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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239449, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249271

RESUMO

Abstract Alpha amylase, catalyzing the hydrolysis of starch is a ubiquitous enzyme with tremendous industrial applications. A 1698 bp gene coding for 565 amino acid amylase was PCR amplified from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM-465, cloned in pET21a (+) plasmid, expressed in BL21 (DE3) strain of E. coli and characterized. The recombinant enzyme exhibited molecular weight of 63 kDa, optimum pH 8, optimum temperature 70°C, and KM value of 157.7µM. On pilot scale, the purified enzyme efficiently removed up to 95% starch from the cotton fabric indicating its desizing ability at high temperature. 3D model of enzyme built by Raptor-X and validated by Ramachandran plot appeared as a monomer having 31% α-helices, 15% β-sheets, and 52% loops. Docking studies have shown the best binding affinity of enzyme with amylopectin (∆G -10.59). According to our results, Asp 232, Glu274, Arg448, Glu385, Asp34, Asn276, and Arg175 constitute the potential active site of enzyme.


Resumo A alfa-amilase, que catalisa a hidrólise do amido, é uma enzima ubíqua com imensas aplicações industriais. Um gene de 1698 pb que codifica a amilase de 565 aminoácidos foi amplificado por PCR, a partir de Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM-465, clonado no plasmídeo pET21a (+), expresso na cepa BL21 (DE3) de E. coli e caracterizado. A enzima recombinante exibiu peso molecular de 63 kDa, pH ótimo igual a 8, temperatura ótima de 70° C e valor KM de 157,7 µM. Em escala piloto, a enzima purificada removeu com eficiência até 95% de amido do tecido de algodão, indicando sua capacidade de desengomagem em alta temperatura. O modelo 3D da enzima construída por Raptor-X e validada por Ramachandran plot apareceu como um monômero com 31% de hélices alfa, 15% de folhas beta e 52% de loops. Os estudos de docking mostraram melhor afinidade de ligação da enzima com amilopectina (∆G: - 10,59). De acordo com nossos resultados, Asp 232, Glu274, Arg448, Glu385, Asp34, Asn276 e Arg175 constituem o sítio ativo potencial da enzima.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244735, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249280

RESUMO

Abstract L-Asparaginase catalysing the breakdown of L-Asparagine to L-Aspartate and ammonia is an enzyme of therapeutic importance in the treatment of cancer, especially the lymphomas and leukaemia. The present study describes the recombinant production, properties and anticancer potential of enzyme from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. There are two genes coding for asparaginase in the genome of this organism. A 918 bp gene encoding 305 amino acids was PCR amplified and cloned in BL21 (DE3) strain of E. coli using pET28a (+) plasmid. The production of recombinant enzyme was induced under 0.5mM IPTG, purified by selective heat denaturation and ion exchange chromatography. Purified enzyme was analyzed for kinetics, in silico structure and anticancer properties. The recombinant enzyme has shown a molecular weight of 33 kDa, specific activity of 1175 U/mg, KM value 2.05mM, optimum temperature and pH 80°C and 8 respectively. No detectable enzyme activity found when L-Glutamine was used as the substrate. In silico studies have shown that the enzyme exists as a homodimer having Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172, and Lys232 being the putative active site residues. The free energy change calculated by molecular docking studies of enzyme and substrate was found as ∆G - 4.5 kJ/mole indicating the affinity of enzyme with the substrate. IC50 values of 5U/mL to 7.5U/mL were determined for FB, caco2 cells and HepG2 cells. A calculated amount of enzyme (5U/mL) exhibited 78% to 55% growth inhibition of caco2 and HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the recombinant enzyme produced and characterized in the present study offers a good candidate for the treatment of cancer. The procedures adopted in the present study can be prolonged for in vivo studies.


