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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 973713, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36160454

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of second line injectables containing shorter (duration 9-12 months) and longer treatment regimens (LTR, duration ≥ 20 months) among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients with no documented resistance and history of treatment with any second-line anti-TB drug (SLD) for ≥ 1 month. Methods: This was an observational cohort study of MDR-TB patients treated at eight PMDT units in Pakistan. Patients' data from baseline until treatment outcomes were collected from Electronic Nominal Recording and Reporting System. The treatment outcomes of "cured" and "treatment completed" were grouped together as successful, whereas "death," "treatment failure," and "lost to follow-up" were collectively grouped as unsuccessful outcomes. Time to sputum culture conversion (SCC) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the differences between groups were compared through the log-rank test. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and binary logistic regression analyses were used to find predictors of time to SCC and unsuccessful treatment outcomes. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total 701 eligible MDR-TB patients [313 treated with shorter treatment regimen (STR) and 388 treated with LTR at eight centres in Pakistan were evaluated]. Time to achieve SCC was significantly shorter in STR group [mean: 2.03 months, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.79-2.26] than in LTR group (mean: 2.69 months, 95% CI: 2.35-3.03) (p-value<0.001, Log-rank test). Treatment success was higher in STR (83.7%) than in LTR (73.2%) group (p-value <0.001) due to high cure (79.9% vs. 70.9%, p-value = 0.006) and low death (9.9% vs. 18.3%, p-value = 0.002) rates with STR. Treatment with STR emerged the only predictor of early SCC [adjusted Hazards ratio (aHR) = 0.815, p-value = 0.014], whereas, patient's age of 41-60 (OR = 2.62, p-value<0.001) and >60 years (OR = 5.84, p-value<0.001), baseline body weight of 31-60 (OR = 0.36, p-value = 0.001) and >60 kg (OR = 0.23, p-value <0.001), and treatment with LTR (OR = 1.88, p-value = 0.001) had statistically significant association with unsuccessful treatment outcomes. Conclusion: STR exhibited superior anti-microbial activity against MDR-TB. When compared LTR, treatment with STR resulted in significantly early SCC, high cure, and lower death rates among MDR-TB patients who had no documented resistance and history of treatment with any SLD ≥ 1 month.

2.
Glob Health Action ; 15(1): 2095782, 2022 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult to detect and often needs specialists to diagnose; the health system is supposed to refer to higher level of health care when diagnosis is not settled in a sick child. In Pakistan, the primary health care level can usually not diagnose childhood TB and will refer to a paediatricians working at a secondary or tertiary care hospital. We aimed to determine the health services access to child TB services in Pakistan. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the geographical access to child TB services in Pakistan. METHOD: We used geospatial analysis to calculate the distance from the nearest public health facility to settlements, using qGIS, as well as population living within the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended 5-km distance. RESULT: At primary health care level, 14.1% of facilities report child TB cases to national tuberculosis program and 74% of the population had geographical access to general primary health care within 5-km radius. To secondary- and tertiary-level health care, 33.5% of the population had geographical access within 5-km radius. The average distance from a facility for diagnosis of childhood TB was 26.3 km from all settlement to the nearest child TB sites. The population of one province (Balochistan) had longer distances to health care services. CONCLUSION: With fairly good coverage of primary health care but lower coverage of specialist care for childhood TB, the health system depends heavily on a good referral system from the communities.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Criança , Geografia , Instalações de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/terapia
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 39-46, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to compare the characteristics of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) identified through "extended contact screening" (ECS) with those of patients identified through routine passive case finding (PCF). METHODS: Active TB case finding by ECS was tested from 2013-2015. This was a cross-sectional study based on data collected from ECS and routine program data from Lahore, Faisalabad, and Rawalpindi districts, and Islamabad in 2015. Characteristics of patients identified through ECS and PCF were compared. RESULTS: Of the 12,114 patients with pulmonary TB in the study, 4604 (38%) were identified through ECS, of whom 4052 (88%) had bacteriological confirmation. Male patients comprised 56.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 54.8-57.6) of patients with pulmonary TB identified through ECS and 49.7% (95% CI 48.6-50.8) of those identified through PCF. The proportion of bacteriologically confirmed cases was 88.0% (95% CI 87.1-88.9) in the ECS group and 50.3% (95% CI 49.2-51.4) in the PCF group. By regression analysis we found that compared with patients aged 15-44 years, children aged <15 years had higher chances of being identified through ECS (adjusted odds ratio 2.69; 95% CI 2.21-3.28). There was a higher chance of cases being detected by ECS in Faisalabad (adjusted odds ratio 2.57; 95% CI 2.01-3.29) than in Islamabad. CONCLUSION: ECS identified a higher proportion of male and child patients with pulmonary TB than routine case finding; both of these groups are more often unidentified through routine TB control.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
4.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 69: 102828, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512966

