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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244977, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285621

RESUMO

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.


Resumo O vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é o grave problema de saúde pública das doenças hepáticas. Aproximadamente 170 milhões de pessoas no mundo estão infectadas com HCV; no Paquistão, a doença tem alto índice de ocorrência. O presente estudo prevê uma prevalência atualizada do HCV e distribuição genotípica na população geral do distrito de Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Paquistão. As amostras de sangue de 6.538 indivíduos, incluindo 3.263 homens e 3.275 mulheres, foram analisadas para o antígeno de superfície da hepatite C por teste imunocromatográfico (ICT), ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) e reação em cadeia da polimerase de transcrição reversa (PCR). Verificou-se que 396 (12,13%) de 3.263 indivíduos continham anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV, enquanto entre as diferentes faixas etárias as maiores incidências de anticorpos anti-HCV foram encontradas na faixa etária de 31 a 40 anos (11,01%). As amostras positivas para ICT foram posteriormente rastreadas por nested PCR para determinar a existência de HCV-RNA ativo. Identificou-se que 7,11% (3.263) do total da população (6.538) testada foram positivos, dentre os quais 461 (14,07%) mulheres possuíam anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV. Nossos dados mostraram que a infecção total pelo HCV na população investigada foi de 5,78%. Maior porcentagem de prevalência de HCV foi detectada em homens do que em mulheres nas faixas etárias de 31-40 e 41-50. Para comparar a prevalência de genótipos de HCV com relação à idade no genótipo masculino e feminino 3a foi encontrado o genótipo mais prevalente seguido por 1a, 2a e 3b, respectivamente.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238891, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249229

RESUMO

Abstract Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Resumo Os manipuladores de alimentos desempenham um papel fundamental na transmissão de protozoários e helmintos parasitas patogenicamente importantes. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de protozoários patogênicos intestinais e helmintos parasitas entre manipuladores de alimentos na Universidade de Malakand, Lower Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas de 642 manipuladores de alimentos (todos do sexo masculino) em um estudo transversal de janeiro a novembro de 2017. Técnicas de montagem úmida e métodos de concentração usando soluções de sal e formol-éter. Trezentos e oitenta e quatro casos (59,8%) foram encontrados infectados com mais um parasita. A maioria dos indivíduos foi encontrada infectada por helmintos (47,6%) em comparação com protozoários intestinais (0,93%). Setenta e dois casos (11,2%) dos casos apresentavam infecção mista com protozoários intestinais e helmintos parasitas. A ordem de prevalência de helmintos intestinais foi Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40,1%), seguido por Taeniasa ginata (n = 96, 14,9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8,40%) e Trichuris trichura (n = 30, 4,60 %). Para protozoários intestinais, Entamoeba histolytica / dispar (n = 36, 5,64%) foi o único protozoário detectado. Monoparasitismo foi maior do que poliparasitismo. A renda familiar e o nível de escolaridade foram os fatores significativamente (P <0,05) associados na prevalência de parasitos. A pesquisa atual mostrou que os IPIs são principalmente os patógenos de origem alimentar, ainda um importante problema de saúde pública no Paquistão. Programas eficazes de controle da transferência de doenças parasitárias e seus fatores associados são recomendados.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e245813, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285592

RESUMO

Abstract Hepatitis B virus infection is perilous among the five types of Hepatitis, as it remains clinically asymptomatic. The present study draws up-to-date prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the general population of Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. The blood samples from 4803 individuals including 2399 male and 2404 females were investigated. All the suspected samples were analyzed for hepatitis B surface antigen using Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and followed by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that 312 (13.00%) out of 2399 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HBV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HBV antibodies were found in the age of 21-30 groups (10.73%). Furthermore, the ICT positive samples were screened by nested polymerase chain reaction to detect the existence of active HBV-DNA. It was observed that 169 (7.04%) out of (2399) male of the total population (4803) tested was positive. On the other hand, the female 463 (19.25%) possessed antibodies in their blood against HBV. Accumulatively, our results showed a higher percentage of HBV prevalence in males than females in the age group 21-30 years. The total HCV infected in Mardan general population was recorded at 5.7% comprising both male and female.


