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1.
Disabil Health J ; : 101218, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disability competencies were included, for the first time, in India's new undergraduate competency-based curriculum as a result of physician-led advocacy in 2019; the regulatory body also recommended the use of the humanities in medicine. OBJECTIVE: To use tools from the health humanities to impart disability competencies and help students appreciate the social and human rights issues associated with disability. METHODS: A module was developed and piloted in the foundation course on the new cohort of students. The tools included storytelling, visual art, poetry, narratives, and Forum Theatre; many facilitators were doctors and patients with disabilities. Learners were introduced to the concept of universal design through a field visit. Quantitative and open-ended feedback was taken from learners after module delivery; reflections were sought after four months. RESULTS: The data revealed that the humanities tools used in the module had the potential to help learners explore struggle and oppression and to expose discriminatory attitudes. Learners were able to think beyond the hegemony of normalcy, and show an understanding of diversity, dignity, autonomy, disableism, social inclusion, equity, and universal design. They admitted to the misconceptions they carried and showed keenness to advocate for change. CONCLUSION: This study piloted a novel disability competencies module using tools from the health humanities and found that learners were able to engage with and show an understanding of the social and human rights issues associated with disability. Conversations by, for, and with people with disabilities must be part of such interventions in developing and delivering disability courses.

3.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(4)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549787

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Post-exposure prophylaxis using rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) is universal recommendation for category III exposures. This study was conducted to determine quantity of RIG used to infiltrate animal bite wounds in relation to longest dimension and area of wound. METHODS: Children aged 2-18 years reporting within 7 days of category III animal bite were included. eRIG (300 IU/ml) was used in all subjects. A predesigned proforma was filled for clinical and epidemiological details of subjects. Maximum length and width of wounds was measured by using non-stretchable measuring tape. RIG was infiltrated in wounds as per WHO recommendations and volume infiltrated was noted. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 100 subjects were enrolled. The mean (±SD) volume of RIG infiltrated in wounds per unit length was 0.75 (±0.21) ml/cm and per unit area was 3.18 (±1.75) ml/cm2. Regression equations were calculated. Proposed equations y = 0.6x + 0.3, where y is the volume of RIG (ml) and x is the length of the wound (cm) and y = 0.9x + 1.1, where y is the volume of RIG (ml) and x is the area of the wound (cm2) can prove to be a useful tool in RIG volume calculation for primary health care providers.

4.
Indian Pediatr ; 58(10): 987-990, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876781

RESUMO

All study designs in medical research, barring descriptive studies, involve comparative analysis to achieve its objective/s. Comparisons between groups based on outcomes, or risk factors, or interventions, are the basis of hypotheses in evidence-based medicine. Statistical tests support in making criterion-based decisions about the validity of the hypothesis. A basic knowledge of statistical comparisons helps medical researchers to apply valid statistical tests. Novice medical researchers struggle to decide when, and which statistical test must be applied. There is a need to further reduce the mathematical jargon in statistics related publications for medical researchers. In this article, we aim to provide the readers with practical pointers about the applied aspects of basic statistical comparisons in medical research.

5.
Indian J Orthop ; : 1-10, 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840819

RESUMO

Covid-19 is a respiratory disease caused by coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) first identified in Wuhan, China (December 2019). The disease rapidly crossed the barrier of countries, continents and spread globally. Non-pharmaceutical measures such as social distancing, face mask, frequent hand washing and use of sanitizer remained the best available option to prevent the spread of disease. OPD, IPD admissions, elective O. Ts were curtailed. Orthopedic care was only limited to emergency and semi-urgent procedures like necrotizing fasciitis, open fracture, and compartment syndrome. These measures were taken to preserve infrastructure and manpower to manage covid-19 pandemic. The children were thought to have a low susceptibility to covid-19 as compared to an adult. Deferring the patient during pandemic has led to high orthopedic disease burden, morbidity and disease-related sequelae, hence elective care must be resumed with modified hospital infrastructure. Resumption of elective/emergent orthopedic care should be slow, phasic and strategic, much similar to unlocking. Cases must be stratified depending on covid status and severity. Dedicated O.Ts with neutral/negative pressure and HEPA filter for covid positive and suspected patients are to be used. All symptomatic and suspected patients should be investigated for covid-19 by RT-PCR, blood counts and CT scan. Regional anaesthesia should be preferred to General anaesthesia. Power drill/saw/burr/pulse lavage should be minimized to avoid aerosol generation. Postoperatively continuous surveillance and monitoring to be done for covid related symptoms. Medical institutes rapidly shifted to the online mode of education. Blended learning (virtual & physical) and imparting skills have to be continued in post covid phase with equitable distribution of teaching hours to students of different years.