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) has led to a global pandemic and has been the center of attention across the entire medical community. This novel virus was initially thought to affect primarily the respiratory system, but now it is evident that it has a multitude of effects on the human body. Our point of interest is to establish the effect of COVID-19 infection on the conducting system of the heart. We present a case series of four patients who developed complete heart block (CHB) shortly after being infected with COVID-19 without any previous known risk factors of complete heart block. There have only been a few previous case reports on the occurrence of CHB in COVID-19 patients highlighting the importance and the need of our case series to the literature of cardiovascular outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Our case series highlight that COVID-19 can indeed affect the conduction system of the heart and cause CHB in patients who then recovered spontaneously further elucidating the transient nature of cardiovascular effects caused by the novel virus.

5.
Cureus ; 13(8): e16878, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513453

RESUMO

An autoimmune neuromuscular junction disorder, myasthenia gravis, occurs when antibodies are produced against postsynaptic membrane acetylcholine receptors. Late-onset myasthenia gravis, a rare variant of the disease found in the elderly, has become a diagnostic challenge on account of its atypical presentation. We proffer a case of a 60-year-old man that presented with progressive dysphonia and weakening of cough, which was eventually followed by difficulty in swallowing and nasal regurgitation. Examination and laboratory workup came out unremarkable apart from a positive acetylcholine receptor antibody test, due to which a diagnosis of laryngeal myasthenia, an uncommon presentation of late-onset myasthenia gravis was made. Following treatment with pyridostigmine and prednisolone saw a relief of the active complaints. This article highlights the need for physicians to stay alert and have a high suspicion of such probability for timely diagnosis.

6.
Cureus ; 13(6): e15484, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268020

RESUMO

Introduction While tetanus has largely been eradicated with the advent of the tetanus vaccine, its prevalence in Pakistan remains alarmingly high due to insufficient uptake of the vaccination program. The clinical presentations that the disease elicits range from mere opisthotonos to more sinister complications, including respiratory failure and death, often posing an insurmountable challenge for hospitals. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted and analyzed the medical charts of 43 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of tetanus infection. The charts were perused for the patients' demographics, clinical characteristics, and disease outcomes. The prevalence of various clinical symptoms and complications were reported in terms of frequencies and percentages. Results The mean age of the patients hovered at 29.53 ± 16.53 years, with a range of 12 to 65 years. Of those affected, 83.7% were males while 16.3% were females. Notably, none of the infected patients had a prior history of vaccination against tetanus. Trismus was noted to be the most prevalent clinical manifestation and was found in 90.70% of the patients while paraesthesia at the site of infection, found in 6.98%, was the least prevalent. The overall mortality was noted to hover at 46.5%. Conclusion While tetanus has largely been eradicated, its prevalence in Pakistan remains alarmingly high. The complications noted in the study have implications for the country's public health system and aims to better inform the current state of the national vaccination program.