Resumo A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B é perigosa entre os cinco tipos de hepatite, pois permanece clinicamente assintomática. O presente estudo traça a prevalência atualizada do vírus da hepatite B (HBV) na população geral de Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Amostras de sangue de 4.803 indivíduos, incluindo 2.399 homens e 2.404 mulheres, foram investigadas. Todas as amostras suspeitas foram analisadas para o antígeno de superfície da hepatite B usando teste imunocromatográfico (ICT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), seguido por transcrição reversa-reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR). Os resultados mostraram que 312 (13,00%) de 2.399 indivíduos continham anticorpos no sangue contra o VHB, enquanto, entre as diferentes faixas etárias, as maiores incidências de anticorpos VHB foram encontradas nos grupos de 21 a 30 anos (10,73%). Além disso, amostras positivas para ICT foram rastreadas por reação em cadeia da polimerase aninhada para detectar a existência de HBV-DNA ativo. Observou-se que 169 (7,04%) de 2.399 homens do total da população (4803) testados foram positivos. Por outro lado, 463 mulheres (19,25%) possuíam anticorpos no sangue contra VHB. Acumulativamente, nossos resultados mostraram uma porcentagem maior de prevalência de HBV em homens do que em mulheres na faixa etária de 21 a 30 anos. O total de HCV infectados na população geral de Mardan foi registrado em 5,7%, incluindo homens e mulheres.

5.
Br Dent J ; 231(4): 206, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446871
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244977, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287506

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
7.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e245813, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287527

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus infection is perilous among the five types of Hepatitis, as it remains clinically asymptomatic. The present study draws up-to-date prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the general population of Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. The blood samples from 4803 individuals including 2399 male and 2404 females were investigated. All the suspected samples were analyzed for hepatitis B surface antigen using Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and followed by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that 312 (13.00%) out of 2399 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HBV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HBV antibodies were found in the age of 21-30 groups (10.73%). Furthermore, the ICT positive samples were screened by nested polymerase chain reaction to detect the existence of active HBV-DNA. It was observed that 169 (7.04%) out of (2399) male of the total population (4803) tested was positive. On the other hand, the female 463 (19.25%) possessed antibodies in their blood against HBV. Accumulatively, our results showed a higher percentage of HBV prevalence in males than females in the age group 21-30 years. The total HCV infected in Mardan general population was recorded at 5.7% comprising both male and female.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Adulto , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(5): 054504, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243263

RESUMO

In the last few decades, much effort has been made for the production of squeezed vacuum states in order to reduce quantum noise in the audio-frequency band. This technique has been implemented in all running gravitational-wave interferometric detectors and helped to improve their sensitivity. While the detectors are acquiring data for astrophysical observations, they must be kept in the operating condition, also called "science mode," that is, a state that requires the highest possible duty-cycle for all the instrumental parts and controls. We report the development of a highly automated setup for the generation of optical squeezed states, where all the required control loops are supervised by a software based on finite state machines; we took special care to grant ease of use, stability of operation, and possibility of auto-recovery. Moreover, the setup has been designed to be compatible with the existing software and hardware infrastructure of the Virgo detector. In this paper, we discuss the optical properties of this squeezing setup, the locking techniques, and the automation algorithms.

9.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238891, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037080

RESUMO

Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Fezes , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública
10.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825759

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
11.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787717

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
12.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 14(2): 245-251, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phototherapy is the primary treatment for hyperbilirubinemia in neonates. Hypocalcemia is a lesser known but potential detrimental effect of phototherapy. It has been hypothesized that phototherapy inhibits pineal secretion of melatonin, which blocks the effect of cortisol on bone calcium. Therefore, unchecked cortisol increases bone uptake of calcium and induces hypocalcemia. Covering head during phototherapy in order to prevent light reaching to the pineal gland which eventually leads to the prevention of hypocalcemia is hypothesized to prevent hypocalcemia but it lacks sufficient evidence worldwide. METHOD: It is a prospective, randomized controlled study. 112 neonates were randomized into two groups of 56 neonates. Group A underwent phototherapy without head cover and group B with head covered by a cap. RESULT: The mean decline in serum ionic calcium after 48 hours of phototherapy in group A and group B was 0.57±0.37 mg/dl and 0.34±0.24 mg/dl respectively. This decline in serum ionic calcium was significantly higher in group A. (p < 0.001). 26.8% newborns from group A developed hypocalcemia while in group B only 14.3% developed hypocalcemia however it was not found to be statistically significant. Incidence of symptomatic hypocalcemia between the two groups was also not significant. CONCLUSION: There was significant reduction in serum calcium in neonates undergoing phototherapy without head cover as compared to neonates with head cover but risk of hypocalcemia was not significant. Further studies with larger sample size including preterm are recommended.

