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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238673, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153461

RESUMO

Abstract Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Resumo A coccidiose continua sendo um dos maiores problemas em aves de todo o mundo. Dados muito limitados sobre drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens estão disponíveis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo compreender a eficácia comparativa da sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho em pombos selvagens do distrito de Dir, no Paquistão, que sofrem de coccidiose. A matéria fecal dos pombos selvagens foi comprada no mercado local para infecção por coccídios. Os resultados revelaram que 88,8% (16/18) foram encontrados infectados com Eimeria spp. Três grupos positivos foram tratados com sulfadimidina (0,2mg / L), amprólio (25mg / L) e triquenho. A sulfadimidina foi mais eficaz (45%), seguida pelo amprólio (44,6%), enquanto o triquenho (24,0%) apresentou menor efetividade contra a coccidiose em pombos. O número de oocistos foram 79, 81 e 80 antes do tratamento e 60, 44 e 44 após o tratamento com sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho, respectivamente. Este estudo mostrou que sulphadimidine, amprolium e triquen não poderiam reduzir significativamente a coccidiose em pombos. Mais estudos são necessários para limpar o mecanismo de drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e235612, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153466

RESUMO

Abstract The experiment was carried out on mango cv. Dusehri to investigate the effect of N, P and K fertilizers on vegetative, reproductive growth, yield and fruit quality. Eight different fertilizer combinations such as T1 (control), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) and T8 (NPK) were used. Individual or combine fertilizer application of N (1000 g), P (750 g) and K (750 g) were applied during growing season in February and August. All the treatments significantly influenced on vegetative growth, flowering, fruiting, yield and other physiochemical attributes of mango as compared to control. Least effect was observed with individual fertilizer application while combine fertilizer treatments enhanced most of the investigated parameters. Especially, qualitative traits showed non-significant differences between treated and untreated mango trees. However, among the different treatments T8 (NPK) showed significance for fruiting aspects such as maximum size of growth flushes (177.51 mm), total number of panicles/tree (845), total number of flowers/panicle (974), sex ratio (69.18%), fruit retention (13.85%), total number of fruits/tree (379), yield (82 kg/tree), fruit weight (197.5 g), pulp weight (135.5 g) and physiochemical parameters namely TSS (24.53), Vit. C (57.63 mg/100 mL) and total sugar (20.84%). In general, combine application of NPK (T8) were the most effective in enhancing fruiting aspects, yield, physiochemical characteristics as well as improved fruit quality of mango trees.


Resumo O experimento foi realizado em manga cv. Dusehri para investigar o efeito dos fertilizantes N, P e K no crescimento vegetativo, reprodutivo, produtividade e de qualidade do fruto. Foram utilizadas oito combinações diferentes de fertilizantes: T1 (controle), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) e T8 (NPK). Cada tratamento de N (1.000 g), P (750 g) e K (750 g) foi aplicado duas vezes durante a estação de crescimento em fevereiro e agosto. Todos os tratamentos influenciaram significativamente o crescimento vegetativo, floração, frutificação, produtividade e outros atributos físico-químicos da manga em relação ao controle. Menos efeito foi observado com a aplicação individual de fertilizante, enquanto os tratamentos combinados aumentaram a maioria dos parâmetros investigados. Especialmente as características qualitativas mostraram diferenças não significativas entre mangueiras tratadas e não tratadas. No entanto, entre os diferentes tratamentos, T8 (NPK) apresentou significância para aspectos de frutificação, como tamanho máximo de folgas de crescimento (177,51 mm), número total de panículas/árvore (845), número total de flores/panícula (974), razão sexual (69,18%), retenção de frutos (13,85%), número total de frutos/árvore (379), produção (82 kg/árvore), peso do fruto (197,5 g) e peso da polpa (135,5 g), além de parâmetros físico-químicos, como TSS (24,53), vitamina C (57,63 mg/100 mL) e açúcar total (20,84%). Em geral, a aplicação combinada de NPK (T8) foi a mais eficaz no aprimoramento dos aspectos de frutificação, produtividade, características físico-químicas, além da melhoria da qualidade dos frutos das mangueiras.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 934-939, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153427

