.

20.
Trials ; 22(1): 651, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of multidrug- and rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) is expensive, labour-intensive, and associated with substantial adverse events and poor outcomes. While most MDR/RR-TB patients do not receive treatment, many who do are treated for 18 months or more. A shorter all-oral regimen is currently recommended for only a sub-set of MDR/RR-TB. Its use is only conditionally recommended because of very low-quality evidence underpinning the recommendation. Novel combinations of newer and repurposed drugs bring hope in the fight against MDR/RR-TB, but their use has not been optimized in all-oral, shorter regimens. This has greatly limited their impact on the burden of disease. There is, therefore, dire need for high-quality evidence on the performance of new, shortened, injectable-sparing regimens for MDR-TB which can be adapted to individual patients and different settings. METHODS: endTB is a phase III, pragmatic, multi-country, adaptive, randomized, controlled, parallel, open-label clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of shorter treatment regimens containing new drugs for patients with fluoroquinolone-susceptible, rifampin-resistant tuberculosis. Study participants are randomized to either the control arm, based on the current standard of care for MDR/RR-TB, or to one of five 39-week multi-drug regimens containing newly approved and repurposed drugs. Study participation in all arms lasts at least 73 and up to 104 weeks post-randomization. Randomization is response-adapted using interim Bayesian analysis of efficacy endpoints. The primary objective is to assess whether the efficacy of experimental regimens at 73 weeks is non-inferior to that of the control. A sample size of 750 patients across 6 arms affords at least 80% power to detect the non-inferiority of at least 1 (and up to 3) experimental regimens, with a one-sided alpha of 0.025 and a non-inferiority margin of 12%, against the control in both modified intention-to-treat and per protocol populations. DISCUSSION: The lack of a safe and effective regimen that can be used in all patients is a major obstacle to delivering appropriate treatment to all patients with active MDR/RR-TB. Identifying multiple shorter, safe, and effective regimens has the potential to greatly reduce the burden of this deadly disease worldwide. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02754765. Registered on 28 April 2016; the record was last updated for study protocol version 3.3, on 27 August 2019.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rifampina/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
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