14.
J Appl Microbiol ; 131(1): 288-299, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174331

RESUMO

AIM: The family Arcobacteraceae formerly genus Arcobacter has recently been reclassified into six genera. Among nine species of the genus Aliarcobacter, Aliarcobacter faecis and Aliarcobacter lanthieri have been identified as emerging pathogens potentially cause health risks to humans and animals. This study was designed to develop/optimize, validate and apply Arcobacteraceae family- and two species-specific (A. faecis and A. lanthieri) loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays to rapidly detect and quantify total number of cells in various environmental niches. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three sets of LAMP primers were designed from conserved and variable regions of 16S rRNA (family-specific) and gyrB (species-specific) genes. Optimized Arcobacteraceae family-specific LAMP assay correctly amplified and detected 24 species, whereas species-specific LAMP assays detected A. faecis and A. lanthieri reference strains as well as 91 pure and mixed culture isolates recovered from aquatic and faecal sources. The specificity of LAMP amplification of A. faecis and A. lanthieri was further confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Assay sensitivities were tested using variable DNA concentrations extracted from simulated target species cells in an autoclaved agricultural water sample by achieving a minimum detection limit of 10 cells mL-1 (10 fg). Direct DNA-based quantitative detection, from agricultural surface water, identified A. faecis (17%) and A. lanthieri (1%) at a low frequency compared to family-level (93%) with the concentration ranging from 2·1 × 101 to 2·2 × 105 cells 100 mL-1 . CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these three DNA-based rapid and cost-effective novel LAMP assays are sensitive and can be completed in less than 40 min. They have potential for on-site quantitative detection of species of family Arcobacteraceae, A. faecis and A. lanthieri in food, environmental and clinical matrices. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The newly developed LAMP assays are specific, sensitive, accurate with higher reproducibility that have potential to facilitate in a less equipped lab setting and can help in early quantitative detection and rate of prevalence in environmental niches. The assays can be adopted in the diagnostic labs and epidemiological studies.

15.
Surgeon ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257272

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed a significant strain on healthcare resources and utilisation globally. The appearance of the disease in the Republic of Ireland resulted in a broad postponement of scheduled and routine surgical care. The influence of the novel coronavirus, and the associated imposition of public health measures such as school closures and social distancing, on the burden of emergency surgical disease is less clear. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of COVID-19 on the number of patients presenting to our institution with emergent surgical illnesses or requiring emergency general surgical procedures. METHODS: All patients attending our service between March 1st 2020 and April 30th 2020 were identified retrospectively by examining electronic handover and electronic discharge summaries, and data were collected relating to demographics, presenting illness, critical care utilisation, length of stay, operative or endoscopic procedure performed, and in-hospital mortality. Similar data were collected March 1st to April 30th 2019, 2018, and 2017 respectively to allow direct comparison. RESULTS: 151 patients were admitted during the study period, compared to a total of 788 during the proceeding three years (mean 2.49 admissions per night versus 4.35 per night, 42.8% reduction, p < 0.001). Median age of admitted patients was 51.8 years, compared to 50.3 years formerly (p = 0.35). 53 emergency procedures were performed, compared to a median of 70 over the same period in the previous years (mean 0.87 per day versus 1.16 per day, 25.4% reduction, p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: A significant overall reduction in the number of patients being admitted to our unit and requiring emergency surgical procedures during March and April 2020 was seen, in line with patterns reported internationally.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224247

RESUMO

In December, 2019 in Wuhan city of China, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has garnered global attention due to its rapid transmission. World Health Organization (WHO) termed the infection as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) after phylogenic studies with SARS-CoV. The virus causes severe respiratory infections with dry cough, high fever, body ache and fatigue. The virus is primarily transmitted among people through respiratory droplets from COVID-19 infected person. WHO declared this COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic and since February, 2020 affected countries have locked down their cities, industries and restricted the movement of their citizens to minimize the spread of the virus. In spite of the negative aspects of coronavirus on the globe, the coronavirus crises brought a positive impact on the natural environment. Countries where the movement of citizens was seized to stop the spread of coronavirus infection have experienced a noticeable decline in pollution and greenhouse gases emission. Recent research also indicated that this COVID-19-induced lockdown has reduced the environmental pollution drastically worldwide. In this review, we have discussed some important positive impacts of coronavirus on environmental quality by compiling the recently published data from research articles, NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and ESA (European Space Agency).

