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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243633, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249273

RESUMO

Abstract Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc:


Resumo A truta das neves (Schizothorax plagiostomus) é um peixe de água doce economicamente importante, encontrado principalmente nas áreas ao norte de reservatórios de água do Paquistão. O presente estudo foi realizado em River Swat para analisar a bioacumulação de metais pesados (Pb, Cr, Ni e Zn) em tecidos de Schizothorax plagiostomus. Os tecidos foram extraídos e dissolvidos em ácido perclórico (HClO4) e ácido nítrico (HNO3) com placa de aquecimento. Os metais pesados zinco (Zn), chumbo (Pb), cromo (Cr) e níquel (Ni) foram determinados usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica Perkin Elmer 2380. Os resultados mostram grande variação no conteúdo do metal relacionado ao tipo de tecido e locais de amostragem. Uma alta concentração de bioacumulação foi relatada em Charbagh, enquanto a mais baixa, em Odigram: Charbagh > Landakai > Odigram. Da mesma forma, Cr foi o metal pesado mais acumulado, seguido por Pb, Ni e Zn.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243283, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278505

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Infectious agents cause serious diseases in humans worldwide and are responsible for the high rate of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and epidemiology of infectious disease (HCV) in the hospital visited patients referred by the physicians through the initial findings and their associated risk factors were studied in Swat. The data of 174 infected patients were collected during the period of 2015 to 2017 from two clinical laboratories of Tehsil Matta Swat. Inform consent form was taken before blood collection. After taking informed consent blood samples were collected and ICT test was performed and then ICT positive cases were conform through PCR. A total of 174 ICT positive samples [106 male and 68 females] were included in this study. Age was considered from 10 to 72 years. Of the 174 ICT strip positive, 99 [63 males, 36 females] were confirmed through PCR. The prevalence rate was recorded 56.89%. I.V/I.M injection was recorded in 100% of the individuals. Visits to the barber shop was reported in (58%) of the individuals, married individuals were (81.0), surgical operation was reported in (44.8%), sharing toothbrush was observed in (29.9%), piercing was reported in (39.7%), family history was reported in (26.4%), dental treatment was observed in (21.8%), jaundice were (13.2%) and tattooing was (1.7%). Blood transfusion, surgical operations, Jaundice, family history and dental treatment were found significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection. It was concluded that proper implementation of precautionary measures should be needed to control the spread of HCV in far near future.


RESUMO Agentes infecciosos causam doenças graves em humanos em todo o mundo, e são responsáveis pelo alto índice de morbimortalidade. A prevalência e a epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas no hospital que atendeu pacientes encaminhados pelos médicos por meio dos achados iniciais e seus fatores de risco associados foram estudadas em Peshawar. Os dados de 174 pacientes infectados foram coletados durante o período de 2015 a 2017 oriundos de dois laboratórios clínicos de Tehsil Matta Swat. O formulário de consentimento informado foi obtido antes da coleta de sangue. Após a obtenção do consentimento informado, foram coletadas amostras de sangue e foi realizado o teste ICT e, em seguida, os casos ICT positivos foram confirmados por PCR. Um total de 174 amostras ICT positivas [106 homens e 68 mulheres] foi incluído neste estudo. A idade considerada foi de 10 a 72 anos. Das 174 tiras de ICT positivas, 99 casos [63 homens, 36 mulheres] foram confirmados por PCR. A taxa de prevalência foi de 56,89%. A injeção IV / IM foi registrada em 100% dos indivíduos. A visita à barbearia foi relatada em (58%) dos indivíduos, os números de casados foram (81,0%), e a operação cirúrgica foi relatada em (44,8%), o compartilhamento de escova de dente foi observado em (29,9%), o piercing foi relatado em (39,7%), antecedentes familiares foram relatados em (26,4%), tratamento odontológico em (21,8%), icterícia (13,2%) e tatuagem em (1,7%). Transfusão de sangue, operações cirúrgicas, icterícia, histórico familiar e tratamento odontológico foram fatores de risco significativos para adquirir infecção por Vírus da Hepatite C (VHC). Concluiu-se que a implementação adequada de medidas de precaução deve ser necessária para controlar a propagação do VHC em um futuro próximo.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243670, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278509

