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2.
Adv Med Educ Pract ; 13: 969-979, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046600

RESUMO

Introduction: Past studies have shown high prevalence of mental illness among medical students. This is often linked to the demands of the medical curriculum, and to mental health stigma that prevents students from seeking help. This study aimed to examine experiences of mental health problems among medical students of different nationalities in Qatar and to uncover sociodemographic factors related to their prevalence and associated stigma. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted with medical students in their second through fifth years at the College of Medicine at Qatar University. The survey began with a consent form, and those agreed to take the survey were directed to the questionnaire. The survey comprised 64 items across three sections. The first section collected sociodemographic data. The second section screened depressive symptoms using the PHQ-9; anxiety symptoms using GAD-7; and psychological distress symptoms using Kessler-6. The third section included 27 questions adopted from Schwenk et al, which evaluate students' perceptions of stigma and their attitudes toward seeking help with their mental health. Results: One hundred and eighty-two students participated in the study. The prevalence of self-reported symptoms of severe depression, anxiety, and psychological distress was 4.4% (95% CI 2-9), 10.4% (95% CI 7-16), and 39.6% (95% CI 33-47), respectively; the prevalence of high stigma was 31.9% (95% CI 25-39). Parental education, repetition of an academic year, progress in medical studies, gender, and nationality had statistically significant correlations with mental health problems and stigma. Conclusion: In addition to the impact of the requirements of medical study, the high prevalence of reported mental illness among medical students is impacted by sociodemographic factors and the mental health stigma that constitutes a barrier to seeking help. Preventive wellbeing programs should be an essential component of medical curricula.

3.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 16: 929593, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35966198

RESUMO

Objective: To systematically evaluate the literature on the therapeutic use of Schwann cells (SC) in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. Methods: The Cochrane Library and PubMed databases were searched using terms [("peripheral nerve injury" AND "Schwann cell" AND "regeneration") OR ("peripheral nerve injuries")]. Studies published from 2008 to 2022 were eligible for inclusion in the present study. Only studies presenting data from in-vivo investigations utilizing SCs in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries qualified for review. Studies attempting repair of a gap of ≥10 mm were included. Lastly, studies needed to have some measure of quantifiable regenerative outcome data such as histomorphometry, immunohistochemical, electrophysiology, or other functional outcomes. Results: A search of the PubMed and Cochrane databases revealed 328 studies. After screening using the abstracts and methods, 17 studies were found to meet our inclusion criteria. Good SC adherence and survival in conduit tubes across various studies was observed. Improvement in morphological and functional outcomes with the use of SCs in long gap peripheral nerve injuries was observed in nearly all studies. Conclusion: Based on contemporary literature, SCs have demonstrated clear potential in the repair of peripheral nerve injury in animal studies. It has yet to be determined which nerve conduit or graft will prove superior for delivery and retention of SCs for nerve regeneration. Recent developments in isolation and culturing techniques will enable further translational utilization of SCs in future clinical trials.

4.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 16: 929494, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35846565

RESUMO

Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is found in a relatively large portion of trauma patients. If the injury is severe, such as with the presence of a long segmental gap, PNI can present a challenge for treatment. The current clinical standard of nerve harvest for the repair of long segmental gap PNI can lead to many potential complications. While other methods have been utilized, recent evidence indicates the relevance of cell therapies, particularly through the use of Schwann cells, for the treatment of PNI. Schwann cells (SCs) are integral in the regeneration and restoration of function following PNI. SCs are able to dedifferentiate and proliferate, remove myelin and axonal debris, and are supportive in axonal regeneration. Our laboratory has demonstrated that SCs are effective in the treatment of severe PNI when axon guidance channels are utilized. However, in order for this treatment to be effective, optimal techniques for cellular placement must be used. Thus, here we provide relevant background information, preclinical, and clinical evidence for our method in the treatment of severe PNI through the use of SCs and axon guidance channels.