Resumo A L-asparaginase, que catalisa a degradação da L-asparagina em L-aspartato e amônia, é uma enzima de importância terapêutica no tratamento do câncer, especialmente dos linfomas e da leucemia. O presente estudo descreve a produção recombinante, propriedades e potencial anticancerígeno da enzima de Pyrococcus abyssi, um archaeon hipertermofílico. Existem dois genes que codificam para a asparaginase no genoma desse organismo. Um gene de 918 bp, que codifica 305 aminoácidos, foi amplificado por PCR e clonado na cepa BL21 (DE3) de E. coli usando o plasmídeo pET28a (+). A produção da enzima recombinante foi induzida sob 0,5mM de IPTG, purificada por desnaturação seletiva por calor e cromatografia de troca iônica. A enzima purificada foi analisada quanto à cinética, estrutura in silico e propriedades anticancerígenas. A enzima recombinante apresentou peso molecular de 33 kDa, atividade específica de 1.175 U / mg, valor de KM 2,05 mM, temperatura ótima de 80º C e pH 8. Nenhuma atividade enzimática detectável foi encontrada quando a L-glutamina foi usada como substrato. Estudos in silico mostraram que a enzima existe como um homodímero, com Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172 e Lys232 sendo os resíduos do local ativo putativo. A mudança de energia livre calculada por estudos de docking molecular da enzima e do substrato foi encontrada como ∆G - 4,5 kJ / mol, indicando a afinidade da enzima com o substrato. Valores de IC50 de 5U / mL a 7,5U / mL foram determinados para células FB, células caco2 e células HepG2. Uma quantidade de enzima (5U / mL) apresentou inibição de crescimento de 78% a 55% das células caco2 e HepG2, respectivamente. Em conclusão, a enzima recombinante produzida e caracterizada no presente estudo é uma boa possibilidade para o tratamento do câncer. Os procedimentos adotados na presente pesquisa podem ser aplicados para estudos in vivo.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e249971, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278485

RESUMO

Abstract Stunting is a significant public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. This study assessed the prevalence of stunting and associated risk factors of stunting among preschool and school-going children in flood-affected areas of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting 656 households through multi-stage sampling. Respondent's anthropometric measurements, socio-demographic information and sanitation facilities were explored. A logistic regression model was used to determine determinants of stunting, controlling for all possible confounders. The overall prevalence of stunting in children was 40.5%, among children 36.1% boys and 46.3% of girls were stunted. The prevalence of stunting in under-five children was 50.7%. Female children (OR=1.35, 95% CI:0.94-2.0), children aged 13-24 months (OR=6.5, 95% CI: 3.0-13.9), mothers aged 15-24 years (OR=4.4, 95% CI: 2.6-7.2), joint family (OR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.4-3.0) did not have access to improved drinking water (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.9), and the toilet facility (OR=2.8, 95% CI, 1.9-4.3), while the children from district Nowshera (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2) were significantly (P<0.05) associated in univariate analysis. The regression model revealed that child age, maternal age, family type, quality of water, and toilet facility, were the significant (P<0.05) factors contributing to child stunting in the flood-hit areas. Identification of key factors might be helpful for policymakers in designing comprehensive community-based programs for the reduction of stunting in flood-affected areas. In disasters such as flood, the detrimental consequences of the stunting problem could be even more on children. Evidence-based education and care must be provided to the families in the flood-affected regions to reduce the stunting problem. The determinants of stunting should be targeted by making comprehensive policies regarding proper nutrition, livelihood, clean water, and sanitation facilities in flood-hit regions.


Resumo A baixa estatura é um problema significativo de saúde pública em países de baixa e média renda. Este estudo avaliou a prevalência de nanismo e os fatores de risco associados de nanismo entre crianças em idade pré-escolar e em idade escolar em áreas afetadas por inundações do Paquistão. Foi realizado um estudo transversal visitando 656 domicílios por meio de amostragem em múltiplos estágios. As medidas antropométricas do entrevistado, informações sociodemográficas e instalações de saneamento foram exploradas. Um modelo de regressão logística foi usado para determinar os determinantes do nanismo, controlando todos os possíveis fatores de confusão. A prevalência geral de baixa estatura em crianças foi de 40,5%, entre as crianças 36,1% dos meninos e 46,3% das meninas com baixa estatura. A prevalência de baixa estatura em crianças menores de 5 anos foi de 50,7%. Crianças do sexo feminino (OR = 1,35, IC de 95%: 0,94-2,0), crianças de 13-24 meses (OR = 6,5, IC de 95%: 3,0-13,9), mães de 15-24 anos (OR = 4,4, IC de 95%: 2,6-7,2), família conjunta (OR = 2,1, IC 95%: 1,4-3,0) não tiveram acesso a água potável de qualidade (OR = 3,3, IC 95%: 1,9-5,9) e a banheiro (OR = 2,8, IC de 95%, 1,9-4,3), enquanto as crianças do distrito de Nowshera (OR = 1,7, IC de 95%: 0,9-3,2) foram significativamente (P < 0,05) associadas na análise univariada. O modelo de regressão revelou que a idade da criança, idade materna, tipo de família, qualidade da água e banheiro foram os fatores significativos (P < 0,05) que contribuíram para a baixa estatura infantil nas áreas afetadas pelas enchentes. A identificação de fatores-chave pode ser útil para os formuladores de políticas no planejamento de programas comunitários abrangentes para a redução da baixa estatura em áreas afetadas pelas enchentes. Em desastres como enchentes, as consequências prejudiciais do problema de baixa estatura podem ser ainda maiores para as crianças. Educação baseada em evidências e cuidados deve ser fornecida às famílias nas regiões afetadas pelas enchentes para reduzir o problema de nanismo. Os determinantes do retardo de crescimento devem ser almejados pela formulação de políticas abrangentes sobre nutrição adequada, meios de subsistência, água potável e instalações de saneamento nas regiões afetadas pelas enchentes.

4.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 954-959, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605462

RESUMO

Biocides, including disinfectants and antiseptics, are used for a variety of topical and hard surface applications in health care facilities. Biocides play a significant role for preventing and controlling nosocomial infections. However, failures in the antimicrobial activities of biocides have been reported. The resistance mechanism to disinfectants is usually determined by genes which are related to resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds, namely, qacE, qacΔE1 that are found in Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this study is to detect the prevalence of Biocides resistance genes, qacE and qacΔE1, in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas spp. It was carried out from March 2017 to July 2018 in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Samples were collected from Outpatient of ENT department, MMCH. In this study, 300 clinical samples of CSOM cases were tested by the PCR method. The present study shows detection of biocide resistance genes (qacE, qacΔE1) among 87 isolated Pseudomonas spp by uniplex PCR. Among 72 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 67(93.05%) had the gene qacEΔ1 and 25(34.72%) had the gene qacE. In addition other 15 Pseudomonas spp 3(20%) isolates had the qacEΔ1 gene and 2(13.33%) isolates had the qacE gene. In this study there is a marked difference in detection of the qacEΔ1 gene between the MDR and non MDR P. aeruginosa isolates. The qacEΔ1 was identified in 50 of 54(92.59%) MDR isolates and 7 of 18(38.89%) non MDR strains respectively. While gene qacE was detect 25(46.29%) MDR isolates and did not show any qacEΔ1gene in non MDR isolates. This study shows that the genes, qacE, qacΔE1 are widespread among Pseudomonas aeruginosa, they are higher in MDR strains than non MDR strains.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas/genética
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468530

RESUMO

Asiatic black bear is present in variety of habitats like broad-leaves and coniferous forests, extending form sea level to 4300m elevation and change their habitat for food purpose seasonally. The present study was conducted at Kaghan and Siran Valleys, District Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to assess habitat of black bear. Line transect method was used for observation of bear signs. Twelve meter circular radius plots were selected for the concern vegetation's i.e. (trees, shrubs and herbs) and three to six plots were placed in each transect. At the result of sign survey, thirteen different categories of bear signs were recorded and encounter rate was calculated for each sign. A total of 1858 signs were observed during field surveys. Total (81%) coniferous species were recoded among trees, with the highest appearance of Pinus wallichiana (34.22%) and Spruce spp (27.76%), similarly broad leaves trees (18.56%) were also recoded from habitat plots. Most of the signs were encountered in bushy areas, whereas high number of Viburnum Spp (60.29%) was present. It is indicated that black bear prefers blend of Coniferous Trees, Viburnum and Ferns Species; probably because these plants provide enough food, protection, and meticulous shelter because more than 80% of habitat composed of these three species. Currently habitat destruction and increase in human population are the up-growing issues for wild animals (especially Asiatic black bear), which is highly sensitive to such problems. High levels of conservation efforts are recommended for the protection of black bear habitat and to avoid human interference in their territory.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Acetilcisteína , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Paquistão , Árvores
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250179, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524376