7.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(7): S120-S122, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271809

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) emerged as a cluster of atypical pneumonia in Wuhan, China in December 2019. This disease has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. COVID-19 patients mostly present with upper respiratory symptoms like dyspnea, cough and fever. Various neurological, myocardial, renal and gastrointestinal complications have been reported associated with SARS-CoV-2. Acute pancreatitis is one of the common causes of upper abdominal pain, caused by alcohol consumption, gall stones and various viruses and drugs. We present a case of a young female, who was recently diagnosed as COVID-19 and later on developed acute pancreatitis without any other risk factors.  Key Words: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Acute pancreatitis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , China , Feminino , Humanos , Pancreatite/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(7): S123-S124, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271810

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 initially began in Wuhan, China and now has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to respiratory symptoms, it can cause various complications ranging from neurological to myocardial injuries. Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is an acute polyradiculoneuropathy affecting more often lower limbs than upper limbs and is often related to previous infectious diseases. We, herein, describe a case of a young female who presented with typical symptoms of GBS after having COVID-19 and was later on confirmed with nerve conduction study and lumbar puncture. Key Words: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Guillain-barre syndrome.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré , COVID-19/complicações , China , Feminino , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(7): S125-S126, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271811

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) initially emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and now it has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. COVID-19 commonly presents with respiratory manifestations like fever, cough, body aches, and shortness of breath. Neurological, myocardial, renal and gastrointestinal complications secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection have been reported in the literature. Gastrointestinal symptoms reported with COVID-19 are mostly nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. COVID-19 can rarely present with acute hepatitis. Here, we report a case of a 45-year male who presented with signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Key Words: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Acute hepatitis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hepatite , China , Hepatite/diagnóstico , Hepatite/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253367, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138956

RESUMO

The COVID-19 has caused the deadliest pandemic around the globe, emerged from the city of Wuhan, China by the end of 2019 and affected all continents of the world, with severe health implications and as well as financial-damage. Pakistan is also amongst the top badly effected countries in terms of casualties and financial loss due to COVID-19. By 20th March, 2021, Pakistan reported 623,135 total confirmed cases and 13,799 deaths. A state space model called 'Bayesian Dynamic Linear Model' (BDLM) was used for the forecast of daily new infections, deaths and recover cases regarding COVID-19. For the estimation of states of the models and forecasting new observations, the recursive Kalman filter was used. Twenty days ahead forecast show that the maximum number of new infections are 4,031 per day with 95% prediction interval (3,319-4,743). Death forecast shows that the maximum number of the deaths with 95% prediction interval are 81 and (67-93), respectively. Maximum daily recoveries are 3,464 with 95% prediction interval (2,887-5,423) in the next 20 days. The average number of new infections, deaths and recover cases are 3,282, 52 and 1,840, respectively, in the upcoming 20 days. As the data generation processes based on the latest data has been identified, therefore it can be updated with the availability of new data to provide latest forecast.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Previsões/métodos , Modelos Lineares , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Algoritmos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
11.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 33: 101429, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996435

RESUMO

It has been suggested that pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) could be a potential sequela of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in particular in those with hypertension; however, development of PAH after the course of COVID-19 in normotensive individuals are rarely reported. Here, we report a patient who developed PAH two months post-COVID-19. The patient was a 55-year-old female and normotensive, tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), developed mild respiratory distress syndrome and necessitated continuous positive airway pressure during the treatment in the hospital. After two months discharged from the hospital with RT-PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2, the patient presented with exertional dyspnea, dry cough, fatigue and episodes of syncope during exertion. Based on clinical presentation, electrocardiography, computed tomography, and transthoracic echocardiography assessment, PAH diagnosis was made. To our knowledge, this is a rare PAH case and this highlights the possible of PAH as sequala that might present in post COVID-19 patients.

