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1.
Drugs ; 80(1): 23-31, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784873

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among women, and since the prognosis of breast cancer has substantially improved in past decades, complications of management are becoming increasingly apparent. Persistent pain lasting greater than 3 months after breast cancer surgery is unfortunately a common complication affecting approximately 30% of patients after tumour resection. Persistent breast cancer pain has neuropathic features and is typically mild-to-moderate in intensity, with approximately 10% suffering from severe pain. There is an increasing need to prevent persistent pain through the use of transitional pain programmes and perioperative interventions, and to identify novel treatment modalities to reduce suffering in those who unfortunately develop persistent pain. This review serves to provide an overview on persistent pain after breast cancer surgery, its pathophysiology, and current management strategies.

2.
Pain ; 160(10): 2374-2379, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149975

RESUMO

Tobacco smoking is associated with adverse health effects, and its relationship to pain is complex. The longitudinal effect of smoking on patients attending a tertiary pain management center is not well established. Using the Collaborative Health Outcomes Information Registry of patients attending the Stanford Pain Management Center from 2013 to 2017, we conducted a propensity-weighted analysis to determine independent effects of smoking on patients with chronic pain. We adjusted for covariates including age, sex, body mass index, depression and anxiety history, ethnicity, alcohol use, marital status, disability, and education. We compared smokers and nonsmokers on pain intensity, physical function, sleep, and psychological and mood variables using self-reported NIH PROMIS outcomes. We also conducted a linear mixed-model analysis to determine effect of smoking over time. A total of 12,368 patients completed the CHOIR questionnaire of which 8584 patients had complete data for propensity analysis. Smokers at time of pain consultation reported significantly worse pain intensities, pain interference, pain behaviors, physical functioning, fatigue, sleep-related impairment, sleep disturbance, anger, emotional support, depression, and anxiety symptoms than nonsmokers (all P < 0.001). In mixed-model analysis, smokers tended to have worse pain interference, fatigue, sleep-related impairment, anger, emotional support, and depression over time compared with nonsmokers. Patients with chronic pain who smoke have worse pain, functional, sleep, and psychological and mood outcomes compared with nonsmokers. Smoking also has prognostic importance for poor recovery and improvement over time. Further research is needed on tailored therapies to assist people with chronic pain who smoke and to determine an optimal strategy to facilitate smoking cessation.

3.
Anesthesiology ; 130(5): 756-766, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative hypotension is associated with cardiovascular events in patients having noncardiac surgery. It is unknown if the severity of preexisting coronary artery disease determines susceptibility to the cardiovascular risks of perioperative hypotension. METHODS: In this retrospective exploratory analysis of a substudy of an international prospective blinded cohort study, 955 patients 45 yr of age or older with history or risk factors for coronary artery disease underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography before elective inpatient noncardiac surgery. The authors evaluated the potential interaction between angiographic findings and perioperative hypotension (defined as systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg for a total of 10 min or more during surgery or for any duration after surgery and for which intervention was initiated) on the composite outcome of time to myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death up to 30 days after surgery. Angiography assessors were blinded to study outcomes; patients, treating clinicians, and outcome assessors were blinded to angiography findings. RESULTS: Cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death within 30 days after surgery) occurred in 7.7% of patients (74/955), including in 2.7% (8/293) without obstructive coronary disease or hypotension compared to 6.7% (21/314) with obstructive coronary disease but no hypotension (hazard ratio, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.11 to 5.66; P = 0.027), 8.8% (14/159) in patients with hypotension but without obstructive coronary disease (hazard ratio, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.62 to 9.19; P = 0.002), and 16.4% (31/189) with obstructive coronary disease and hypotension (hazard ratio, 7.34; 95% CI, 3.37 to 15.96; P < 0.001). Hypotension was independently associated with cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.99 to 5.06; P < 0.001). This association remained in patients without obstructive disease and did not differ significantly across degrees of coronary disease (P value for interaction, 0.599). CONCLUSIONS: In patients having noncardiac surgery, perioperative hypotension was associated with cardiovascular events regardless of the degree of coronary artery disease on preoperative coronary computed tomographic angiography.