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease throughout the world in which there is persistently high blood glucose level from the normal range. The diabetes and insulin resistance are mainly responsible for the morbidities and mortalities of humans in the world. This disease is mainly regulated by various enzymes and hormones among which Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a principle enzyme and insulin is the key hormone regulating it. The GSK-3, that is the key enzyme is normally showing its actions by various mechanisms that include its phosphorylation, formation of protein complexes, and other cellular distribution and thus it control and directly affects cellular morphology, its growth, mobility and apoptosis of the cell. Disturbances in the action of GSK-3 enzyme may leads to various disease conditions that include insulin resistance leading to diabetes, neurological disease like Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Fluoroquinolones are the most common class of drugs that shows dysglycemic effects via interacting with GSK-3 enzyme. Therefore, it is the need of the day to properly understand functions and mechanisms of GSK-3, especially its role in glucose homeostasis via effects on glycogen synthase.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Resistência à Insulina , Glucose , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase , Homeostase , Humanos
7.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511509

RESUMO

There are growing numbers of adults with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy living well into their fourth decade. These patients have complex medical needs that to date have not been addressed in the International standards of care. We sought to create a consensus based standard of care through a series of multi-disciplinary workshops with specialists from a wide range of clinical areas: Neurology, Cardiology, Respiratory Medicine, Gastroenterology, Endocrinology, Palliative Care Medicine, Rehabilitation, Renal, Anaesthetics and Clinical Psychology. Detailed reports of evidence reviewed and the consensus building process were produced following each workshop and condensed into this final document which was approved by all members of the Adult North Star Network including service users. The aim of this document is to provide a framework to improve clinical services and multi-disciplinary care for adults living with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e249971, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259717

RESUMO

Stunting is a significant public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. This study assessed the prevalence of stunting and associated risk factors of stunting among preschool and school-going children in flood-affected areas of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting 656 households through multi-stage sampling. Respondent's anthropometric measurements, socio-demographic information and sanitation facilities were explored. A logistic regression model was used to determine determinants of stunting, controlling for all possible confounders. The overall prevalence of stunting in children was 40.5%, among children 36.1% boys and 46.3% of girls were stunted. The prevalence of stunting in under-five children was 50.7%. Female children (OR=1.35, 95% CI:0.94-2.0), children aged 13-24 months (OR=6.5, 95% CI: 3.0-13.9), mothers aged 15-24 years (OR=4.4, 95% CI: 2.6-7.2), joint family (OR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.4-3.0) did not have access to improved drinking water (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.9), and the toilet facility (OR=2.8, 95% CI, 1.9-4.3), while the children from district Nowshera (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2) were significantly (P<0.05) associated in univariate analysis. The regression model revealed that child age, maternal age, family type, quality of water, and toilet facility, were the significant (P<0.05) factors contributing to child stunting in the flood-hit areas. Identification of key factors might be helpful for policymakers in designing comprehensive community-based programs for the reduction of stunting in flood-affected areas. In disasters such as flood, the detrimental consequences of the stunting problem could be even more on children. Evidence-based education and care must be provided to the families in the flood-affected regions to reduce the stunting problem. The determinants of stunting should be targeted by making comprehensive policies regarding proper nutrition, livelihood, clean water, and sanitation facilities in flood-hit regions.


