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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 669: 29-40, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877958

RESUMO

In aquatic ecosystems, both phytoplankton and bacteria play pivotal roles. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, considerable research focused on phytoplankton colony attached and free-living bacteria has revealed the close relationship between them, and indicated that the entire bacterial community mediates crucial biogeochemical processes in aquatic ecosystems. However, our understanding of their distribution patterns and response to environmental factors remains poor. Besides, picocyanobacteria, which were omitted from attached bacteria analysis, were reported to be important in cyanobacterial blooms. To explore the spatiotemporal variation of the entire bacterial community with their driving environmental factors and detect the relationships among them, we collected 61 water samples spanning one year and the entire Lake Taihu regions for surveying the entire bacterial community. Our results indicated: 1) seasonal variation of the bacterial community composition was stronger than spatial variation due to the clearly seasonal variation of Microcystis, Synechococcus (pico-cyanobacteria) and other bacteria (Actinomycetales, Pirellulaceae and Sphingobacteriaceae); 2) the spatial distribution of the bacterial community showed that different phyla were dominant in different regions; 3) the bacterial co-occurrence networks varied seasonally and were dominated by Microcystis, ACK-M1, Chthoniobacteraceae, Synechococcus, Pirellulaceae and Pelagibacteraceae; 4) phytoplankton density, chlorophyll a, water temperature and total nitrogen were the major factors that drove the spatiotemporal variation of bacterial community composition. This study revealed the seasonal succession and spatial distribution of the entire bacterial community in Lake Taihu, providing new insights into the relationship between water bloom-forming cyanobacterial species and other bacteria, and their response to environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater ecosystem.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Eutrofização , Lagos/microbiologia , Microbiota , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , China , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Estações do Ano , Análise de Sequência de RNA
2.
J Plant Physiol ; 215: 163-175, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28704793

RESUMO

The plant cellulose synthase gene superfamily belongs to the category of type-2 glycosyltransferases, and is involved in cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthesis. These enzymes are vital for maintaining cell-wall structural integrity throughout plant life. Here, we identified 78 putative cellulose synthases (CS) in the soybean genome. Phylogenetic analysis against 40 reference Arabidopsis CS genes clustered soybean CSs into seven major groups (CESA, CSL A, B, C, D, E and G), located on 19 chromosomes (except chromosome 18). Soybean CS expansion occurred in 66 duplication events. Additionally, we identified 95 simple sequence repeat makers related to 44 CSs. We next performed digital expression analysis using publically available datasets to understand potential CS functions in soybean. We found that CSs were highly expressed during soybean seed development, a pattern confirmed with an Affymatrix soybean IVT array and validated with RNA-seq profiles. Within CS groups, CESAs had higher relative expression than CSLs. Soybean CS models were designed based on maximum average RPKM values. Gene co-expression networks were developed to explore which CSs could work together in soybean. Finally, RT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression of 15 selected CSs during all four seed developmental stages.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Soja/enzimologia , Soja/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
3.
Springerplus ; 5(1): 1222, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27536506

RESUMO

Increasing food production to feed its rapidly growing population is a major policy goal of Pakistan. The production of traditional staples such as rice (Oryza sativa L.) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been intensified in many regions, but not in remote, drought-ridden areas. In these arid, marginal environments dates and their by-products are an option to complement staples given their high nutritive value and storability. To fill knowledge gaps about the role of date palm in the household (HH) income of rural communities and the structure of date value chains, this project studied date palm production across six districts in four provinces of Pakistan. During 2012-2013 a total of 170 HHs were interviewed with a structured questionnaire using a snowball sampling approach. The results showed that most of the HH were headed by males (99 %) who were married (74 %) and often illiterate (40 %). Agriculture was the main occupation of date palm growers (56 %), while a few coupled agricultural activities with business (17 %) or extra-farm employment opportunities (government 9 %; private sector 8 %). Date sales contributed >50 % to the total income of 39 % of HH and 90-100 % to 24 % of HH. Overall farmers grew a total of 39 date palm cultivars and cultivated an average of 409 ± 559 mature date palms. The majority of the respondents sold dates to commission agents (35 %), contractors (22 %) and wholesalers (21 %), while 28 % of HH cultivated date palms only for self-consumption. Date palm growers had only limited knowledge about high quality date cultivars, optimized farm management and about effective post-harvest conservation. Changes in extension and marketing efforts are needed to allow farmers to better exploit value chains in date thereby reaping higher benefits from improved market access to secure their often marginal income.

4.
PLoS One ; 8(2): e56312, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23437113

RESUMO

Water is essential for all living organisms. Aquaporin proteins are the major facilitator of water transport activity through cell membranes of plants including soybean. These proteins are diverse in plants and belong to a large major intrinsic (MIP) protein family. In higher plants, MIPs are classified into five subfamilies including plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP), NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIP), small basic intrinsic proteins (SIP), and the recently discovered X intrinsic proteins (XIP). This paper reports genome wide assembly of soybean MIPs, their functional prediction and expression analysis. Using a bioinformatic homology search, 66 GmMIPs were identified in the soybean genome. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of GmMIPs divided the large and highly similar multi-gene family into 5 subfamilies: GmPIPs, GmTIPs, GmNIPs, GmSIPs and GmXIPs. GmPIPs consisted of 22 genes and GmTIPs 23, which showed high sequence similarity within subfamilies. GmNIPs contained 13 and GmSIPs 6 members which were diverse. In addition, we also identified a two member GmXIP, a distinct 5(th) subfamily. GmMIPs were further classified into twelve subgroups based on substrate selectivity filter analysis. Expression analyses were performed for a selected set of GmMIPs using semi-quantitative reverse transcription (semi-RT-qPCR) and qPCR. Our results suggested that many GmMIPs have high sequence similarity but diverse roles as evidenced by analysis of sequences and their expression. It can be speculated that GmMIPs contains true aquaporins, glyceroporins, aquaglyceroporins and mixed transport facilitators.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Soja/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aquaporinas/química , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Desidratação , Éxons/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas/genética , Íntrons/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Especificidade de Órgãos/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Alinhamento de Sequência , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade por Substrato/efeitos dos fármacos , Terminologia como Assunto
5.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 103: 496-501, 2013 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23261572

RESUMO

In this paper we report the effect of two cationic (imipramine hydrochloride (IMP) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ)) and one anionic (sodium salt of ibuprofen (IBF)) drugs on the clouding behavior of a nonionic polymer hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC). Though all the three drugs increase the cloud point (CP) of HPMC, the effect was found to be minimum in the case of IBF. Further, the effect of adding salts (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaNO(3), Na(2)SO(4), Na(3)PO(4), KCl, KBr, KNO(3)) in the presence of amphiphilic drugs (IMP and PMZ) on the CP of HPMC was seen. Almost linear decrease in the CP was observed with the [salt] at fixed concentrations of these drugs whereas in the absence of drugs the decrement in the CP was slight. The energetic parameters (ΔG(c)(0), ΔH(c)(0) and TΔS(c)(0)) were evaluated and it implies that the disruption of water structure becomes significantly prominent at lower concentrations of the drugs at fixed salt concentrations.


Assuntos
Metilcelulose/análogos & derivados , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Sais/química , Tensoativos/química , Ânions , Derivados da Hipromelose , Ibuprofeno/química , Imipramina/química , Metilcelulose/química , Micelas , Modelos Moleculares , Promazina/química , Soluções , Termodinâmica
6.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 13(7): 533-44, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22761245

RESUMO

The okra germplasm was screened for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny. Substantial variation existed in okra for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. An 80 mmol/L NaCl concentration was suitable for discriminating tolerant and non-tolerant okra genotypes. The pooled ranking of the genotypes, based on individual rankings for each trait (root and shoot length, germination percentage, and relative Na(+) and K(+)) in individual NaCl concentrations, was effective for selecting tolerant genotypes. Genotypes selected at the seedling stage maintained their tolerance to NaCl during plant ontogeny, suggesting that screening of the germplasm entries and advanced breeding materials for salt tolerance at the seedling stage is effective. Among 39 okra genotypes, five were identified as the most tolerant genotypes and showed potential for use in breeding programs that focus on the development of salt-tolerant, high-yield okra cultivars.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Plântula/genética
7.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 13(4): 239-43, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22467363

RESUMO

Good quality deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the pre-requisite for its downstream applications. The presence of high concentrations of polysaccharides, polyphenols, proteins, and other secondary metabolites in mango leaves poses problem in getting good quality DNA fit for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) applications. The problem is exacerbated when DNA is extracted from mature mango leaves. A reliable and modified protocol based on the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method for DNA extraction from mature mango leaves is described here. High concentrations of inert salt were used to remove polysaccharides; Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ß-mercaptoethanol were employed to manage phenolic compounds. Extended chloroform-isoamyl alcohol treatment followed by RNase treatment yielded 950-1050 µg of good quality DNA, free of protein and RNA. The problems of DNA degradation, contamination, and low yield due to irreversible binding of phenolic compounds and coprecipitation of polysaccharides with DNA were avoided by this method. The DNA isolated by the modified method showed good PCR amplification using simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. This modified protocol can also be used to extract DNA from other woody plants having similar problems.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Mangifera/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
8.
J Phys Chem B ; 115(51): 15251-62, 2011 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22060020

RESUMO

The interaction between cationic symmetrical gemini alkanediyl-α,ω-bis(dimethylcetylammonium bromide) series (16-s-16, s = 5, 6, abbreviated as G5 and G6) with hydrotropes (cationic: aniline hydrochloride, para-toluidine hydrochloride, and ortho-toluidine hydrochloride; nonionic: phenol, resorcinol, and pyrogallol) in aqueous medium has been investigated at four different temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 313.15 K. Different physicochemical parameters such as critical micelle concentration (cmc), interaction parameter (ß(m), an energetic parameter that represents the excess Gibbs free energy of mixing), activity coefficients (f(i)), mole fraction of hydrotrope in mixed micelles at ideal mixing conditions (X(1)(ideal))(,) excess free energy of mixing (Δ(mix)G(E)), standard enthalpy (Δ(mic)H°), entropy (Δ(mic)S°), and Gibbs free energy (Δ(mic)G°) of micellization were evaluated and then intracompared. For further understanding, similar studies were carried out with their conventional counterpart cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and then compared. The bulk behaviors were explored using different theoretical models of Clint, Rubingh, and Motomura for justification and comparison of results of different binary combinations of hydrotropes with the gemini series and CTAB. Synergistic interaction was observed in all binary combinations at all temperatures in the micelles which decreases slightly with increasing temperature. This study will give insight into the selection of surfactants in different applications as their properties get modified by interaction with hydrotropes, thus influencing their solution behavior which, in turn, modifying the phase-forming behavior, microemulsion, liquid crystal forming systems, clouding phenomenon, cleaning, and laundry processes besides solubilization. The ability of hydrotropes to dramatically alter the solubility of other molecules in a medium can be exploited for the purpose of selective encapsulation and release.

9.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 359(2): 467-73, 2011 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21531427

RESUMO

Micellization of binary systems of a cationic gemini surfactant butanediyl-1,4-bis(dimethylcetylammonium bromide) (16-4-16) and cationic/nonionic hydrotropes (aniline-hydrochloride, 2-methylanilinehydrochloride, 4-methylanilinehydrochloride, hydroxybenzene, 1,3-benzenediol, benzene-1,2,3-triol) have been studied using a conductometric technique. The critical micelle concentrations (cmc) for different mixing mole fractions at different temperatures have been calculated. To explain and compare the results, theoretical models of Clint, Rubingh and Motomura have been used to obtain the ideal cmc, mixed micelle composition, interaction parameters (ß(m)), free energies of micellization, and activity coefficients. The mixtures show nonideal behavior and the interactions between the surfactants and the hydrotropes are synergistic in nature which is confirmed by high negative ß(m) values and low values of the activity coefficients. Thermodynamic parameters were also obtained from the temperature dependence of the cmc values.


Assuntos
Micelas , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Tensoativos/química , Íons/química , Termodinâmica
10.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 355(1): 131-9, 2011 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21194706

RESUMO

The change in the morphology of a series of dicationic gemini surfactants C(14)H(29)(CH(3))(2)N(+)-(CH(2))(s)-N(+)(CH(3))(2)C(14)H(29), 2Br(-) (14-s-14; s=4-6) on their interaction with inorganic (KBr, KNO(3), KSCN) and organic salts (NaBenz, NaSal) have been thoroughly investigated by means of (1)H NMR spectral analysis and the results are well supported by viscosity measurements. The presence of salt counterions results in structural transition (spherical to nonspherical) of gemini micelles in aqueous solution. With an increase in salt concentration all the three gemini surfactants showed changes in their aggregate morphology. This change is dependent on the nature and size of the added counterion. The effect of inorganic counterions on the micellar growth is observed to follow the Hofmeister series (Br(-) < NO(3)(-) < SCN(-)). The roles of organic counterions are discussed on the basis of probable solubilization sites of the substrate molecule in the gemini micelles, showing more growth in case of Sal(-) than Benz(-). The results are confirmed in terms of the obtained values of chemical shift (δ), line width at half height (lw), and relative viscosity (η(r)). Also, the growth of micelles was most pronounced for the gemini surfactant with the shortest spacer (s=4). This was attributed to the unique molecular structure of gemini surfactant micelles having flexible polymethylene spacer chain linking the twin polar headgroups.

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