RESUMO

Abstract For the proper growth of fish, it is necessary to feed the fish with a proper and balanced diet. A study was conducted to find out the effect of different protein-based diets on fingerlings of Tor putitora (mahseer). A feed with dietary protein levels of 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were prepared. The effect of different protein-based feed on weight gain, standard growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), percent weight gain, food conversion efficiency (FCE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was studied. An increase was observed in the growth rate with an increase in protein concentration up to 45%. The fingerlings fed a 45% protein diet shown the highest growth, followed by 50%, 40%, and 35%. The SGR value was greatest for 45% protein diet (8.56) followed by 50% and 40%, while the least values were observed for 35% protein feed (1.57). The same trend was observed for FCE. The highest PER values was observed in fishes fed 45% protein-based feed (0.65) followed by 50% (0.56), 40% (0.38) and35% (0.17). The food conversion ratio was lowest for 45% protein diet (3.41), while the greatest for 35% protein feed (16.85). It was concluded that a 45% protein-based diet was the best feed formulation for higher production of Tor putitora. However, research on the same percentage of protein diet is recommended for yearlings.


Resumo Para o bom crescimento dos peixes, é necessário alimentá-los com uma alimentação adequada e balanceada. Um estudo foi realizado para descobrir o efeito de diferentes dietas à base de proteínas em alevinos de Tor putitora (mahseer). Foi preparado um alimento com níveis de proteína dietética de 35%, 40%, 45% e 50%. O efeito de diferentes alimentos à base de proteína no ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento padrão (SGR), taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR), ganho de peso percentual, eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) e taxa de eficiência proteica (PER) foi estudado. Foi observado um aumento na taxa de crescimento com um aumento na concentração de proteína de até 45%. Os alevinos alimentados com dieta de 45% de proteína apresentaram o maior crescimento, seguidos de 50%, 40% e 35%. O valor de SGR foi maior para dieta com 45% de proteína (8,56), seguido de 50% e 40%, enquanto os menores valores foram observados para ração com 35% de proteína (1,57). A mesma tendência foi observada para FCE. Os maiores valores de PER foram observados em peixes alimentados com 45% de ração à base de proteína (0,65), seguido por 50% (0,56), 40% (0,38) e 35% (0,17). A taxa de conversão alimentar foi menor para a dieta com 45% de proteína (3,41), enquanto a maior para a dieta com 35% de proteína (16,85). Concluiu-se que a dieta à base de proteína de 45% foi a melhor formulação alimentar para maior produção de Tor putitora. No entanto, a pesquisa sobre a mesma porcentagem de dieta proteica é recomendada para animais de um ano.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243283, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161427

RESUMO

Infectious agents cause serious diseases in humans worldwide and are responsible for the high rate of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and epidemiology of infectious disease (HCV) in the hospital visited patients referred by the physicians through the initial findings and their associated risk factors were studied in Swat. The data of 174 infected patients were collected during the period of 2015 to 2017 from two clinical laboratories of Tehsil Matta Swat. Inform consent form was taken before blood collection. After taking informed consent blood samples were collected and ICT test was performed and then ICT positive cases were conform through PCR. A total of 174 ICT positive samples [106 male and 68 females] were included in this study. Age was considered from 10 to 72 years. Of the 174 ICT strip positive, 99 [63 males, 36 females] were confirmed through PCR. The prevalence rate was recorded 56.89%. I.V/I.M injection was recorded in 100% of the individuals. Visits to the barber shop was reported in (58%) of the individuals, married individuals were (81.0), surgical operation was reported in (44.8%), sharing toothbrush was observed in (29.9%), piercing was reported in (39.7%), family history was reported in (26.4%), dental treatment was observed in (21.8%), jaundice were (13.2%) and tattooing was (1.7%). Blood transfusion, surgical operations, Jaundice, family history and dental treatment were found significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection. It was concluded that proper implementation of precautionary measures should be needed to control the spread of HCV in far near future.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243670, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161428