7.
J Educ Health Promot ; 9: 231, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209923

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Currently, self-directed learning (SDL) is emphasized in medical institutions all over the world. The skills of SDL enable one to be a lifelong learner, a necessity to cope up with fast-expanding medical knowledge. AIMS: This study aims to develop and implement an "SDL" module for medical undergraduates and find out their perception about the same. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using a mixed-method design (having both qualitative and quantitative components) was conducted in the Department of Community Medicine, UCMS, Delhi, India. METHODS: A module was developed following an extensive literature review and focus group discussions with the teaching staff of the institute. First-semester undergraduate students were invited to participate in the study and asked for feedback using a semi-structured questionnaire. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Quantitative data were expressed in mean, range, and frequency. For qualitative data, thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: The module was implemented with 160 students, in November for 10 hour distributed over 5 weeks. Feedback could be obtained from 130 students. Sixty-seven percent of students were satisfied and 66% reported as motivated to study the allotted topic further. Qualitative analysis showed that though the students liked the learning process based on this module, they also felt facilitators could have been more active in imparting knowledge and skills. CONCLUSIONS: To make learners equipped with the ability to learn throughout a professional learning course, SDL as a learning tool should be introduced in the medical undergraduate curriculum.

8.
Int J Appl Basic Med Res ; 10(3): 210-214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088746

RESUMO

Background: Multiple-choice question (MCQ) is frequently used assessment tool in medical education, both for certification and competitive examinations. Ill-constructed MCQs impact the utility of the assessment and thus the fate of examinee. We conducted this study to ascertain whether a short training session for faculty on MCQ writing results in desired improvement in their item-writing skills. Methods: A 1-day workshop on constructing high-quality MCQs was conducted for the faculty as a before-after design, following training session of 3 h duration. 28 participants wrote preworkshop (n = 133) and postworkshop (n = 137) MCQs, which were analyzed and compared for 17 item-writing flaws. A mock test of 100 MCQs (selected by stratified random sampling from all the MCQs generated during the workshop) was conducted for MBBS-passed students for item analysis. Results: Item-writing flaws reduced following the training (15% vs. 27.7%, P < 0.05). Improvement mainly occurred in quality of options; heterogeneity dropped from 27.1% prior to the workshop to 5.8% postworkshop. The proportion of MCQs failing the cover test remained similarly high (68.4% vs. 60.6%), and there was no improvement in writing of the stem before and after the workshop. The item analysis did not reveal any significant improvement in facility value, discriminating index, and proportion of nonfunctioning distractors. Conclusion: A single, short-duration faculty training session is not good enough to correct flaws in writing of the MCQs. There is a need of focused training of the faculty in MCQ writing. Courses with a longer duration, supplemented by repeated or continuous faculty development programs, need to be explored.

9.
Indian Pediatr ; 57(12): 1135-1138, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of non-exclusive breastfeeding (NEBF) and quantify the out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) associated with NEBF and treatment of morbidity among infants up to six months of age. METHODS: Community based in an urban slum, among 172 mother-infant dyads selected by systematic random sampling. Current breast-feeding practices and OOPE over last one month was recorded using a pre-validated, interviewer administered schedule. Independent sample t-test subsequent to bootstrapping was used to test the statistical significance of the difference in mean out of pocket expenditure between NEBF and exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) infants. The main outcome measures was non-exclusive breastfeeding rate and out of pocket expenditure associated with infant feeding and treatment of morbidity. RESULTS: 67 (38.9%) infants were found to be non- exclusively breastfed. The median (IQR) total monthly OOPE incurred on non-breastmilk feeding and healthcare was found significantly higher among NEBF infants vs EBF infants [440 (80-982) vs [0 (0-290); P<0.001]. The median (IQR) monthly OOPE incurred on healthcare was also significantly higher among NEBF infants than EBF infants [INR 140 (0-540) vs 0(0-150); P=0.002]. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of NEBF was high, and it was associated with higher financial burden on the families.

10.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(5): 2226-2231, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754478

RESUMO

Introduction: Faculty development to implement competency-based medical education (CBME) is urgently needed as the Medical Council of India has implemented the competency-based curriculum this year onwards. Objectives: To evaluate a 2-day faculty development workshop in terms of: (a) increase in knowledge about CBME terminology and concepts, (b) self-reported capacity to develop and implement a competency-based module in their respective disciplines, and (c) satisfaction of the participants. Methodology: A single arm interventional study using mixed methods was carried out in which faculty members were purposively identified and requested to volunteer for a two-day faculty development workshop on the development and implementation of CBME. The workshop was evaluated (open-ended and Likert scored items) by the participants for self-reported gain in knowledge, gain in their confidence to develop and implement CBME, and level of satisfaction with respect to the components of the workshop. Quantitative data was analyzed by Wilcoxon signed rank test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Qualitative data was analyzed by doing content analysis and emerging themes have been presented. Results: Eleven faculty members attended a capacity building workshop for developing and implementing a competency-based curriculum for medical undergraduates. There was a significant improvement in their self-reported knowledge and attitude regarding the competency-based curriculum. New concepts learned fell into four domains: modification of the existing curriculum toward competency-based curriculum, knowledge of CBME, teaching-learning and assessment methods, and beneficial to the students. The participants were highly satisfied with the workshop in its current form. Conclusion: A two-day faculty development workshop can increase the knowledge and understanding of competency-based medical education and can be an important first step in the journey to more specialized training.