4.
J Pain ; 20(8): 980-993, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844507

RESUMO

Persistent postsurgical pain is defined as pain localized to the area of surgery of a duration of ≥2 months and is, unfortunately, a common complication after breast cancer surgery. Although there is insufficient evidence to support any preventative strategy, prior literature suggests the possible efficacy of intravenous lidocaine and perioperative pregabalin in preventing persistent pain after surgery. To determine feasibility of conducting a larger definitive trial, we conducted a multicenter 2 × 2 factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial of 100 female patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. Patients were randomized to receive an intraoperative lidocaine infusion (1.5 mg/kg bolus followed by 2 mg/kg/h) or placebo and perioperative pregabalin (300 mg preoperatively, 75 mg twice daily for 9 days) or placebo. All feasibility criteria were surpassed; recruitment of 100 patients was accomplished within 42 weeks, with a follow-up rate of 100% and study drug compliance of ≥80%. At 3 months, 53% of patients reported persistent neuropathic pain. Although there was no interaction between lidocaine and pregabalin, lidocaine decreased the development of persistent neuropathic pain (43.1% vs 63.3%; relative risk = .68; 95% confidence interval = .47-1.0). Pregabalin did not reduce persistent pain (60% vs 46%; relative risk = 1.3; 95% confidence interval = .90-1.90) and neither pregabalin nor lidocaine impacted acute postoperative pain, opioid consumption, pain interference, or quality of life. Our pilot trial successfully demonstrated feasibility and provided promising data for conducting further trials of intraoperative lidocaine infusions during breast cancer surgeries. Clinical trial number: NCT02240199 PERSPECTIVE: This article reports the findings of a pilot randomized, controlled trial evaluating the effects of perioperative pregabalin and intraoperative lidocaine infusions in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. This trial demonstrated the feasibility of conducting a larger trial and provided promising data that these interventions may decrease the development of persistent pain.

5.
BMJ Open ; 9(2): e022995, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826789

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Approximately 400 000 Americans and 36 000 Canadians undergo cardiac surgery annually, and up to 56% will develop chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP). The primary aim of this study is to explore the association of pain-related beliefs and gender-based pain expectations on the development of CPSP. Secondary goals are to: (A) explore risk factors for poor functional status and patient-level cost of illness from a societal perspective up to 12 months following cardiac surgery; and (B) determine the impact of CPSP on quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) borne by cardiac surgery, in addition to the incremental cost for one additional QALY gained, among those who develop CPSP compared with those who do not. METHODS AND ANALYSES: In this prospective cohort study, 1250 adults undergoing cardiac surgery, including coronary artery bypass grafting and open-heart procedures, will be recruited over a 3-year period. Putative risk factors for CPSP will be captured prior to surgery, at postoperative day 3 (in hospital) and day 30 (at home). Outcome data will be collected via telephone interview at 6-month and 12-month follow-up. We will employ generalised estimating equations to model the primary (CPSP) and secondary outcomes (function and cost) while adjusting for prespecified model covariates. QALYs will be estimated by converting data from the Short Form-12 (version 2) to a utility score. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol has been approved by the responsible bodies at each of the hospital sites, and study enrolment began May 2015. We will disseminate our results through CardiacPain.Net, a web-based knowledge dissemination platform, presentation at international conferences and publications in scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01842568.

6.
Pain Pract ; 19(1): 52-56, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896934

RESUMO

Hip denervation comprising radiofrequency lesioning of the obturator and femoral articular branches is used in adults with refractory hip pain who are not surgical candidates. Persistent hip pain occurs infrequently in pediatric patients, and there are limited data on the safety and efficacy of this procedure in a pediatric population. We provide a case report of a successful ultrasound and fluoroscopic-guided hip denervation procedure in an 11-year-old girl with persistent right hip pain after septic arthritis refractory to conservative and surgical management. At an 18-week follow-up, hip denervation provided improvement in pain, mobility, and reduced opioid consumption by 20%.


Assuntos
Artralgia/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Nervo Femoral/cirurgia , Nervo Obturador/cirurgia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Artrite Infecciosa/complicações , Criança , Feminino , Nervo Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/etiologia , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/cirurgia , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Articulação do Quadril , Humanos , Nervo Obturador/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição da Dor , Dor Intratável/etiologia , Dor Intratável/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
7.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(18): 1868-1879, 2018 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757686