5.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 11(8): 828-840, 2022 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758326

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) extracellular vesicles (EVs) have beneficial effects in preclinical bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension (BPD-PH) models. The optimal source, dosing, route, and duration of effects are however unknown. The objectives of this study were to (a) compare the efficacy of GMP-grade EVs obtained from Wharton's Jelly MSCs (WJ-MSCs) and bone marrow (BM-MSCs), (b) determine the optimal dosing and route of administration, (c) evaluate its long-term effects, and (d) determine how MSC EVs alter the lung transcriptome. Newborn rats exposed to normoxia or hyperoxia (85% O2) from postnatal day (P)1-P14 were given (a) intra-tracheal (IT) BM or WJ-MSC EVs or placebo, (b) varying doses of IT WJ-MSC EVs, or (c) IT or intravenous (IV) WJ-MSC EVs on P3. Rats were evaluated at P14 or 3 months. Early administration of IT BM-MSC or WJ-MSC EVs had similar beneficial effects on lung structure and PH in hyperoxia-exposed rats. WJ-MSC EVs however had superior effects on cardiac remodeling. Low, medium, and high dose WJ-MSC EVs had similar cardiopulmonary regenerative effects. IT and IV WJ-MSC EVs similarly improved vascular density and reduced PH in hyperoxic rats. Gene-set enrichment analysis of transcripts differentially expressed in WJ-MSC EV-treated rats showed that induced transcripts were associated with angiogenesis. Long-term studies demonstrated that a single early MSC EV dose has pulmonary vascular protective effects 3 months after administration. Together, our findings have significant translational implications as it provides critical insight into the optimal source, dosing, route, mechanisms of action, and duration of effects of MSC-EVs for BPD-PH.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Vesículas Extracelulares , Hiperóxia , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Geleia de Wharton , Animais , Displasia Broncopulmonar/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hiperóxia/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Recém-Nascido , Ratos
6.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 11(1): 59-72, 2022 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are primary manifestations of the cardiorenal syndrome in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therapies that improve morbidity and mortality in HFpEF are lacking. Cell-based therapies promote cardiac repair in ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. We hypothesized that cell-based therapy ameliorates CKD-induced HFpEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Yorkshire pigs (n = 26) underwent 5/6 embolization-mediated nephrectomy. CKD was confirmed by increased creatinine and decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was not different between groups from baseline to 4 weeks. HFpEF was evident at 4 weeks by increased LV mass, relative wall thickening, end-diastolic pressure, and end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship, with no change in ejection fraction (EF). Four weeks post-embolization, allogeneic (allo) bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC; 1 × 107 cells), allo-kidney-derived stem cells (KSC; 1 × 107 cells), allo-cell combination therapy (ACCT; MSC + KSC; 1:1 ratio; total = 1 × 107 cells), or placebo (Plasma-Lyte) was delivered via intra-renal artery. Eight weeks post-treatment, there was a significant increase in MAP in the placebo group (21.89 ± 6.05 mmHg) compared to the ACCT group. GFR significantly improved in the ACCT group. EF, relative wall thickness, and LV mass did not differ between groups at 12 weeks. EDPVR improved in the ACCT group, indicating decreased ventricular stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: Intra-renal artery allogeneic cell therapy was safe in a CKD swine model manifesting the characteristics of HFpEF. The beneficial effect on renal function and ventricular compliance in the ACCT group supports further research of cell therapy for cardiorenal syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome Cardiorrenal , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Falência Renal Crônica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Células Alógenas , Animais , Síndrome Cardiorrenal/terapia , Doença Crônica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Volume Sistólico , Suínos
7.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 43(7): 1481-1493, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394149

RESUMO

Mortality in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is strongly correlated with right ventricle (RV) dysfunction. Cell therapy has demonstrated potential improvements of RV dysfunction in animal models related to HLHS, and neonatal human derived c-kit+ cardiac-derived progenitor cells (CPCs) show superior efficacy when compared to adult human cardiac-derived CPCs (aCPCs). Neonatal CPCs (nCPCs) have yet to be investigated in humans. The CHILD trial (Autologous Cardiac Stem Cell Injection in Patients with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome) is a Phase I/II trial aimed at investigating intramyocardial administration of autologous nCPCs in HLHS infants by assessing the feasibility, safety, and potential efficacy of CPC therapy. Using an open-label, multicenter design, CHILD investigates nCPC safety and feasibility in the first enrollment group (Group A/Phase I). In the second enrollment group, CHILD uses a randomized, double-blinded, multicenter design (Group B/Phase II), to assess nCPC efficacy based on RV functional and structural characteristics. The study plans to enroll 32 patients across 4 institutions: Group A will enroll 10 patients, and Group B will enroll 22 patients. CHILD will provide important insights into the therapeutic potential of nCPCs in patients with HLHS.Clinical Trial Registration https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/home NCT03406884, First posted January 23, 2018.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico , Adulto , Animais , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/cirurgia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Células-Tronco , Transplante Autólogo
8.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 11(2): 189-199, 2022 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298658

RESUMO

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a life-threatening condition in preterm infants with few effective therapies. Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic strategy for BPD. The ideal MSC source for BPD prevention is however unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the regenerative effects of MSC obtained from bone marrow (BM) and umbilical cord tissue (UCT) in an experimental BPD model. In vitro, UCT-MSC demonstrated greater proliferation and expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines as compared to BM-MSC. Lung epithelial cells incubated with UCT-MSC conditioned media (CM) had better-wound healing following scratch injury. UCT-MSC CM and BM-MSC CM had similar pro-angiogenic effects on hyperoxia-exposed pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. In vivo, newborn rats exposed to normoxia or hyperoxia (85% O2) from postnatal day (P) 1 to 21 were given intra-tracheal (IT) BM or UCT-MSC (1 × 106 cells/50 µL), or placebo (PL) on P3. Hyperoxia PL-treated rats had marked alveolar simplification, reduced lung vascular density, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and lung inflammation. In contrast, administration of both BM-MSC and UCT-MSC significantly improved alveolar structure, lung angiogenesis, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and lung inflammation. UCT-MSC hyperoxia-exposed rats however had greater improvement in some morphometric measures of alveolarization and less lung macrophage infiltration as compared to the BM-MSC-treated group. Together, these findings suggest that BM-MSC and UCT-MSC have significant lung regenerative effects in experimental BPD but UCT-MSC suppresses lung macrophage infiltration and promotes lung epithelial cell healing to a greater degree.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Hiperóxia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Pneumonia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Medula Óssea , Displasia Broncopulmonar/terapia , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/metabolismo , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Pulmão/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Cordão Umbilical , Remodelação Vascular
9.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 617: 94-105, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35272170

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Transport of suspended colloids in heterogeneous porous media is a multi-scale process that exhibits anomalous behavior and cannot be described by the Fickian dispersion theory. Although many studies have documented colloids' transport at different length scales, a theoretical basis that links pore- to core-scale observations remains lacking. It is hypothesized that a recently proposed pore-scale statistical kinetic theory is able to capture the results observed experimentally. EXPERIMENTS: We implement a multi-scale approach via conducting core-flooding experiments of colloidal particles in a sandstone sample, simulating particles flowing through a sub-volume of the rock's digital twin, and developing a core-scale statistical theory for particles' residence times via upscaling the pore-scale kinetic theory. Experimental and computational results for solute transport are used as benchmark. FINDINGS: Based on good agreement across the scales achieved in our investigation, we show that the macroscopically observed anomalous transport is particle-type dependent and stems from particles' microscopic dispersion and deposition in heterogeneous flow fields. In particular, we reveal that residence-time distributions (i.e., breakthrough curve) obey a closed-form function that encompasses particles' microscopic dynamics, which allows investigations of a whole transition from pre-asymptotic to asymptotic behavior. The physical insights attained could be useful for interpreting experimental data and designing colloidal tracers.