RESUMO

For the proper growth of fish, it is necessary to feed the fish with a proper and balanced diet. A study was conducted to find out the effect of different protein-based diets on fingerlings of Tor putitora (mahseer). A feed with dietary protein levels of 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were prepared. The effect of different protein-based feed on weight gain, standard growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), percent weight gain, food conversion efficiency (FCE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was studied. An increase was observed in the growth rate with an increase in protein concentration up to 45%. The fingerlings fed a 45% protein diet shown the highest growth, followed by 50%, 40%, and 35%. The SGR value was greatest for 45% protein diet (8.56) followed by 50% and 40%, while the least values were observed for 35% protein feed (1.57). The same trend was observed for FCE. The highest PER values was observed in fishes fed 45% protein-based feed (0.65) followed by 50% (0.56), 40% (0.38) and35% (0.17). The food conversion ratio was lowest for 45% protein diet (3.41), while the greatest for 35% protein feed (16.85). It was concluded that a 45% protein-based diet was the best feed formulation for higher production of Tor putitora. However, research on the same percentage of protein diet is recommended for yearlings.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cyprinidae , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta
6.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243633, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076166

RESUMO

Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1334, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988579

RESUMO

Bacterial biofilm plays a pivotal role in bioremediation of heavy metals from wastewaters. In this study, we isolated and identified different biofilm producing bacteria from wastewaters. We also characterized the biofilm matrix [i.e., extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)] produced by different bacteria. Out of 40 isolates from different wastewaters, only 11 (27.5%) isolates (static condition at 28°C) and 9 (22.5%) isolates (agitate and static conditions at 28 and 37°C) produced air-liquid (AL) and solid-air-liquid (SAL) biofilms, respectively, only on salt-optimized broth plus 2% glycerol (SOBG) but not in other media tested. Biomass biofilms and bacteria coupled with AL biofilms were significantly (P ≤ 0.001) varied in these isolates. Escherichia coli (isolate ENSD101 and ENST501), Enterobacter asburiae (ENSD102), Enterobacter ludwigii (ENSH201), Pseudomonas fluorescens (ENSH202 and ENSG304), uncultured Vitreoscilla sp. (ENSG301 and ENSG305), Acinetobacter lwoffii (ENSG302), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ENSG303), and Bacillus thuringiensis (ENSW401) were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that biofilm matrix produced by E. asburiae ENSD102, uncultured Vitreoscilla sp. ENSG301, A. lwoffii ENSG302, and K. pneumoniae ENSG303 are highly fibrous, compact, and nicely interlinked as compared to the biofilm developed by E. ludwigii ENSH201 and B. thuringiensis ENSW401. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that biofilm matrix produced by E. asburiae ENSD102, uncultured Vitreoscilla sp. ENSG301, and A. lwoffii ENSG302 are non-crystalline amorphous nature. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that proteins and polysaccharides are the main components of the biofilms. Congo red binding results suggested that all these bacteria produced proteinaceous curli fimbriae and cellulose-rich polysaccharide. Production of cellulose was also confirmed by Calcofluor binding- and spectrophotometric assays. E. asburiae ENSD102, Vitreoscilla sp. ENSG301, and A. lwoffii ENSG302 were tested for their abilities to form the biofilms exposure to 0 to 2000 mg/L of copper sulfate (for Cu), zinc sulfate (for Zn), lead nitrate (for Pb), nickel chloride (for Ni), and potassium dichromate (for Cr), several concentrations of these metals activated the biofilm formation. The polysaccharides is known to sequester the heavy metals thus, these bacteria might be applied to remove the heavy metals from wastewater.

8.
Burns ; 42(4): e42-6, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27118069

RESUMO

E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/etiologia , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Explosões , Traumatismos da Perna/etiologia , Compostos de Lítio/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Queimaduras/terapia , Queimaduras Químicas/etiologia , Queimaduras Químicas/terapia , Desbridamento , Humanos , Traumatismos da Perna/terapia , Masculino , Irrigação Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Coxa da Perna
9.
J Hand Surg Eur Vol ; 38(3): 297-303, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22736742

RESUMO

We report the outcomes of 32 patients diagnosed with macrodactyly. The average age at presentation was 46 months and there was an equal distribution across the sexes, although there was a male predominance in the upper limb and female predominance in the lower limb. There were 20 cases of upper limb macrodactyly and 13 cases affecting the lower limb. Multiple digits were more commonly affected than isolated digits, with an average of 2.5 digits affected. Static disease required significantly fewer operations than progressive disease. The need for repeated procedures must be highlighted in cases of progressive macrodactyly. In the vast majority of cases the functional and cosmetic outcome is good, with good patient acceptance.


