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Braz J Biol ; 83: e250402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614125


We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.

Composição Corporal , Peixes , Animais
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247237, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495154


Novel coronavirus (nCoV) namely "SARS-CoV-2" is being found responsible for current PANDEMIC commenced from Wuhan (China) since December 2019 and has been described with epidemiological linkage to China in about 221 countries and territories until now. In this study we have characterized the genetic lineage of SARS-CoV-2 and report the recombination within the genus and subgenus of coronaviruses. Phylogenetic relationship of thirty nine coronaviruses belonging to its four genera and five subgenera was analyzed by using the Neighbor-joining method using MEGA 6.0. Phylogenetic trees of full length genome, various proteins (spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid) nucleotide sequences were constructed separately. Putative recombination was probed via RDP4. Our analysis describes that the "SARS-CoV-2" although shows great similarity to Bat-SARS-CoVs sequences through whole genome (giving sequence similarity 89%), exhibits conflicting grouping with the Bat-SARS-like coronavirus sequences (MG772933 and MG772934). Furthermore, seven recombination events were observed in SARS-CoV-2 (NC_045512) by RDP4. But not a single recombination event fulfills the high level of certainty. Recombination mostly housed in spike protein genes than rest of the genome indicating breakpoint cluster arises beyond the 95% and 99% breakpoint density intervals. Genetic similarity levels observed among "SARS-CoV-2" and Bat-SARS-CoVs advocated that the latter did not exhibit the specific variant that cause outbreak in humans, proposing a suggestion that "SARS-CoV-2" has originated possibly from bats. These genomic features and their probable association with virus characteristics along with virulence in humans require further consideration.

COVID-19 , Quirópteros , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246727, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468521


Unavailability of probiotics in fish digestive system fingerlings is unable to digest and absorb their food properly. The current research was conducted to investigate the influence of probiotics added Linseed meal based (LMB) diet on hematology and carcass composition of Labeo rohita juveniles. Hematological parameters are essential diagnostics used to estimate the health status of fish. The usage of probiotics for fish health improvement is becoming common due to the higher demand for environment-friendly culture system in water. Linseed meal was used as a test ingredient to prepare six experimental test diets by adding probiotics (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg) and 1% indigestible chromic oxide for seventy days. According to their live wet weight, five percent feed was given to fingerlings twice a day. Fish blood and carcass samples (Whole body) were taken for hematological and carcass analysis at the end of the experiment. The highest carcass composition (crude protein; 18.72%, crude fat; 8.80% and gross energy; 2.31 kcal/g) was observed in fish fed with test diet II supplemented with probiotics (2 g/kg). Moreover, maximum RBCs number (2.62× 106mm-3), WBCs (7.84×103mm-3), PCV (24.61), platelets (63.85) and hemoglobin (7.87) had also been reported in the fish fingerlings fed on 2 g/kg of probiotics supplemented diet. Results indicated that probiotics supplementation has a critical role in improvement of fingerlings' body composition and hematological indices. Present findings showed that probiotics supplementation at 2 g/kg level in linseed by-product-based diet was very useful for enhancing the overall performance of L. rohita fingerlings.

Cyprinidae , Linho , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26236379


Glucagon receptor (GCGR) is a secretin-like (class B) family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in humans that plays an important role in elevating the glucose concentration in blood and has thus become one of the promising therapeutic targets for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GCGR based inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes are either glucagon neutralizers or small molecular antagonists. Management of diabetes without any side effects is still a challenge to the medical system, and the search for a new and effective natural GCGR antagonist is an important area for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, a number of natural compounds containing antidiabetic properties were selected from the literature and their binding potential against GCGR was determined using molecular docking and other in silico approaches. Among all selected natural compounds, curcumin was found to be the most effective compound against GCGR followed by amorfrutin 1 and 4-hydroxyderricin. These compounds were rescored to confirm the accuracy of binding using another scoring function (x-score). The final conclusions were drawn based on the results obtained from the GOLD and x-score. Further experiments were conducted to identify the atomic level interactions of selected compounds with GCGR.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 15(8): 916-30, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21845802


BACKGROUND: Tocotrienol (Tocomin) are naturally occurring analogues of vitamin E family and has been reported to possess a potent free radical scavenging activity. In the present study we have initially investigated protective role of tocotrienol against infection and inflammation induced alterations in tissues antioxidant defense system, as well as speculated, via in silico docking studies, that tocotrienol can act by directly binding to antioxidant enzymes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Syrian hamsters were injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 200 microg), zymosan (20 mg), or turpentine (0.5 ml) to mimic acute infection, acute systemic inflammation, and acute localized inflammation, respectively, which are responsible for the generation of plenty of free radicals that causes oxidative stress. Tocomin (10 mg) was administered daily for 10 days before and 12 h after lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or 24 h after turpentine or zymosan injection. Molecular docking studies were performed using Autodock 4.0. RESULTS: Our results show a significant decrease in the activities of antiperoxidative enzymes, glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), as well as reduced glutathione (GSH), in liver and kidney of LPS, turpentine or zymosan stressed hamsters. Feeding of 10 mg Tocomin to stressed hamsters was quite effective in reversing/normalizing the altered levels of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in liver and kidney. In order to explore the interaction between tocotrienol and antioxidant enzymes a molecular docking study was performed. The results showed good interaction in term of binding energy and inhibition constant in the following order GR > CAT > SOD > GST > GPx. CONCLUSION: Our in vivo and in silico results for the first time indicate that tocotrienol significantly alleviate the condition of oxidative stress not only by its potent free radical scavenging properties but also may be by interacting directly and strongly with antioxidant enzymes as proved by molecular docking simulations.

Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Biológicos , Oxirredutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Tocotrienóis/farmacologia , Animais , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/enzimologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Glutationa/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/enzimologia , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos