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J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 33(2): 315-321, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137552


BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative disease of the synovial joints in the elderly population with hip osteoarthritis as the second most commonly affected joint. A multitude of conservative treatments is used for pain relief and functional improvement including acetaminophen, NSAID, intra-articular corticosteroid, and viscosupplementation (VS). Different preparations of VS based on different molecular weights are commercially available. No systematic review or meta-analysis regarding the use of intra-articular high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HMWHA) injection for the hip joint was published before. This review analyzes the efficacy of intra-articular HMWHA for hip osteoarthritis. METHODS: PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library for randomized trials describing the efficacy of HMWHA for hip osteoarthritis was searched. The search terms were osteoarthritis, hip joint, outcomes, viscosupplementation, and high molecular weight hyaluronic acid in different combinations. Standardized mean difference (SMD) in VAS for pain relief and Lequesne index for functional outcomes while risk ratio (RR) for complications was used for data pooling. RESULTS: Four studies comprising 185 and 189 patients in HMWHA and control groups were included, respectively. SMD for VAS and Lequesne index was -0.056 and -0.114, respectively while RR for complication was 0.879. CONCLUSIONS: Intra-articular HMWHA injection provided pain relief, functional improvement, and no severe complications on immediate short term basis. However, the results do not favor treatment with HMWHA over other treatment methods. Randomized trials are further necessary to provide data regarding comparisons between HMWHA for hip osteoarthritis concerning clinicians' convenience, compliance, duration of relief, and cost-effectiveness.

Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Osteoartrite do Quadril/tratamento farmacológico , Viscossuplementos/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Peso Molecular , Osteoartrite do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Escala Visual Analógica
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(10): 3089-3100, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852085


Infective endocarditis is very uncommon in children; however, when it does arise, it can lead to severe consequences. The biggest risk factor for paediatric infective endocarditis today is underlying congenital heart defects. The most common causative organisms are Staphylococcus aureus and the viridans group of streptococci. The spectrum of symptoms varies widely in children and this produces difficulty in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis in children is reliant on the modified Duke criteria. The use of blood cultures remains the most effective microbiological test for pathogen identification. However, in blood culture-negative infective endocarditis, serology testing and IgG titres are more effective for diagnosis. Imaging techniques used include echocardiograms, computed tomography and positron emission tomography. Biomarkers utilised in diagnosis are C-reactive protein, with recent literature reviewing the use of interleukin-15 and C-C motif chemokine ligand for reliable risk prediction. The American Heart Association (AHA) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines have been compared to describe the differences in the approach to infective endocarditis in children. Medical intervention involves the use of antimicrobial treatment and surgical interventions include the repair and replacement of cardiac valves. Quality of life is highly likely to improve from surgical intervention.Conclusion: Over the past decades, there have been great advancements in clinical practice to improve outcomes in patients with infective endocarditis. Nonetheless, further work is required to better investigative and manage such high risk cohort. What is Known: • The current diagnostic techniques including 'Duke's criteria' for paediatric infective endocarditis diagnosis • The current management guidelines utilised for paediatric infective endocarditis What is New: • The long-term outcomes of patients that underwent medical and surgical intervention • The quality of life of paediatric patients that underwent medical and surgical intervention.

Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Criança , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus , Estados Unidos