Assuntos
Inundações , Transtornos do Crescimento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e244735, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076169

RESUMO

L-Asparaginase catalysing the breakdown of L-Asparagine to L-Aspartate and ammonia is an enzyme of therapeutic importance in the treatment of cancer, especially the lymphomas and leukaemia. The present study describes the recombinant production, properties and anticancer potential of enzyme from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. There are two genes coding for asparaginase in the genome of this organism. A 918 bp gene encoding 305 amino acids was PCR amplified and cloned in BL21 (DE3) strain of E. coli using pET28a (+) plasmid. The production of recombinant enzyme was induced under 0.5mM IPTG, purified by selective heat denaturation and ion exchange chromatography. Purified enzyme was analyzed for kinetics, in silico structure and anticancer properties. The recombinant enzyme has shown a molecular weight of 33 kDa, specific activity of 1175 U/mg, KM value 2.05mM, optimum temperature and pH 80°C and 8 respectively. No detectable enzyme activity found when L-Glutamine was used as the substrate. In silico studies have shown that the enzyme exists as a homodimer having Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172, and Lys232 being the putative active site residues. The free energy change calculated by molecular docking studies of enzyme and substrate was found as ∆G - 4.5 kJ/mole indicating the affinity of enzyme with the substrate. IC50 values of 5U/mL to 7.5U/mL were determined for FB, caco2 cells and HepG2 cells. A calculated amount of enzyme (5U/mL) exhibited 78% to 55% growth inhibition of caco2 and HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the recombinant enzyme produced and characterized in the present study offers a good candidate for the treatment of cancer. The procedures adopted in the present study can be prolonged for in vivo studies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Asparaginase , Pyrococcus abyssi , Asparaginase/biossíntese , Asparaginase/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Estabilidade Enzimática , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pyrococcus abyssi/enzimologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Especificidade por Substrato
10.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e239449, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105678

RESUMO

Alpha amylase, catalyzing the hydrolysis of starch is a ubiquitous enzyme with tremendous industrial applications. A 1698 bp gene coding for 565 amino acid amylase was PCR amplified from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM-465, cloned in pET21a (+) plasmid, expressed in BL21 (DE3) strain of E. coli and characterized. The recombinant enzyme exhibited molecular weight of 63 kDa, optimum pH 8, optimum temperature 70°C, and KM value of 157.7µM. On pilot scale, the purified enzyme efficiently removed up to 95% starch from the cotton fabric indicating its desizing ability at high temperature. 3D model of enzyme built by Raptor-X and validated by Ramachandran plot appeared as a monomer having 31% α-helices, 15% ß-sheets, and 52% loops. Docking studies have shown the best binding affinity of enzyme with amylopectin (∆G -10.59). According to our results, Asp 232, Glu274, Arg448, Glu385, Asp34, Asn276, and Arg175 constitute the potential active site of enzyme.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , alfa-Amilases , Clonagem Molecular , Estabilidade Enzimática , Escherichia coli/genética , Geobacillus , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Temperatura , alfa-Amilases/genética , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
11.
Eur Arch Paediatr Dent ; 22(5): 959-967, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950475

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed at assessing changes in condylar position (CP) in growing patients with unilateral posterior crossbite (UPC) undergoing rapid maxillary expansion (RME) followed by fixed orthodontic treatment (FOT) (experimental-group); and growing patients without posterior crossbite (PC) treated with FOT alone (control-group). METHODS: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained before treatment (T0), 6 months after RME (T1) and after FOT (T2) for the experimental-group (n = 19); and at T0 and T2 for the control-group (n = 22). Condylar position-related measurements including the anterior joint space (AJS), superior joint space (SJS), posterior joint space (PJS), lateral position of condyle (LC) and condylar angle (CA) were measured. Non-parametric tests were used. RESULTS: On the crossbite side, significant increases were found in LC (P = 0.039) and CA (P = 0.007), and on the non-crossbite side significant increases were observed in SJS (P = 0.027) and LC (P = 0.001) between T0, T1 and T2 in patients with UPC. On the right and left sides in the control-group, significant increases were identified in LC (P < 0.001 and P = 0.012, respectively) between T0 and T2. CONCLUSIONS: In growing patients with UPC, RME followed by FOT is associated with significant changes in CP-related measurements.