11.
Indian J Community Med ; 45(1): 89-91, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029991

RESUMO

Background: India has lowly prioritized pet-associated zoonosis as a public health priority because data regarding the same and the susceptible population involved are sparse. Objective: To find the proportion of pet dog ownership in a settled urban colony of East Delhi and to assess awareness regarding canine zoonotic diseases and responsible pet ownership. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 700 participants in an urban colony of East Delhi. Results: The proportion of pet dog owners was 5.4%. Only one-third (34.2%) of the respondents were aware that pets are a source of disease. A majority of pet owners (86.8%) identified rabies as a disease caused by the bite of only stray dogs. The proportion of responsible pet owners was 39.4%. Only one-tenth of surveyed households had registered their pet with the local municipal authorities, despite such registration being a compulsory requirement by law. Conclusion: This study provides us with a better understanding of the lacunae in awareness of zoonotic diseases and its preventive measures among pet owners. All pet owners have a responsibility to ensure that their pets are healthy and free from disease.

12.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 8(11): 3465-3468, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803637

RESUMO

Zoonotic diseases are an important public health problem. Keeping this in way, a panel reviewed the discussion around "one health" strategy of the WHO in combating zoonotic diseases during Seventh annual conference of Consortium Against Rabies (CAR) with the theme of "Zoonoses: Thinking beyond Rabies" held on 14th and 15th June 2019. The panel came out a manuscript discussing the need, background, and rationale for basic framework of possible roadmap for one health. Background ­About CAR: CAR has been established with the aim to serve as a platform for the control of the rabies menace in India. It will evolve into a full fledged struggle against rabies in the country. The association comprises of medical professionals, veterinary doctors, and public health persons. The idea behind CAR is to bring the best minds in the country for research and information dissemination in the field of rabies. About Academy of Family Physicians of India AFPI: AFPI is the official association of family physicians in India. Dedicated to provide professional leadership, conduct healthcare advocacy, policy development and a change in health system within the domain of family medicine, and larger public health system in the country, the academy is the recipient of the Healthcare Leadership Award 2012 in the category of Healthcare Governance and Public Administration. The white paper development Process: More than 100 medical experts, veterinary doctors, and public health persons from across the country and belonging to the fields of internal medicine, family medicine, public health, veterinary sciences, nursing science and environmental science and representing reputed medical institutions, government funded research institutions, and policy making bodies participated in discussions on topic of "one health" made during 7th Annual national conference of CAR with the theme of "Zoonoses: Thinking beyond Rabies" held on 14th and 15th June 2019. The panel steering the discussion included leading expert from ICMR, medical colleges, veterinary college, family medicine, private practitioners, and health program managers. The panel committee had prepared a draft document well in advance of the conference, which was communicated to all participants for feedback and comments. The panel was steered by ICMR expert. The discussion of the panellist was presented to the consensus group and unanimously adopted. A writing group worked on the manuscript, which was again circulated by email to all for any comments and suggestions before final publication.

13.
Indian Pediatr ; 56(8): 669-672, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477648

RESUMO

Conventional algorithms for selecting study designs are difficult to use for a novice researcher, especially the postgraduate students. An inherent limitation of using the existing algorithms is the requirement of a priori knowledge of the characteristics of various study designs. We propose a simple and novel 3-question approach to select study designs. The questions are asked in a stepwise manner with answers in 'yes' or 'no'. The responses to each of these questions lead the researcher towards choosing the appropriate study design. We believe that this 3-question approach would be useful for unexperienced researchers in selecting study designs, besides serving as a tool to teach-learn selection of study designs.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
14.
J Educ Health Promot ; 8: 164, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544129