12.
Cureus ; 13(2): e13186, 2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717730

RESUMO

Background The principal manifestation of hyperuricemia is gout. Many drugs are in use nowadays to treat gout, but they are linked with multiple side effects. The present study observed berberine (from Chinese folk medicine) on serum and urinary uric acid levels in rats with potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemia. Materials and methods Thirty-six adult healthy female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups of six rats each. To induce hyperuricemia, all the groups except Group A were given potassium oxonate (250 mg/kg) intraperitoneally on days 1, 3, and 7. Group A, the normal control group, was given normal saline for seven consecutive days intraperitoneally. Group C was administered allopurinol (5 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally, and Group D, E, and F were given berberine in doses of 0.75 mg/kg, 1.25 mg/kg, and 2.5 mg/kg body weight respectively intraperitoneally for seven consecutive days, one hour after the potassium oxonate injection. On zero, first, third, and seventh day of the experiment, blood and urine samples were taken to estimate the serum and urinary uric acid levels. On days zero and 7, serum uric acid was measured by cardiac puncture, while on days 1 and 3, it was measured by the tail prick method. The uric acid was measured by an enzymatic colorimetric method and creatinine by the Jaffe method. Fractional excretion of urate was also calculated. Results Berberine lowered serum uric acid levels in rats with potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemia with highly significant results (p-value <0.001) in all three dosages. Berberine increased the urinary uric acid level and the fractional excretion of urate in a time-dependent manner in all three dosages. This effect was maximally shown by low dose berberine with a highly significant result (p-value <0.001). Conclusion Berberine successfully decreased the serum uric acid level of hyperuricemic rats by increasing the urinary uric acid level and fractional excretion of urate.

13.
Cureus ; 13(1): e12942, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33659107

RESUMO

Chylothorax or collection of lymphatic fluid in the pleural space is an exceedingly rare cause of pleural effusion and respiratory distress in neonates. In adults, prompt diagnosis and effective treatment regimen can aid in the resolution of chylothorax; however, in neonates treating the condition can be an onerous challenge for the pediatricians due to the rarity and perplexing clinical presentation. We elucidate a case of spontaneous chylothorax in a 15-day-old neonate who presented to us with respiratory distress, chest indrawing, and cyanosis for nine days. The prenatal and birth history of the patient were insignificant. The detailed laboratory and radiological assessment of the patient divulged a diagnosis of spontaneous chylothorax for which the patient was intubated. Unfortunately, the patient deteriorated and eventually expired on the 23rd postnatal day due to the complications of respiratory acidosis and hypoxemia.

14.
Cureus ; 13(2): e13506, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786215

RESUMO

Objective Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is the most commonly used procedure for the treatment of hydrocephalus (HDC), especially in children. However, this is prone to many complications, and requires repeated surgeries, which as such increases the morbidity of the patients. It is estimated that majority of the complications occurs in the immediate post-operative period and the rate of complications decreases over the time, with no impunity to these, though. We conducted this study to know about the complications of VPS in the early post-operative period, in pediatric patients with hydrocephalus. Materials and methods This descriptive study was conducted in the Department of Neurosurgery, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, between June 2019 and January 2020 (seven months). All patients with hydrocephalus below 12 years of age, operated for the first time were included after taking an informed consent, while those with repeated shunt procedures and elderly patients requiring shunt were excluded from the study. Patients' details like age, gender, location, contact number, cause of hydrocephalus, date of shunt placement, type of surgery (elective or emergency) and any follow-up complications like failure, erosion, infections, ileus were noted on a predesigned proforma. After the surgery, patients were followed for a period of one month, and contacted either through the telephone or asked to visit in the outpatients on the specified days, and were evaluated for any shunt-related complications, and any of these complications suspected were further evaluated and noted. The data was analyzed using the statistical program SPSS version 19 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Results are presented in the form of charts, tables and graph. Results During the study period, we evaluated a total of 151 patients; there were 78 (51.65%) males and 73 (48.34%) females with a male to female ratio approaching 1.1:1. The age range was from 22 days to 12 years. The mean age was 38.46 ± 7.53 months. The primary indications for the insertion of VP shunt were: congenital hydrocephalus in 70 (46.4%), post infectious hydrocephalus in 57 (37.7%), hydrocephalus due to tumor in 22 (14.6%), and post traumatic hydrocephalus in two (1.4%) patients. Among the total number of patients, 85 patients (55.6%) were done as elective cases and 66 patients (44.4%) were done as emergency cases. Complications were encountered in 30 patients (19.87%) during the follow-up of 30 days. Complications occurred between day 1 and day 20 of follow-up with a mean of 9.10 ± 1.69 2SD days. Conclusion VP shunt is the most widely used treatment for HDC, but is predisposed to complications and almost every fifth case of VP shunt comes across with complications. Shunt blockage, infections and abdominal wound-related complications are common earlier complications in pediatric patients with hydrocephalus.