Assuntos
Dedos/anormalidades , Dedos/cirurgia , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/cirurgia , Dedos do Pé/anormalidades , Dedos do Pé/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Asian Pac J Trop Biomed ; 2(3): 250-2, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23569908

RESUMO

Eight percent of necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) are attributable to group A Streptococci (GAS), and among these, 50% develop streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The reported mortality associated with NSTI reaches 32%. We present cases of two healthy individuals with minor GAS skin infection which developed to a rapidly progressed NSTI and sepsis despite of the antibiotic treatment, aiming to discuss the lessons learned from the course and management of these patients.


Assuntos
Fasciite Necrosante , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus pyogenes , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Braço/microbiologia , Braço/patologia , Braço/cirurgia , Pé/microbiologia , Pé/patologia , Pé/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 64(7): 963-5, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21353656

RESUMO

Reports of varicosities developing in free flaps are very rare. The presence of varicose veins in recipient sites influencing the development of varicosities in free flaps, though physiologically possible, has not been documented in literature. We encountered an unusual case of varicosities developing in a free radial forearm flap used in soft-tissue reconstruction of an open distal-third tibial fracture, which is presented here. This case report thus adds an important dimension to the assessment of a patient when planning a free flap procedure in a recipient area with pre-existing varicosities.


Assuntos
Fraturas Expostas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/irrigação sanguínea , Varizes/etiologia , Varizes/cirurgia , Acidentes de Trânsito , Terapia Combinada , Seguimentos , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Antebraço/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Fraturas Expostas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Traumatismos da Perna/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos da Perna/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Radiografia , Fraturas do Rádio/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Doenças Raras , Reoperação/métodos , Medição de Risco , Fraturas da Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Varizes/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 54(5): 285-8, 2004 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15270194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence, etiologies, radiographic patterns, and clinical outcomes of adult leukemics with prolonged febrile neutropenia and pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital. The medical records of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia diagnosed between January 1989 and June 2000 and undergoing induction chemotherapy were included. Only the patients who presented with a pulmonary infiltrate, secondary leukemia (e.g., transformed chronic myeloid leukemia underlying myelodysplastic syndrome, or disease following alkylating agent therapy) were included and those developing infiltrates following consolidation chemotherapy were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 124 patients were admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of AML during the study period. Thirty-one patients were excluded; 93 patients received induction chemotherapy and were included in the study analysis. The median age was 36 years (15 - 70 years); 58 males and 35 females. Sixty two percent patients received Cytosine Arabinoside (Ara-C), 17% received Etoposide, 11% received Ara-C and Mitoxantrone, and 6% received All-trans-retinoic Acid. The mean onset and duration of neutropenia were 5 and 15 days, respectively. Pulmonary infiltrates were identified during 45% of neutropenic episodes. A presumptive causative organism was isolated from 50% of patients with an infiltrate: Gram-positive bacteria were most common (47%) followed by Gram-negative bacilli (33%) and fungi (20%). Survival data were available for 88 patients; median disease free survival for the entire cohort was 7 months. Male sex (p=0.015), onset of neutropenia (p=0.02) and bilateral distribution of an infiltrate (p=0.03) were statistically significant predictors of early mortality. For patients with and without pneumonia, the median disease-free interval and overall survival were 2.5 and 4.6 months and 9 and 13 months (p=0.038 and p=0.095) respectively. CONCLUSION: Neutropenia occurred at a mean of 5.0 after initiation of induction chemotherapy. The majority of patients had bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Male sex, onset of neutropenia and bilateral distribution of an infiltrate were found to be statistically significant predictors of early mortality.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mieloide/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Leucemia Mieloide/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/complicações , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Radiografia Torácica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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