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Research experience helps an undergraduate student to understand published works, to learn teamwork, and even to consider research as a career. Few medical institutions have attempted to engage undergraduates in research experience. Competency-based medical education has emerged as a core strategy to educate and assess medical students worldwide. AIMS: This study aims to develop and implement a competency-based research methodology training module for undergraduate students and find out students' perception about this. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of mixed design was undertaken in the Department of Community Medicine, UCMS, Delhi, India. METHODOLOGY: A competency-based research training module was developed and implemented with 4th semester undergraduate students posted in the department. Students' feedback about the module was obtained. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: For quantitative variables, means, ranges, medians, and percentages were calculated. To find out students' perception about the posting a qualitative analysis was done. RESULTS: The module was implemented with 25 students posted in the department in May 2017. However, feedback was obtained from 23 students. About 83% of the students reported as highly satisfied with the posting, 61% of the students mentioned that after completion of this posting, they felt motivated to do further research. A qualitative analysis of the feedback showed that students found the project helped them to enhance their knowledge and develop skills. CONCLUSIONS: Competency-based research methodology training can serve as a tool for teaching research methodology to undergraduate students.

15.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 7(4): 721-727, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234044

RESUMO

Introduction: Internet addiction (IA) is an emerging phenomenon among the youth of India. It has been found to be associated with mental health problems. This study was therefore conducted to find out the burden of IA among college students in Delhi, its risk factors and association with depression, anxiety, and stress. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, with face-to-face interviews, among the nonprofessional college students of the University of Delhi. Simple random sampling was used to select the students from the list obtained from the three colleges. Young's IA test scale and depression, anxiety, and stress short scale were used to measure IA and the mental health correlates, respectively. Chi-square tests were applied for testing the association of IA with the sociodemographic variables, the variables related to internet usage patterns, and the mental health variables. Independent predictors were determined using logistic regression modeling. Results: The prevalence of IA was 25.3%. The mean (standard deviation) age of the participants was 19.1 (1.02) years and 62.1% were males. The median family income was INR 50,000. IA was significantly associated with higher family income, greater screen time, always online status, and greater duration of internet use per week. The independent predictors of IA were greater duration of internet use per week and always online status, depression, anxiety, and stress. Conclusion: The burden of IA among the college students was high. depression, anxiety, and stress were found to be independent predictors of IA.

16.
J Thorac Dis ; 9(8): 2697-2702, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28932578

RESUMO

There is a lack of awareness about the guidelines for standardized and transparent reporting of biomedical research, among the medical professionals. This paper aims to familiarize the clinical researchers and practitioners regarding the issues related to transparency and the evolving guidelines for standardizing them, in the reporting of biomedical research. A narrative review method is adopted here, primarily based on the EQUATOR and SAMPL guidelines for reporting studies and statistical analyses. As study methods and statistical approaches support each other, their reporting practices as per the standardized guidelines have been dealt here in a congruous manner.

19.
Indian J Public Health ; 59(1): 54-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25758733

RESUMO

Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) was launched in April 2005, to promote institutional deliveries through provision of cash assistance, transport, escort, and referral services. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the antenatal registrations, postnatal checkups, and institutional deliveries, and to compare the various social groups. Married women of the reproductive age group, having at least two children, were interviewed regarding antenatal care, delivery, and postnatal care in both pregnancies, latest as well as previous. Post JSY implementation, antenatal registrations increased from 61.79 to 96.34%, Deliveries at the Government Health Facility increased from 25.20 to 53.25% and postnatal check-ups increased from 45.93 to 69.51%. In the post-JSY-implementation phase, the Government Health Facility was preferred more by Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST), Other Backward Classes (OBC) (SC/ST = 56.87%, OBC = 60.2%, and general = 43.68%), educated (Illiterate = 17.39%, Primary = 88.14, and Middle or above = 81.94%) and the lower socioeconomic classes (Lower SEC 71.83% and Upper lower and above = 45.71%) for their deliveries. It appears that the socially backward groups have benefited more from JSY.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , História do Século XVI , Humanos , Índia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 3(3): 216-8, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25374857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In India, research work in the form of a thesis is a mandatory requirement for the postgraduate (PG) medical students. Data entry in a computer-based spread sheet is one of the important basic skills for research, which has not yet been studied. This study was conducted to assess the data entry skills of the 2(nd) year PG medical students of a medical college of North India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among 111 second year PG students by using four simulated filled case record forms and a computer-based spread sheet in which data entry was to be carried out. RESULTS: On a scale of 0-10, only 17.1% of the students scored more than seven. The specific sub-skills that were found to be lacking in more than half of the respondents were as follows: Inappropriate coding (93.7%), long variable names (51.4%), coding not being done for all the variables (76.6%), missing values entered in a non-uniform manner (84.7%) and two variables entered in the same column in the case of blood pressure reading (80.2%). CONCLUSION: PG medical students were not found to be proficient in data entry skill and this can act as a barrier to do research. This being a first of its kind study in India, more research is needed to understand this issue and then include this yet neglected aspect in teaching research methodology to the medical students.

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