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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(21): 6921-6928, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634427

RESUMO

The efficiency of state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells is limited by carrier recombination at defects and interfaces. Thus, understanding these losses and how to reduce them is the way forward toward the Shockley-Queisser limit. Here, we demonstrate that ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy can directly probe hole extraction and recombination dynamics at perovskite/hole transport layer (HTL) interfaces. To illustrate this, we employed PDPP-3T as HTL because its ground-state absorption is at lower energy than the perovskite's photobleach, enabling direct monitoring of interfacial hole extraction and recombination. Moreover, by fitting the carrier dynamics using a diffusion model, we determined the carrier mobility. Afterwards, by varying the perovskite thickness, we distinguished between carrier diffusion and carrier extraction at the interface. Lastly, we prepared device-like structures, TiO2/perovskite/PDPP-3T stacks, and observed reduced carrier recombination in the perovskite. From PDPP-3T carrier dynamics, we deduced that hole extraction is one order faster than recombination of holes at the interface.

2.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(15)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375019

RESUMO

This study reports on the optoelectronic properties of porphyrin-based metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films fabricated by a facile liquid-phase epitaxy approach. This approach affords the growth of MOF thin films that are free of morphological imperfections, more suitable for optoelectronic applications. Chemical modifications such as the porphyrin ligand metallation have been found to preserve the morphology of the grown films making this approach particularly suitable for molecular alteration of MOF thin film optoelectronic properties without compromising its mesoscale morphology significantly. Particularly, the metallation of the ligand was found to be effective to tune the MOF bandgap. These porphyrin-based MOF thin films were shown to function effectively as donor layers in solar cells based on a Fullerene-C60 acceptor. The ability to fabricate MOF solar cells free of a liquid-phase acceptor greatly simplifies device fabrication and enables pairing of MOFs as light absorbers with a wide range of acceptors including non-fullerene acceptors.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(9): 1802028, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065524

RESUMO

The reported power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of nonfullerene acceptor (NFA) based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) now exceed 14% and 17% for single-junction and two-terminal tandem cells, respectively. However, increasing the PCE further requires an improved understanding of the factors limiting the device efficiency. Here, the efficiency limits of single-junction and two-terminal tandem NFA-based OPV cells are examined with the aid of a numerical device simulator that takes into account the optical properties of the active material(s), charge recombination effects, and the hole and electron mobilities in the active layer of the device. The simulations reveal that single-junction NFA OPVs can potentially reach PCE values in excess of 18% with mobility values readily achievable in existing material systems. Furthermore, it is found that balanced electron and hole mobilities of >10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1 in combination with low nongeminate recombination rate constants of 10-12 cm3 s-1 could lead to PCE values in excess of 20% and 25% for single-junction and two-terminal tandem OPV cells, respectively. This analysis provides the first tangible description of the practical performance targets and useful design rules for single-junction and tandem OPVs based on NFA materials, emphasizing the need for developing new material systems that combine these desired characteristics.

4.
Small ; 12(17): 2312, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27124006

RESUMO

Selective mapping of surface charge carrier dynamics of InGaN nanowires before and after surface passivation with octadecylthiol (ODT) is reported by O. F. Mohammed and co-workers on page 2313, using scanning ultrafast electron microscopy. In a typical experiment, the 343 nm output of the laser beam is used to excite the microscope tip to generate pulsed electrons for probing, and the 515 nm output is used as a clocking excitation pulse to initiate dynamics. Time-resolved images demonstrate clearly that carrier recombination is significantly slowed after ODT treatment, which supports the efficient removal of surface trap states.

5.
Adv Mater ; 28(25): 5106-11, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27111855

RESUMO

A breakthrough in the development of 4D scanning ultrafast electron microscopy is described for real-time and space imaging of secondary electron energy loss and carrier diffusion on the surface of an array of nanowires as a model system, providing access to a territory that is beyond the reach of either static electron imaging or any time-resolved laser spectroscopy.

6.
Small ; 12(17): 2313-20, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26938476

RESUMO

Managing trap states and understanding their role in ultrafast charge-carrier dynamics, particularly at surface and interfaces, remains a major bottleneck preventing further advancements and commercial exploitation of nanowire (NW)-based devices. A key challenge is to selectively map such ultrafast dynamical processes on the surfaces of NWs, a capability so far out of reach of time-resolved laser techniques. Selective mapping of surface dynamics in real space and time can only be achieved by applying four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (4D S-UEM). Charge carrier dynamics are spatially and temporally visualized on the surface of InGaN NW arrays before and after surface passivation with octadecylthiol (ODT). The time-resolved secondary electron images clearly demonstrate that carrier recombination on the NW surface is significantly slowed down after ODT treatment. This observation is fully supported by enhancement of the performance of the light emitting device. Direct observation of surface dynamics provides a profound understanding of the photophysical mechanisms on materials' surfaces and enables the formulation of effective surface trap state management strategies for the next generation of high-performance NW-based optoelectronic devices.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(19): 3884-90, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26722888

RESUMO

In the fields of photocatalysis and photovoltaics, ultrafast dynamical processes, including carrier trapping and recombination on material surfaces, are among the key factors that determine the overall energy conversion efficiency. A precise knowledge of these dynamical events on the nanometer (nm) and femtosecond (fs) scales was not accessible until recently. The only way to access such fundamental processes fully is to map the surface dynamics selectively in real space and time. In this study, we establish a second generation of four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (4D S-UEM) and demonstrate the ability to record time-resolved images (snapshots) of material surfaces with 650 fs and ∼5 nm temporal and spatial resolutions, respectively. In this method, the surface of a specimen is excited by a clocking optical pulse and imaged using a pulsed primary electron beam as a probe pulse, generating secondary electrons (SEs), which are emitted from the surface of the specimen in a manner that is sensitive to the local electron/hole density. This method provides direct and controllable information regarding surface dynamics. We clearly demonstrate how the surface morphology, grains, defects, and nanostructured features can significantly impact the overall dynamical processes on the surface of photoactive-materials. In addition, the ability to access two regimes of dynamical probing in a single experiment and the energy loss of SEs in semiconductor-nanoscale materials will also be discussed.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(13): 10022-7, 2014 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24918499

RESUMO

We explored for the first time the ultrafast carrier trapping of a metal-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) semiconductor using broad-band transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy with 120 fs temporal resolution. Titanium dioxide was successfully doped layer-by-layer with two metal ions, namely tungsten and cobalt. The time-resolved data demonstrate clearly that the carrier trapping time decreases progressively as the doping concentration increases. A global-fitting procedure for the carrier trapping suggests the appearance of two time components: a fast one that is directly associated with carrier trapping to the defect state in the vicinity of the conduction band and a slow one that is attributed to carrier trapping to the deep-level state from the conduction band. With a relatively long doping deposition time on the order of 30 s, a carrier lifetime of about 1 ps is obtained. To confirm that the measured ultrafast carrier dynamics are associated with electron trapping by metal doping, we explored the carrier dynamics of undoped TiO2. The findings reported here may be useful for the implementation of high-speed optoelectronic applications and fast switching devices.

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