10.
Cytotherapy ; 24(7): 691-698, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AIMS: The final harvest or wash of a cell therapy product is an important step in manufacturing, as viable cell recovery is critical to the overall success of a cell therapy. Most harvest/wash approaches in the clinical lab involve centrifugation, which can lead to loss of cells and decreased viability of the final product. Here the authors report on a multi-center assessment of the LOVO Cell Processing System (Fresenius Kabi, Bad Homburg, Germany), a cell processing device that uses a spinning filtration membrane instead of centrifugation. METHODS: Four National Institutes of Health Production Assistance for Cellular Therapies cell processing facilities (CPFs) assessed the LOVO Cell Processing System for final harvest and/or wash of the following three different cell products: activated T cells (ATCs), tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Each site compared their current in-house, routinely used method of final cell harvest and/or wash with that of the LOVO device. RESULTS: Final harvest and/or wash of ATCs, TILs and MSCs using the LOVO system resulted in satisfactory cell viability and recovery with some substantial improvement over the in-house methods of CPFs. Processing time was variable among cell types/facilities. CONCLUSIONS: The LOVO Cell Processing System provides an alternative to centrifuge-based technologies. The system employs a spinning membrane filter, exposing cells to minimal g-forces compared with centrifugation, and is automated and closed. This small multi-center study demonstrated the ability of the LOVO device to yield satisfactory cell viability and recovery of T cells and MSCs.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Centrifugação
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35112111

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in aged populations. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are under evaluation as a therapeutic option for the treatment of myocardial infarction. AIM: This study aimed to develop a large-scale manufacturing procedure to harvest clinical-grade EVs required for the translation of EVs to the clinic. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared the efficiency of large scale MSC-derived EV production and characterized EV miRNA cargo using the Quantum bioreactor with either fetal bovine serum or human platelet lysate (PLT)-containing expansion media. We tested the potency of the EV products in a murine model of acute myocardial infarction. Our results demonstrate an advantage of the Quantum bioreactor as a large-scale platform for EV production using PLT media; however, both media produced EVs with similar effects in vivo. The systemic delivery of EV products improved cardiac function following myocardial infarctions as indicated by a significant improvement in ejection fraction as well as parameters of cardiac performance, afterload, contractility and lusitropy. CONCLUSION: These findings have important implications for scale-up strategies of EVs and will facilitate clinical trials for their clinical evaluation.

12.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(1): 70-75, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364888

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been affecting the health and economic, as well as social, life of the entire globe since the end of 2019. The virus causes COVID-19, with a wide range of symptoms among the infected individuals, from asymptomatic infection to mortality. This, along with a high infection rate, prompted efforts to investigate the potential mechanisms of the different clinical manifestations caused by SARS-CoV-2 among the infected populations. Hypothesis One of the possible mechanisms that has been reported is the ABO blood system polymorphism. Indeed, one of the major proposed mechanisms is the presence of naturally occurring anti-A antibodies in individuals of groups O and B, which could be partially protective against SARS-CoV-2 virions. Objective and Method This article aimed to review the published data on the potential effect of the ABO blood group system on the susceptibility to COVID-19 and the disease progression and outcomes. Results The reviewed data suggest that individuals of blood group A are at a higher risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and may develop severe COVID-19 outcomes, whereas blood group O is considered protective against the infection, to some extent. However, some of the available studies seem to have been influenced by unaccounted confounders and biases. Conclusion Therefore, further appropriately controlled studies are warranted to fully investigate the possible association between the ABO blood groups and COVID-19 susceptibility and severity.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Histochem Cytochem ; 70(2): 151-168, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866441

RESUMO

Recent evidence supports the fimbriae of the fallopian tube as one origin site for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). The progression of many solid tumors is accompanied by changes in the microenvironment, including alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Therefore, we sought to determine the ECM composition of the benign fallopian tube and changes associated with serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs), precursors of HGSOC. The ECM composition of benign human fallopian tube was first defined from a meta-analysis of published proteomic datasets that identified 190 ECM proteins. We then conducted de novo proteomics using ECM enrichment and identified 88 proteins, 7 of which were not identified in prior studies (COL2A1, COL4A5, COL16A1, elastin, LAMA5, annexin A2, and PAI1). To enable future in vitro studies, we investigated the levels and localization of ECM components included in tissue-engineered models (type I, III, and IV collagens, fibronectin, laminin, versican, perlecan, and hyaluronic acid) using multispectral immunohistochemical staining of fimbriae from patients with benign conditions or STICs. Quantification revealed an increase in stromal fibronectin and a decrease in epithelial versican in STICs. Our results provide an in-depth picture of the ECM in the benign fallopian tube and identified ECM changes that accompany STIC formation. (J Histochem Cytochem XX: XXX-XXX, XXXX).


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Feminino , Fibronectinas/análise , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Proteômica , Versicanas/análise
14.
Hematol Transfus Cell Ther ; 44(1): 70-75, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541459

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been affecting the health and economic, as well as social, life of the entire globe since the end of 2019. The virus causes COVID-19, with a wide range of symptoms among the infected individuals, from asymptomatic infection to mortality. This, along with a high infection rate, prompted efforts to investigate the potential mechanisms of the different clinical manifestations caused by SARS-CoV-2 among the infected populations. HYPOTHESIS: One of the possible mechanisms that has been reported is the ABO blood system polymorphism. Indeed, one of the major proposed mechanisms is the presence of naturally occurring anti-A antibodies in individuals of groups O and B, which could be partially protective against SARS-CoV-2 virions. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: This article aimed to review the published data on the potential effect of the ABO blood group system on the susceptibility to COVID-19 and the disease progression and outcomes. RESULTS: The reviewed data suggest that individuals of blood group A are at a higher risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and may develop severe COVID-19 outcomes, whereas blood group O is considered protective against the infection, to some extent. However, some of the available studies seem to have been influenced by unaccounted confounders and biases. CONCLUSION: Therefore, further appropriately controlled studies are warranted to fully investigate the possible association between the ABO blood groups and COVID-19 susceptibility and severity.

15.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(3-4): 285-299, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757304