RESUMO

Abstract During the present study thirteen Megaderma lyra bats were observed roosting in dark, domed shaped room of Rohtas Fort, district Jhelum. Out of these, six specimens were captured from the roosting site, using hand net. All captured specimens were male. These bats were identified through their unique facial features, an erect and elongated nose-leaf, large oval ears that joined above the forehead and no tail. Mean head and body length of captured specimens was 80 mm, forearm length was 67 mm while average lengths of 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpals were 51.73 mm, 55.17 mm and 60.42 mm, respectively. Mean skull length was 29.84 mm, breadth of braincase was 12.77 mm. Average Penis length of two specimens was 6.6 mm and total bacular length was 3.08 mm respectively. This is the first record of Megaderma lyra from district Jhelum.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, 13 morcegos Megadermalyra foram observados empoleirados em uma sala escura em forma de cúpula no Forte Rohtas, distrito de Jhelum, dos quais 6 espécimes foram capturados no local usando rede manual. Todos os espécimes capturados eram machos. Esses morcegos foram identificados por suas características faciais únicas, uma folha nasal ereta e alongada, grandes orelhas ovais que se juntam acima da testa e sem cauda. O comprimento médio da cabeça e do corpo dos espécimes capturados foi de 80 mm, o comprimento do antebraço foi de 67 mm, enquanto os comprimentos médios do 3º, 4º e 5º metacarpos foram de 51,73 mm, 55,17 mm e 60,42 mm, respectivamente. O comprimento médio do crânio foi de 29,84 mm, e a largura da caixa craniana, de 12,77 mm. O comprimento médio do pênis de duas amostras foi de 6,6 mm, e o comprimento total do báculo foi de 3,08 mm. Este é o primeiro registro de Megadermalyra no distrito de Jhelum.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 776-784, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153399

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was conducted to record ecotoparasitic prevalence in bat fauna of the northwestern parts of Pakistan. A total of 204 bat specimens representing 14 species were captured during a two year survey, extending from June 2015 through May 2016. A species of soft ticks Argas vespertilionis was identified from 23 bat specimens. Similarly, members of the family Dermanyssoidae (dermanyssoid mites) were isolated from 10 bat specimens, that of Spinturnicidae (spinturnicid mites) from 3 and Streblidae (bat flies) from 2 bat specimens. These parasites were collected using entomological tweezers and were identified on morphological basis. Further studies on parasitic prevalence, molecular characterization of bat parasites and their control measures are recommended.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para registrar a prevalência de ectoparasitas na fauna de morcegos em partes do noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 204 espécimes de morcegos, representando 14 espécies, foi capturado durante uma pesquisa de dois anos, de junho de 2015 a maio de 2016. A espécie de carrapato Argas vespertilionis foi identificada em 23 espécimes de morcegos. Da mesma forma, os membros da família Dermanyssidae (ácaros dermanyssoid) foram isolados de 10 espécimes de morcego, os da Spinturnicidae (ácaros spinturnicid), de 3, e os da Streblidae (mosca de morcego), de 2 espécimes de morcego. Esses parasitas foram coletados com pinça entomológica e identificados com base morfológica. Estudos adicionais sobre prevalência parasitária, caracterização molecular de parasitas de morcego e suas medidas de controle devem ser realizados.

5.
J Environ Manage ; 291: 112661, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962284

RESUMO

The issue of waste management has received considerable critical attention due to the increase of waste generation worldwide. One of the solutions for waste disposal that has been widely implemented is through the use of the landfill due to its economic benefits. Landfill, however, results in many adverse impacts on the environment and human health. Recycling can extract some useful materials from waste, however not every waste can be recycled and a significant volume of waste, particularly the municipal solid waste (MSW) goes to landfill even though it has extractable energy potentials. Extraction of energy from MSW has been a key focus of research due to the scope of energy recovery, environmental and economic benefits. The principal concept of waste to energy is to convert waste into energy through thermal and/or biological processes. In addition, thermochemical processes such as gasification have been found as a promising technology offering several benefits. This paper presents a critical assessment of waste to energy gasification technology for MSW on processing, energy recovery, environmental performance and economic perspectives. These aspects have been analyzed for the landfill as well. The review also explored and identified suitable simulation tools for optimizing gasification. Subsequently, an assessment and comparison of different gasification reactors were carried out which indicate that the plasma gasification can be a feasible technology for MSW management due to higher energy efficiency (816 kWh/tonne) with minimum emission and lowest residue. Although plasma gasification is an energy intensive application which has relatively higher investment cost, it can be built as a large system (up to several 1000 MW system), which can make it economically competitive too. Other technologies such as; fluidized bed gasifier, fixed bed gasifier also have good energy efficiency (547-571 kWh/tonne) however, they contribute to higher CO2 emission. Considering overall waste management, it was found that gasification technology is beneficial to economy, environment and energy extraction compared to the landfill option. A number of tools and their relevant properties have been identified to develop appropriate gasifier model. It is expected that this study will advance further research and innovation that will be helpful to manage waste efficiently as well as to improve the environment.