17.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(6): L957-L967, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996783

RESUMO

Electronic nicotine delivery systems, or e-cigarettes, utilize a liquid solution that normally contains propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG) to generate vapor and act as a carrier for nicotine and flavorings. Evidence indicated these "carriers" reduced growth and survival of epithelial cells including those of the airway. We hypothesized that 3% PG or PG mixed with VG (3% PG/VG, 55:45) inhibited glucose uptake in human airway epithelial cells as a first step to reducing airway cell survival. Exposure of H441 or human bronchiolar epithelial cells (HBECs) to PG and PG/VG (30-60 min) inhibited glucose uptake and mitochondrial ATP synthesis. PG/VG inhibited glycolysis. PG/VG and mannitol reduced cell volume and height of air-liquid interface cultures. Mannitol, but not PG/VG, increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. PG/VG reduced transepithelial electrical resistance, which was associated with increased transepithelial solute permeability. PG/VG decreased fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of green fluorescent protein-linked glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT10, indicating that glucose transport function was compromised. Puffing PG/VG vapor onto the apical surface of primary HBECs for 10 min to mimic the effect of e-cigarette smoking also reduced glucose transport. In conclusion, short-term exposure to PG/VG, key components of e-cigarettes, decreased glucose transport and metabolism in airway cells. We propose that this was a result of PG/VG reduced cell volume and membrane fluidity, with further consequences on epithelial barrier function. Taking these results together, we suggest these factors contribute to reduced defensive properties of the epithelium. We propose that repeated/chronic exposure to these agents are likely to contribute to airway damage in e-cigarette users.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Glicerol/farmacologia , Humanos , Propilenoglicol/farmacologia
18.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 202(1): 93-105, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580239

RESUMO

Behçet's disease (BD) is a vasculitis of unknown aetiology typified by chronic recurrent oral ulcers and systemic inflammatory manifestations. Neutrophils, and specifically their protease neutrophil elastase (NE), have been implicated in its pathology. Although NE is an effective anti-microbial, excessive NE can damage host tissue. Recurrent oral ulceration is a primary BD symptom, therefore we hypothesized that excessive neutrophil infiltration evidenced by increased NE and a reduction in specific endogenous inhibitors, secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and alpha1-anti-trypsin (α1AT) contributes to BD mucosal instability. NE, SLPI and α1AT were quantified in saliva from BD patients with active oral ulcers (BDa) and quiet without ulcers (BDq), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RASa; RASq) and healthy controls (HC). Although BDq saliva had marginally higher median NE levels (1112 ng/ml) compared to both RASq (1043 ng/ml) and HC (999 ng/ml), SLPI was significantly reduced in BDq (P < 0·01). Despite decreased SLPI protein, mRNA expression was significantly increased in BDq buccal epithelial swabs compared to RASq and HC (P < 0·05, P < 0·001). NE remained enzymatically active, although α1AT levels were at least eight times higher than SLPI in all groups, suggesting that α1AT does not have a primary role in counteracting NE in saliva. Furthermore, NE levels in BDa patients medicated with both azathioprine (AZA) and colchicine (COLC) were significantly lower than those on COLC (P = 0·0008) or neither (P = 0·02), indicating that combining AZA + COLC may help to regulate excessive NE during ulceration. This study showed that enzymatically active NE coupled with reduced SLPI in BD saliva may contribute to recurrent oral ulcerations.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Behçet/metabolismo , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Inibidor Secretado de Peptidases Leucocitárias/metabolismo , alfa 1-Antitripsina/metabolismo , Adulto , Síndrome de Behçet/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
J Adv Res ; 24: 463-474, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566282

RESUMO

Fractional calculus (FC) is widely used in many interdisciplinary branches of science due to its effectiveness in describing and investigating complicated phenomena. In this work, nonlinear dynamics for a new physical model using nonlocal fractional differential operator with singular kernel is introduced. New Routh-Hurwitz stability conditions are derived for the fractional case as the order lies in [0,2). The new and basic Routh-Hurwitz conditions are applied to the commensurate case. The local stability of the incommensurate orders is also discussed. A sufficient condition is used to prove that the solution of the proposed system exists and is unique in a specific region. Conditions for the approximating periodic solution in this model via Hopf bifurcation theory are discussed. Chaotic dynamics are found in the commensurate system for a wide range of fractional orders. The Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov spectrum of the model are provided. Suppressing chaos in this system is also achieved via two different methods.

20.
Br Dent J ; 228(11): 817-818, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541720
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