RESUMO

A phase 1 open-label, non-randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine feasibility and safety of autologous human Schwann cell (ahSC) transplantation accompanied by rehabilitation in participants with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to screen eligible participants to estimate an individualized volume of cell suspension to be implanted. The trial incorporated standardized multi-modal rehabilitation before and after cell delivery. Participants underwent sural nerve harvest, and ahSCs were isolated and propagated in culture. The dose of culture-expanded ahSCs injected into the chronic spinal cord lesion of each individual followed a cavity-filling volume approach. Primary outcome measures for safety and trend-toward efficacy were assessed. Two participants with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) A and two participants with incomplete chronic SCI (AIS B, C) were each enrolled in cervical and thoracic SCI cohorts (n = 8 total). All participants completed the study per protocol, and no serious adverse events related to sural nerve harvest or ahSC transplantation were reported. Urinary tract infections and skin abrasions were the most common adverse events reported. One participant experienced a 4-point improvement in motor function, a 6-point improvement in sensory function, and a 1-level improvement in neurological level of injury. Follow-up MRI in the cervical (6 months) and thoracic (24 months) cohorts revealed a reduction in cyst volume after transplantation with reduced effect over time. This phase 1 trial demonstrated the feasibility and safety of ahSC transplantation combined with a multi-modal rehabilitation protocol for participants with chronic SCI.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células , Células de Schwann/transplante , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Transplante Autólogo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/lesões , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nervo Sural , Vértebras Torácicas/lesões , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(1): 194-203.e1, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Depression and anxiety can have negative effects on patients and are important to treat. There have been few studies of their prevalence among patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to characterize the prevalence and risk factors for depression and anxiety in a large multi-center cohort of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We conducted a telephone-based survey of patients with cirrhosis at 3 health systems in the United States (a tertiary-care referral center, a safety net system, and a Veterans hospital) from April through December 2018. Of 2871 patients approached, 1021 (35.6%) completed the survey. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the PHQ-9 (range 0-25) and STAI (range 20-80) instruments, with clinically significant values defined as PHQ-9 ≥15 and STAI ≥40. We performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with significant depression and anxiety. RESULTS: The median PHQ-9 score was 7 (25th percentile-75th percentile, 3-12) and the median STAI score was 33 (25th percentile-75th percentile, 23-47); 15.6% of patients had moderately severe to severe depression and 42.6% of patients had high anxiety. In multivariable analyses, self-reported poor health (odds ratio [OR], 4.08; 95% CI, 1.79-9.28), being widowed (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.07-4.05), fear of hepatocellular carcinoma (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.04-3.42), higher household income (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.10-0.95), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.33-0.97) were associated with moderately severe to severe depression. Male sex (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.98), self-reported poor health (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.73-4.32), and fear of hepatocellular carcinoma (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.33-3.78) were associated with high anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 1 in 6 patients with cirrhosis have moderately severe to severe depression and nearly half have moderate-severe anxiety. Patients with cirrhosis should be evaluated for both of these disorders.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Depressão , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(1): 107-116, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216269

RESUMO

Breastfeeding, use of pasteurised donor human milk when mother's own milk is unavailable and kangaroo mother care have independently proven benefits in improving survival of vulnerable sick babies. A triangulated approach called the Mother Baby Friendly Initiative Plus (MBFI+) model, bringing together the combined benefits of these proven interventions, was used to improve exclusive human milk feeding at health facilities through quality improvement and system strengthening approach. This quality improvement before-and-after uncontrolled study enrolled 5343 term and 278 very low birth weight (VLBW) mother-infant dyads. Pre- and post-intervention data were compared to evaluate effect on feeding-related healthcare processes and outcomes. Primary outcome which was incidence of exclusive human milk feeding during hospital stay, improved from 44 to 64.8% (RR 1.47, 95% CI: 1.40-1.55) among term and from 60.5 to 80.7% (RR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.12-1.59) among VLBW neonates. Neonates receiving extended KMC improved from 43 to 71.1% (RR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.30-2.10).Conclusion: MBFI+ approach improved exclusive human milk feeding among term and preterm VLBW neonates. What is Known: • Breastfeeding has immense health benefits to sick preterm neonates admitted in NICU. What is New: • Quality improvement approach can lead to system strengthening and can help overcome hindrances to achieve increased breastfeeding rates.