6.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794391

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess visual acuity (VA) outcomes of epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery following primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD) repair. DESIGN: Retrospective, consecutive case series. SUBJECTS: Eyes undergoing pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with membrane peel (MP) surgery for ERM following primary RD repair (PPV with or without scleral buckle (SB) and gas tamponade). METHODS: Retrospective chart review from 2015 to 2018. A previously described ERM grading scale was utilized for OCT structural analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity (VA) and change in VA at 6 months and final follow-up. Secondary outcomes included assessment of structural OCT features predictive of VA outcomes. RESULTS: 53 eyes of 53 patients were included. VA improved significantly from logMAR 1.00 ± 0.51 (Snellen 20/200) pre-MP to 0.45 ± 0.41 (20/56) at 6 months and 0.42 ± 0.41 (20/53) at final follow-up, a significant improvement (p<0.001) at each timepoint. Eyes with macula on RD had better 6 month [0.29 ± 0.18 (20/39) vs. 0.51 ± 0.46 (20/65), p=0.02] and final VA [0.29 ± 0.14 (20/39) vs. 0.46 ± 0.47 (20/58), p=0.04] after MP surgery, but VA improved significantly from pre-MP in both macula on and macula off eyes (p<0.0001, respectively). Three (5.7%) eyes were graded as Stage 1, 8 (15.1%) as Stage 2, 8 (15.1%) as Stage 3, and 34 (64.2%) as Stage 4, with a trend toward higher ERM stages having worse pre-MP VA (p=0.06). Both MP occurring ≤180 days from RD repair and ellipsoid zone loss were associated with worse pre-MP VA [1.13 ± 0.09 (20/270) vs. 0.82 ± 0.07(20/132), p=0.01 and 1.21 ± 0.07 (20/324) vs. 0.74 ± 0.09 (20/110) p=0.0003, respectively]. Ellipsoid zone loss [adjusted means 0.54 ± 0.07 (20/69) vs. 0.25 ± 0.08 (20/36) at final visit, p=0.006] and RD repair with PPV/SB [0.53 ± 0.08 (20/68) vs. 0.31 ±0.07 (20/41) at final visit, p=0.03] were significantly associated with worse VA at both 6 months and final follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Eyes undergoing MP after RD repair have significant VA gains independent of macula-status at time of RD repair. Pre-operative ellipsoid zone disruption was the OCT feature best predictive of VA.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900927

RESUMO

Efficient processing of large-scale time-series data is an intricate problem in machine learning. Conventional sensor signal processing pipelines with hand-engineered feature extraction often involve huge computational costs with high dimensional data. Deep recurrent neural networks have shown promise in automated feature learning for improved time-series processing. However, generic deep recurrent models grow in scale and depth with the increased complexity of the data. This is particularly challenging in presence of high dimensional data with temporal and spatial characteristics. Consequently, this work proposes a novel deep cellular recurrent neural network (DCRNN) architecture to efficiently process complex multidimensional time-series data with spatial information. The cellular recurrent architecture in the proposed model allows for location-aware synchronous processing of time-series data from spatially distributed sensor signal sources. Extensive trainable parameter sharing due to cellularity in the proposed architecture ensures efficiency in the use of recurrent processing units with high-dimensional inputs. This study also investigates the versatility of the proposed DCRNN model for the classification of multiclass time-series data from different application domains. Consequently, the proposed DCRNN architecture is evaluated using two time-series data sets: a multichannel scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) data set for seizure detection, and a machine fault detection data set obtained in-house. The results suggest that the proposed architecture achieves state-of-the-art performance while utilizing substantially less trainable parameters when compared to comparable methods in the literature.