15.
Cureus ; 13(1): e12953, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654625

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhea (most common among gastrointestinal symptoms), nausea/vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, abnormal liver enzymes, and pancreatitis, are being increasingly recognized in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Moreover, COVID-19 has also been implicated in coagulopathy, especially in patients with severe disease. Here, we report a case of acute intestinal ischemia secondary to superior mesenteric thrombosis in a young female patient with mild COVID-19.

16.
Cureus ; 13(1): e12544, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564538

RESUMO

Background To date, several pharmacological agents have been employed in the treatment and management of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While the utility of corticosteroids in severe COVID-19 infection is now widely touted, their efficacy in thwarting the progression of non-severe disease remains elusive. Methods A retrospective cohort study involving 25 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of non-severe COVID-19 infection was conducted. Subjects were assigned to either the steroid or the non-steroid group. A low-dose, short-course corticosteroid regimen was administered for seven days and the disease outcomes were recorded and compared among the two groups. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was employed to discern the data normality. Results In patients treated with low-dose, short-course steroids, the overall all-cause mortality was significantly lower compared with the non-steroid group (8.3% and 61.5%, respectively; p = 0.005). The prevalence of acute respiratory distress syndrome in the steroid group was significantly lower than that in the non-steroid group at the seven-day mark (16.7% and 84.6%, respectively; p = 0.002). Within the steroid group, the incidence of developing secondary complications was also markedly lower than that in the non-steroid group. Conclusions In patients afflicted with non-severe COVID-19, the employment of low-dose, short-course corticosteroids may confer a therapeutic advantage, significantly curtailing the mortality rate, the length of hospital stay, and the risk of developing secondary complications.

19.
Perspect Psychiatr Care ; 57(3): 1532-1535, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241853

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It could be challenging for healthcare workers to diagnose patients with factitious disorder who present with rare ophthalmologic manifestations such as haemolacria, because of the unavailability of adequate literature and associated guidelines. The present case report aims to fulfill this knowledge gap. CASE PRESENTATION: A 20-year-old tribal illiterate married female patient with symptoms of bleeding episodes from her left eye was admitted to the hospital. An extensive workup was done for diagnosing possible bleeding disorders but all the parameters were normal. Later on, she was diagnosed with factitious disorder presenting haemolacria after sufficient evidence at the psychiatric unit observations. The patient was treated accordingly, counseled and discharged, but lost-out to follow-ups. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The present case is reported from a developing country, Pakistan, for the first-time may help in diagnosing patients suffering from factitious disorder with unusual ophthalmologic problems.


Assuntos
Transtornos Autoinduzidos , Adulto , Transtornos Autoinduzidos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Paquistão , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cureus ; 12(11): e11439, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324522

RESUMO

Introduction Despite the sunny climate, women in Pakistan are prone to vitamin D deficiency and subsequent low bone mineral density. The current study explores the extent of this deficiency in both pre- and postmenopausal women in our setting.  Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient departments of Lady Reading Hospital and Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, Pakistan during the time period between March 2018 and June 2019. Hundred premenopausal women (control group) and 100 postmenopausal women (study group) were inducted in the study. Serum vitamin D levels were determined in patients with suspected vitamin D deficiency. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined for each patient and the cost of each scan was afforded by our department. A dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan was used to perform the bone mineral density assessment. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26 (IBM, Chicago, IL). Results Serum 25OHD concentration in postmenopausal women was significantly lower compared to premenopausal women (p<0.001). In the study group, 36.0% of women had a severe deficiency of serum vitamin D levels, whereas, in the control group, only two women suffered from severe deficiency of vitamin D. Similarly, bone mineral density was also significantly correlated with the menopausal status of the women (p<0001). It was found that three-fifths of the postmenopausal women had a low bone density. Twenty-four percent of postmenopausal women had very low BMD. In comparison, only a single premenopausal woman was found to have a Z-score of below -2.0. Conclusion The current study highlights the impact of menopause on vitamin D levels and BMD. In our study, we found a significant difference between vitamin D levels and BMD in women of reproductive age compared to postmenopausal women.

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