12.
BJS Open ; 5(2)2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision (CME) of the right colon with central vascular ligation (CVL) is a technically demanding procedure. This study retrospectively evaluated the feasibility, safety and oncological outcomes of the procedure when performed using the da Vinci® robotic system. METHODS: A prospective case series was collected over 3 years for patients with right colonic cancers treated by standardized robotic CME with CVL using the superior mesenteric vessels first approach. The CME group was compared to a 2 : 1 propensity score-matched non-CME group who had conventional laparoscopic right colectomy with D2 nodal dissection. Primary outcomes were total lymph node harvest and length of specimen. Secondary outcomes were operative time, postoperative complications, and disease-free and overall survival. RESULTS: The study included 120 patients (40 in the CME group and 80 in the non-CME group). Lymph node yield was higher (29 versus 18, P = 0.006), the specimen length longer (322 versus 260 mm, P = 0.001) and median operative time was significantly longer (180 versus 130 min, P < 0.001) with robotic CME versus laparoscopy, respectively. Duration of hospital stay was longer with robotic CME, although not significantly (median 6 versus 5 days, P = 0.088). There were no significant differences in R0 resection rate, complications, readmission rates and local recurrence. A trend in survival benefit with robotic CME for disease-free (P = 0.0581) and overall survival (P = 0.0454) at 3 years was documented. CONCLUSION: Robotic CME with CVL is feasible and, although currently associated with a longer operation time, it provides good specimen quality, higher lymph node yield and acceptable morbidity, with a disease-free survival advantage.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685826

RESUMO

There is a controversy in regards to the efficacy of photobiomodulation (PBM) in the management of tinnitus. The aim was to systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the efficacy of PBM (low-level laser therapy) in the management of tinnitus. The focused question was "Is PBM effective in the management of tinnitus?". Indexed databases were searched up to and including June 2020 using different combinations of the following key words: (a) laser; (b) diode; (c) low-level laser therapy; (d) photobiomodulation; (e) tinnitus; (f) medium-level laser; (g) photo-biomodulation; and (h) low-power laser; and RCTs performed on humans were included. Letters to the editor; case reports/series; commentaries; experimental studies and historic reviews were excluded. The risk of bias was assessed using the modified cochrane collaboration tool. The format of the current systematic review was personalized to summarize the appropriate information. Ten RCTs (2 single-blinded and 8 double-blinded) were included. One study reported 30% and 100% resolution of tinnitus using diode and Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet lasers; respectively. One study reported that PBM was effective in relieving tinnitus for up to 3 months. Eight studies reported that PBM was ineffective in the management of chronic tinnitus. The risk of bias was high; medium and low in 4; 5 and 1 studies; respectively. The effectiveness of PBM in the management of tinnitus remains debatable. Further power-adjusted and well-designed RCTs with long-term follow-up are needed.

14.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(1): 79-84, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397855

RESUMO

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic complex potentially pre-malignant condition caused by chewing areca nut and other irritants. It is an insidious process characterized by Juxta-epithelial deposition of fibrous tissue in the oral cavity and pharynx. OSF is very common in Southeast Asia and also now a days increase in Europe and North America. The aim of this study to compare the effectiveness of intralesional injection of triamcinolone and hyalurunidase versus intralesional injection of triamcinolone plus injection hyalurunidase with oral colchicine. The study included 60 patients of clinically diagnosed case of oral submucous fibrosis. Patients were divided into two Groups A and B. Group A patients received combination intralesionsl injection of triamcinolone acetonide 10mg/ml in 1ml with injection hyalurunidase 1500IU in 2ml with injection 2% lidocaine 7ml. 15 days interval in 3 months and Group B received intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide 10mg/ml in 1ml with injection hyalurunidase 1500IU in 2ml with injection 2% lidocaine 7ml in each 15 days interval for 3 months with oral colchicine 0.5mg twice daily for 3 months. Diagnosis based on burning sensation of mouth, blanching of mucosa, ulceration in oral cavity and also reduced mouth opening. Follow up assessment was done at intervals 1st follow up on 21st days after starting of treatment then 2nd follow up after 3 months and last 3rd follow up after 6 months. Before starting of treatment all patients were properly explained about the study and took their written consent. Much more improvement occurred in Group B patients, reducing in burning sensation and also increases in opening of mouth. In both groups blanching mucosae were improved. Treatment regimen of Group B is more effective in increasing mouth opening and improves burning sensation of oral cavity. No side effects were seen in both groups' patients.