RESUMO

Purpose Breast cancer surgery is associated with unemployment. Identifying high-risk patients could help inform strategies to promote return to work. We systematically reviewed observational studies to explore factors associated with unemployment after breast cancer surgery. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO to identify studies that explored risk factors for unemployment after breast cancer surgery. When possible, we pooled estimates of association for all independent variables reported by more than one study. Results Twenty-six studies (46,927 patients) reported the association of 127 variables with unemployment after breast cancer surgery. Access to universal health care was associated with higher rates of unemployment (26.6% v 15.4%; test of interaction P = .05). High-quality evidence showed that unemployment after breast cancer surgery was associated with high psychological job demands (odds ratio [OR], 4.26; 95% CI, 2.27 to 7.97), childlessness (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.53), lower education level (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.25), lower income level (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.73), cancer stage II, III or IV (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.82), and mastectomy versus breast-conserving surgery (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.30). Moderate-quality evidence suggested an association with high physical job demands (OR, 2.11; 95%CI, 1.52 to 2.93), African-American ethnicity (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.96), and receipt of chemotherapy (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.79). High-quality evidence demonstrated no significant association with part-time hours, blue-collar work, tumor size, positive lymph nodes, or receipt of radiotherapy or endocrine therapy; moderate-quality evidence suggested no association with age, marital status, or axillary lymph node dissection. Conclusion Addressing high physical and psychological job demands may be important in reducing unemployment after breast cancer surgery.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Viés , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 70(10): 1317-1328, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28751024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer surgery is associated with acute and chronic pain. We sought to systematically evaluate the effects of gabapentin and pregabalin on postoperative pain among patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. DATABASES AND DATA TREATMENT: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Web of Science, and ProQuest from the inception of each database to November 2015. We included studies enrolling adult patients undergoing breast cancer surgery who were randomly assigned to preoperative gabapentin or pregabalin versus placebo or active control and assessed acute (≤24 h) or chronic (≥2 months) pain. We conducted meta-analyses when possible and rated the quality of evidence (QoE) by using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Twelve studies were eligible for review, of which eight evaluated gabapentin (n = 516) and four pregabalin (n = 209). Gabapentin reduced pain scores in the recovery room (mean difference [MD] -1.68 on a 0-10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), 95% CI -2.59 to -0.77; minimally important difference is 1 point; relative risk [RR] for mild pain (<4/10) 1.71, 95% CI 1.33-2.02; moderate QoE) and 24 h postoperatively (MD -0.52, 95% CI -1.02 to -0.01; RR for mild pain 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.13; very low QoE). Pregabalin reduced pain and morphine consumption in the recovery room (MD -6.71 mg, 95% CI -10.73 to -2.70; low QoE). No significant difference was observed in pain score at 24 h (MD -0.38, 95%, CI -0.96 to 0.21; moderate QoE). Neither drug reduced the rate of chronic postoperative pain. CONCLUSIONS: Gabapentin and pregabalin seem to reduce opioid consumption in the recovery room. Gabapentin, but not pregabalin, reduces pain at 24 h after breast cancer surgery. Neither drug affects the development of chronic postoperative pain. SIGNIFICANCE: Gabapentin and pregabalin administered perioperatively in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery improve acute postoperative pain as indicated by the reduction in opioid consumption. Further data are needed on reducing chronic postoperative pain.


Assuntos
Aminas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/farmacologia , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Pregabalina/farmacologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Dor Crônica , Feminino , Gabapentina , Humanos , Mastectomia/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Hum Factors ; 59(7): 1108-1127, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574734