Assuntos
Método Canguru , Leite Humano , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Melhoria de Qualidade
18.
J Neurosurg Spine ; 36(1): 135-144, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Schwann cells (SCs) have been shown to play an essential role in axon regeneration in both peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) and spinal cord injuries (SCIs). The transplantation of SCs as an adjunctive therapy is currently under investigation in human clinical trials due to their regenerative capacity. Therefore, a reliable method for procuring large quantities of SCs from peripheral nerves is necessary. This paper presents a well-developed, validated, and optimized manufacturing protocol for clinical-grade SCs that are compliant with Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs). METHODS: The authors evaluated the SC culture manufacturing data from 18 clinical trial participants who were recruited for autologous SC transplantation due to subacute SCI (n = 7), chronic SCI (n = 8), or PNIs (n = 3). To initiate autologous SC cultures, a mean nerve length of 11.8 ± 3.7 cm was harvested either from the sural nerve alone (n = 17) or with the sciatic nerve (n = 1). The nerves were digested with enzymes and SCs were isolated and further expanded in multiple passages to meet the dose requirements for transplantation. RESULTS: An average yield of 87.2 ± 89.2 million cells at P2 and 150.9 ± 129.9 million cells at P3 with high viability and purity was produced. Cell counts and rates of expansion increased with each subsequent passage from P0 to P3, with the largest rate of expansion between P2 and P3. Larger harvest nerve lengths correlated significantly with greater yields at P0 and P1 (p < 0.05). In addition, a viability and purity above 90% was sustained throughout all passages in nearly all cell products. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents reliable CGMP-compliant manufacturing methods for autologous SC products that are suitable for regenerative treatment of patients with SCI, PNI, or other conditions.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Transplante de Células , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/terapia , Células de Schwann/fisiologia , Células de Schwann/transplante , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Adulto , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transplante Autólogo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(12): 2818-2825.e1, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance is mitigated by underuse in clinical practice, highlighting a need for interventions. We evaluated the effectiveness of mailed HCC surveillance outreach to promote HCC surveillance in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter pragmatic randomized clinical trial comparing mailed outreach for surveillance ultrasound (n = 1436) and usual care with visit-based surveillance (n = 1436) among patients with cirrhosis at 3 health systems (tertiary care referral center, safety net health system, and Veterans Affairs medical center) from April 2018 to December 2019. The primary outcome of this interim analysis was guideline concordant semiannual HCC surveillance over a 12-month period and a secondary outcome was proportion time covered by surveillance. All patients were included in intention-to-screen analyses. RESULTS: Compared with usual care, the outreach arm had significantly higher semiannual surveillance (35.1% vs 21.9%) and lower no-surveillance (29.8% vs 43.5%) (P < .001), resulting in significant increases in the proportion of time covered by surveillance (41.3% vs 31.0%; P < .001). The intervention increased HCC surveillance across most predefined subgroups; however, there were site-level differences in the intervention effect, with significant increases in semiannual surveillance at the Veterans Affairs and safety net health systems but not at the tertiary care referral center. CONCLUSIONS: Mailed outreach significantly increased semiannual HCC surveillance vs usual care in patients with cirrhosis, with a consistent intervention effect across most examined subgroups. Continued follow-up is ongoing to determine if these increases in surveillance translate into improved downstream outcomes includi.ng early HCC detection and curative treatment receipt. (ClinicalTrials.gov, Numbers: NCT02582918 and NCT03756051).


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Ultrassonografia
20.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1738-1743, 2021 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898504

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The present study was conducted to investigate prevalence of intestinal parasites and the risk factors related to socio-demographic characteristics of patients admitted in pathology ward, General Hospital, Gujranwala. METHODOLOGY: 318 stool samples were collected from patients and examined under light microscope by using wet mount technique. While socio-demographic information was collected in the form of a questionnaire. RESULTS: The results showed seven (n = 7) species of intestinal parasites were prevalent in stool samples of patients. Among them, four (n = 4) were helminth and three (n = 3) were protozoan parasites causing single and mixed infections. Overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 78.3% (n = 249/318) considering both male and female patients. Highest prevalence was recorded for A. lumbricoides (n = 125, 39.3%) followed by H. nana (n = 10, 3.1%), S. stercoralis and T. saginata (n = 6, 1.9%). Among protozoan parasites, higher prevalence was recorded in G. lamblia (n = 23, 7.2%) followed by E. histolytica (n = 21, 6.6%). Among single infections, the most prevalent parasite was A. lumbricoides and less prevalent parasites were S. stercoralis and T. saginata. The factors that had significant effect (p < 0.05) on prevalence of parasitic species were contaminated water, food, soil, and surrounding environment. CONCLUSIONS: The present study determined that the parasite helminth (A. lumbricoides, H. nana, S. stercoralis, T. saginata) and protozoan (G. lamblia and E. histolytica) are common that pose an important public health concern in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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