Assuntos
Fibrose Oral Submucosa , Triancinolona Acetonida , Areca , Colchicina , Humanos , Fibrose Oral Submucosa/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Scand J Surg ; 110(1): 99-104, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients who develop infections of the pleura have several risk factors for malignancies, particularly lung cancer, and the infections might even be caused by undiagnosed intra-thoracic neoplasms. The aim of the study was to compare the occurrence of lung cancer and other malignancies between patients treated for pleural infections and controls during long-term follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive patients treated for pleural infections between January 2000 and June 2016 at the Tampere University Hospital were included. Ten matched controls and data regarding later cancer diagnoses were requested from national registries. The cancer types and rates, the diagnostic delays, as well as survival were compared between patients and controls. RESULTS: The material comprised 506 patients and 5022 controls (78% was male and median age was 60 years in both groups) with a median follow-up time of 69 months. In total, 74% of pleural infections were related to pneumonia. The occurrence of lung cancer during follow-up was 3.0% in all patients, 2.2% in pneumonia-related cases, and 0.6% in controls, p < 0.001 when compared with controls. The overall rate of non-pulmonary malignancies did not differ. Lung cancer was diagnosed within 3 months in 73% of patients versus in 6.9% of controls, p < 0.001. The survival in patients with later lung cancers or other malignancies was inferior to that of controls with similar neoplasms. CONCLUSION: The rate of lung cancer diagnoses was significantly increased in patients treated for pleural infections when compared with matched controls and the prognosis of patients with subsequent malignancies was impacted.

16.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(4): 847-851, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116086

RESUMO

This prospective study was conducted at Department of ENT, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, a tertiary care center in Bangladesh January 2017 to December 2018 to report hearing results and post operative complications of cartilage interposition ossiculoplasty in one-stage intact canal wall (ICW) tympanoplasty for cholesteatoma where ossicular chain is eroded or has to be removed either partially or totally. Total 42 patients underwent Intact canal wall (ICW) tympanoplasty for cholesteatoma with at least intact stapes footplate and in conjunction, cartilage ossiculoplasty was done during the same procedure. Patients were followed up regularly at 1 week, 1 month, 3 month, 6 month and at 1 year as usual follow up protocol to note complications and hearing status in 1 year follow up. In intact stapes suprastructure group, in the preoperative period, the mean air conduction thresholds (AC), bone conduction threshold (BC) and air-bone gap (ABG) were 48.3db, 9.5db and 38.8db respectively. Postoperatively, with a mean follow-up of 12 months, AC, BC and ABG were 27.6db, 9.7db and 17.9db respectively. In missing stapes supra structuregroup, in the preoperative period, the mean air conduction thresholds (AC), Bone conduction threshold (BC) and air-bone gap (ABG) were 57.4db 13.5db and 43.9db respectively. Postoperatively, with a mean follow-up of 12 months, AC, BC and ABG, were 33.9db, 14.2db and 19.7db respectively. For management of cholesteatoma cases, cartilage ossiculoplasty can be done effectively in conjunction with of intact canal wall tympanoplasty in a single setting. Complications are a few and easily manageable. Hearing results are at least as good as with other prosthesis and helps in avoiding subsequent surgery, discomfort and cost to the patients.