RESUMO

Objective Four sets of eight audible alarms matching the functions specified in IEC 60601-1-8 were designed using known principles from auditory cognition with the intention that they would be more recognizable and localizable than those currently specified in the standard. Background The audible alarms associated with IEC 60601-1-8, a global medical device standard, are known to be difficult to learn and retain, and there have been many calls to update them. There are known principles of design and cognition that might form the basis of more readily recognizable alarms. There is also scope for improvement in the localizability of the existing alarms. Method Four alternative sets of alarms matched to the functions specified in IEC 60601-1-8 were tested for recognizability and localizability and compared with the alarms currently specified in the standard. Results With a single exception, all prototype sets of alarms outperformed the current IEC set on both recognizability and localizability. Within the prototype sets, auditory icons were the most easily recognized, but the other sets, using word rhythms and simple acoustic metaphors, were also more easily recognized than the current alarms. With the exception of one set, all prototype sets were also easier to localize. Conclusion Known auditory cognition and perception principles were successfully applied to an existing audible alarm problem. Application This work constitutes the first (benchmarking) phase of replacing the alarms currently specified in the standard. The design principles used for each set demonstrate the relative ease with which different alarm types can be recognized and localized.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Alarmes Clínicos/normas , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas/normas , Desenho de Equipamento/normas , Adulto , Humanos
10.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 5(3): e149, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27480247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tens of thousands of cardiac and vascular surgeries (CaVS) are performed on seniors in Canada and the United Kingdom each year to improve survival, relieve disease symptoms, and improve health-related quality of life (HRQL). However, chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP), undetected or delayed detection of hemodynamic compromise, complications, and related poor functional status are major problems for substantial numbers of patients during the recovery process. To tackle this problem, we aim to refine and test the effectiveness of an eHealth-enabled service delivery intervention, TecHnology-Enabled remote monitoring and Self-MAnagemenT-VIsion for patient EmpoWerment following Cardiac and VasculaR surgery (THE SMArTVIEW, CoVeRed), which combines remote monitoring, education, and self-management training to optimize recovery outcomes and experience of seniors undergoing CaVS in Canada and the United Kingdom. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives are to (1) refine SMArTVIEW via high-fidelity user testing and (2) examine the effectiveness of SMArTVIEW via a randomized controlled trial (RCT). METHODS: CaVS patients and clinicians will engage in two cycles of focus groups and usability testing at each site; feedback will be elicited about expectations and experience of SMArTVIEW, in context. The data will be used to refine the SMArTVIEW eHealth delivery program. Upon transfer to the surgical ward (ie, post-intensive care unit [ICU]), 256 CaVS patients will be reassessed postoperatively and randomly allocated via an interactive Web randomization system to the intervention group or usual care. The SMArTVIEW intervention will run from surgical ward day 2 until 8 weeks following surgery. Outcome assessments will occur on postoperative day 30; at week 8; and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The primary outcome is worst postop pain intensity upon movement in the previous 24 hours (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form), averaged across the previous 14 days. Secondary outcomes include a composite of postoperative complications related to hemodynamic compromise-death, myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke- all-cause mortality and surgical site infections, functional status (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12), depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), health service utilization-related costs (health service utilization data from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences data repository), and patient-level cost of recovery (Ambulatory Home Care Record). A linear mixed model will be used to assess the effects of the intervention on the primary outcome, with an a priori contrast of weekly average worst pain intensity upon movement to evaluate the primary endpoint of pain at 8 weeks postoperation. We will also examine the incremental cost of the intervention compared to usual care using a regression model to estimate the difference in expected health care costs between groups. RESULTS: Study start-up is underway and usability testing is scheduled to begin in the fall of 2016. CONCLUSIONS: Given our experience, dedicated industry partners, and related RCT infrastructure, we are confident we can make a lasting contribution to improving the care of seniors who undergo CaVS.

11.
CMAJ ; 188(10): 755, 2016 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27402649
12.
CMAJ ; 188(14): E352-E361, 2016 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27402075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent pain after breast cancer surgery affects up to 60% of patients. Early identification of those at higher risk could help inform optimal management. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies to explore factors associated with persistent pain among women who have undergone surgery for breast cancer. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases from inception to Mar. 12, 2015, to identify cohort or case-control studies that explored the association between risk factors and persistent pain (lasting ≥ 2 mo) after breast cancer surgery. We pooled estimates of association using random-effects models, when possible, for all independent variables reported by more than 1 study. We reported relative measures of association as pooled odds ratios (ORs) and absolute measures of association as the absolute risk increase. RESULTS: Thirty studies, involving a total of 19 813 patients, reported the association of 77 independent variables with persistent pain. High-quality evidence showed increased odds of persistent pain with younger age (OR for every 10-yr decrement 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-1.48), radiotherapy (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.16-1.57), axillary lymph node dissection (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.73-3.35) and greater acute postoperative pain (OR for every 1 cm on a 10-cm visual analogue scale 1.16, 95% CI 1.03-1.30). Moderate-quality evidence suggested an association with the presence of preoperative pain (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.64). Given the 30% risk of pain in the absence of risk factors, the absolute risk increase corresponding to these ORs ranged from 3% (acute postoperative pain) to 21% (axillary lymph node dissection). High-quality evidence showed no association with body mass index, type of breast surgery, chemotherapy or endocrine therapy. INTERPRETATION: Development of persistent pain after breast cancer surgery was associated with younger age, radiotherapy, axillary lymph node dissection, greater acute postoperative pain and preoperative pain. Axillary lymph node dissection provides the only high-yield target for a modifiable risk factor to prevent the development of persistent pain after breast cancer surgery.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Excisão de Linfonodo/estatística & dados numéricos , Mastectomia Segmentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Mastodinia/epidemiologia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Axila , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Razão de Chances , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Fatores de Risco
15.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 33(3): 204-14, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26760402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain continues to be undertreated after noncardiac surgery. Preoperative analgesic administration may enhance postoperative analgesia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of preoperative administration of celecoxib in noncardiac surgery on pain and postoperative outcomes. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINHAL Web of Sciences and ProQuest databases were searched from inception to 2014. Reference lists of retrieved articles and grey literature were searched for additional trials. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Articles were included if they enrolled patients of at least 18 years of age and randomised patients to receive celecoxib within 4 h of noncardiac surgery. Studies were excluded if they were animal studies, reviews/meta-analyses, did not report pain as an outcome or used epidural analgesia. RESULTS: Twenty trials met the eligibility criteria. Preoperative celecoxib in 14 studies (994 patients) amenable to meta-analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in 24-h parenteral morphine-equivalent consumption (mean difference -4.13 mg, 95% confidence interval -5.58 to -2.67, I = 94%). Eleven studies (755 patients) assessed postoperative pain scores at 24 h and found a significant decrease with celecoxib use [mean difference (on a 0-10 pain scale) -1.02, 95% confidence interval -1.54 to -0.50, I = 99%]. The risks of postoperative nausea and vomiting were also decreased by 44% (P = 0.01) and 38% (P = 0.03), respectively. Preoperative celecoxib did not improve patient satisfaction or length of recovery room stay, or increase intraoperative bleeding. Subgroup analyses indicated no difference between celecoxib 200 and 400 mg or between a single preoperative dose and continued postoperative dosing. CONCLUSION: Results of this study are limited by significant heterogeneity and inclusion of mainly small trials. However, there appears to be a slight to modest benefit of preoperative celecoxib on reducing postoperative morphine consumption, pain, nausea and vomiting.