Assuntos
Colesteatoma , Timpanoplastia , Bangladesh , Cartilagem , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estribo , Resultado do Tratamento , Membrana Timpânica
17.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(3): 545-552, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844792

RESUMO

Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a notorious infection in developing countries causing serious local damage and threatening complications. It was a cross sectional observational study to isolate and identify aerobic bacteria and to analyze the susceptibility pattern of the aerobic bacterial isolates. It was carried out from March 2017 to July 2018 in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Samples were collected from Outpatient of ENT department, MMCH. Out of a total 300 patients with CSOM were enrolled in this study and 209 were culture positive. Among them gram negative organisms were 129(61.72%) and gram positive organisms were 70(33.49%). The most frequently isolated organism in this study was Pseudomonas aeruginosa 72(34.44%), gram positive organisms S. aureus 63(30.14%), E. coli 21(10.04%), other Pseudomonas spp (other than P. aeruginosa) 15(7.17%), mixed bacterial infectios 10(4.78%), Proteus spp 9(4.30%), CoNS 7(3.34%), Klebsiela lspp 7(3.34%), Acinetobactor spp 5(2.39%). P. aeruginosa isolates had least resistant to imipenem and colistin, S. aureus were showed high sensitivity to Vancomycin and Linezolid and E. coli were sensitive to imipenem and amikacin, ciprofloxacin and amikacin respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common bacteria isolated from chronic discharging ears followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Piperacillin-Tazobactum, Ciprofioxacin, Gentamicin and Amikacin were found to be the most suitable drug for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli. The resistance against ceftriaxone and aztreonam was found to be very high.


Assuntos
Bacteriologia , Otite Média , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus , Centros de Atenção Terciária
18.
Colorectal Dis ; 22(11): 1741-1748, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663345

RESUMO

AIM: Currently, there is no established colorectal specific robotic surgery Train the Trainer (TTT) course. The aim was to develop and evaluate such a course which can then be further developed to be incorporated within the planned European Society of Coloproctology (ESCP)/European School of Coloproctology (ESC) robotic colorectal surgery training curriculum. METHOD: After identifying the need for such a course within a training programme, the course was developed by a subgroup of the ESCP/ESC. A scoping literature review was performed and the content and materials for the course were developed by a team consisting of two gastroenterologists with a combined experience of 30 years of facilitating TTT courses, a robotic surgeon and proctor with laparoscopic TTT faculty experience and experienced robotic and laparoscopic colorectal trainers. The course was evaluated by asking delegates to complete pre- and post-course questionnaires. RESULTS: There were eight delegates on the course from across Europe. Delegates increased their knowledge of each of the course learning objectives and identified learning points in order to change practice. The feedback from the delegates of the course was positive across several areas and all felt that they had achieved their own personal objectives in attending the course. CONCLUSION: This pilot robotic colorectal TTT course has achieved its aim and demonstrated many positives. There is a need for such a course and the evaluation processes have provided opportunities for reflection, which will allow the development/tailoring of future robotic colorectal TTT courses to help develop robotic training further.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 733: 139381, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446089

RESUMO

Plastic pollution in the oceans is a priority environmental issue. The recent increase in research on the topic, coupled with growing public awareness, has catalyzed policymakers around the world to identify and implement solutions that minimize the harm caused by plastic pollution. To aid and coordinate these efforts, we surveyed experts with scientific experience identified through their peer-reviewed publications. We asked experts about the most pressing research questions relating to how biota interact with plastic pollution that in turn can inform policy decisions and research agendas to best contribute to understanding and reducing the harm of plastic pollution to biota. We used a modified Horizon Scan method that first used a subgroup of experts to generate 46 research questions on aquatic biota and plastics, and then conducted an online survey of researchers globally to prioritize questions in terms of their importance to inform policy development. One hundred and fifteen experts from 29 countries ranked research questions in six themes. The questions were ranked by urgency, indicating which research should be addressed immediately, which can be addressed later, and which are of limited relevance to inform action on plastics as an environmental pollutant. We found that questions relating to the following four themes were the most commonly top-ranked research priorities: (i) sources, circulation and distribution of plastics, (ii) type of harm from plastics, (iii) detection of ingested plastics and the associated problems, and (iv) related economies and policy to ingested plastics. While there are many research questions on the topic of impacts of plastic pollution on biota that could be funded and investigated, our results focus collective priorities in terms of research that experts believe will inform effective policy and on-the-ground conservation.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Oceanos e Mares
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