Assuntos
Celecoxib/administração & dosagem , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia
17.
J Clin Anesth ; 28: 95-104, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26342631

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: There exists no commonly accepted regimen for an intravenous lidocaine infusion (IVLI). This study aims to determine an appropriate end time for an IVLI during bowel surgery. DESIGN: A systematic search for randomized controlled trials assessing IVLI for bowel surgery was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, Google Scholar, hand-searching references, and grey literature. Data were pooled for studies that stopped IVLI ≤60 minutes (intraoperative IVLI) after skin closure and where IVLI continued >60 minutes after surgery (postoperative continued IVLI). Quantitative analysis was done using the random-effects model. MAIN RESULTS: Seven studies (n = 362) were identified after the systematic search. Three studies (n = 160) and 4 studies (n = 202) used an intraoperative and postoperative continued IVLI, respectively. An intraoperative IVLI significantly reduced pain scores at rest for 48 hours (standardized mean difference on a 0-10 scale, -1.24; 95% confidence interval, -1.93 to -0.56) and 72 hours (standardized mean difference, -1.12; 95% confidence interval, -1.79 to -0.44) compared with postoperative IVLI (test for interaction: P < .001 and P = .003, respectively). Although intraoperative IVLI reduced 24-hour pain scores on movement, this was not statistically different than pain scores in the postoperative IVLI group (test of interaction: P = 0.68). There were no differences between intraoperative IVLI and postoperative IVLI for postoperative in-hospital nausea, vomiting, time to bowel movement, and length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Continuing an IVLI beyond 60 minutes after surgery has no added analgesic or gastrointestinal benefit. Further research is needed to clarify an optimal IVLI regimen and end time.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Período Intraoperatório , Período Pós-Operatório
20.
Can J Anaesth ; 62(9): 956-63, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26108534

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We conducted this study to determine the preferences of anesthesia residents training in Canada for fellowship training, research, and future practice location and to identify the factors that influence those preferences. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, a survey was sent to all anesthesia residents enrolled at an accredited Canadian anesthesiology residency program (N = 629). Data were collected on demographics and preferences for fellowship training, research, and future practice location. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine significant associations. RESULTS: Two hundred forty-four residents (39%) responded to the survey. Seventy percent of residents intended to pursue fellowship training. The top three fellowships they favoured were regional anesthesia, intensive care, and cardiac anesthesia. Male sex was positively associated with the decision to pursue fellowship training, whereas having an additional graduate degree was negatively associated with this choice. Among those pursuing fellowship training, the most influential factors were personal interest, enhancing employability, and an interest in an academic career. Fifty-seven percent of residents preferred to work at an academic hospital. Thirty-four percent of residents intended to incorporate research into their future practice, and personal interest, employability, and colleagues were most influential in their decision. Research activity and publishing in residency were associated with the desire to pursue future research initiatives. CONCLUSION: The majority of anesthesia residents training in Canada choose to pursue fellowship training and work at an academic hospital. Approximately one-third of residents have an interest in incorporating research into their future careers.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/educação , Escolha da Profissão , Bolsas de Estudo , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
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