9.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899455

RESUMO

Medical rehabilitation of children suffering from bronchial asthma is based on the complex use of natural therapeutic factors, drug, non-drug therapy and other methods in order to achieve control over the disease and long-term remission. The use of non-drug technologies is necessary taking into account the pathogenesis of the bronchial asthma development and is aimed at relieving bronchospasm, reducing the activity of allergic inflammation in the bronchi, improving their drainage function, strengthening the respiratory muscles and increasing exercise tolerance. When carrying out rehabilitation measures it is important to observe the basic principles of medical rehabilitation. An individual medical rehabilitation program is drawn up taking into account the assessment of the child's clinical condition at each stage with the diagnosis of the initial rehabilitation status, the establishment of a rehabilitation diagnosis and an assessment of the rehabilitation potential. The article presents the data of the analysis of scientific publications and our own research allowing to draw up an algorithm for the formation of an individual program of medical rehabilitation for children with bronchial asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , Criança , Tolerância ao Exercício , Humanos
10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 219: 113402, 2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845234

RESUMO

A collection of potent antimicrobials consisting of novel 1,3-bis-benzoic acid and trifluoromethyl phenyl derived pyrazoles has been synthesized and tested for antibacterial activity. The majority of trifluoromethyl phenyl derivatives are highly potent growth inhibitors of Gram-positive bacteria and showed low toxicity to human cultured cells. In particular, two compounds (59 and 74) were selected for additional studies. These compounds are highly effective against Staphylococcus aureus as shown by a low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), a bactericidal effect in time-kill assays, moderate inhibition of biofilm formation as well as biofilm destruction, and a bactericidal effect against stationary phase cells representing non-growing persister cells. Multistep resistance assays showed a very low tendency for S. aureus and Enterococcus faecalis to develop resistance through mutation. Additionally, in vivo mouse model studies showed no harmful effects at doses up to 50 mg/kg using 14 blood plasma organ toxicity markers or TUNEL assay in liver and kidney. Investigations into the mode of action by performing macromolecular synthesis inhibition studies showed a broad range of inhibitory effects, suggesting targets that have a global effect on bacterial cell function.

11.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(2): 262-266, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830101

RESUMO

Low back pain (LBP) is a common problem and is an important public health issue. A major proportion of LBP is concomitant with prolong and repetitive awkward postures, related with occupation like miners, health workers and professional drivers. Physicians are exposed to a wide range of occupational risk factors which results in LBP. A variety of occupational and personal factors are responsible for increased risk of low back pain among physicians. This cross sectional descriptive study was carried out at Mymensingh Medical College Hospital during the period of January 2018 to June 2018, to estimate the proportion of LBP among physicians. Data were collected from purposively selected 102 physicians of different levels by face to face interview using a case record form. Informed written consent of participants was taken prior to interview. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0. The study results revealed that majority (60.8%) of the physicians were in the age group of 31-50 years. Mean age of the physicians was 49.9 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 3.61 years. More than three fourth (79, 77.5%) of the physicians were male and 23(22.5%) were female. Out of 102 physicians more than two third (70, 68.6%) had LBP while 32(31.4%) did not have any LBP. Proportion of low back pain among physician was 68.6%. Low back pain was found in all age group. Among the physicians having low back pain, 55(78.6%) were male and 15(21.4%) were female. Among 102 physicians, 45(44.1%) had different types of comorbidities while 57(55.9%) did not have any comorbidities. Among the co-morbidities HTN, DM, Dyslipidemia, CHD and asthma were common. Results of the study concluded that 68.6% physicians had low back pain. Physicians of age group 31-60 years (88.5%) and male (78.6%) experienced LBP more. Further multi-centric large scale case control study is recommended to determine the risk factors of LBP among physicians of Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Doenças Profissionais , Médicos , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Dor Lombar/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(2): 267-273, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830102

RESUMO

Pneumonia is an acute on chronic infection involving the pulmonary parenchyma. Most cases are caused by microbial pathogens usually bacteria or viruses and less often fungi or parasites. Hyponatraemia on admission is associated with greater risk of death and increased length of hospital stays. Hyponatraemia is usually related to severe disease and specially occur in old aged people. This study is designed to identify proportion of hyponatraemia in patients with pneumonia and to determine the association of hyponatraemia with the severity of pneumonia. The cross sectional descriptive study was carried out at Mymensingh Medical College Hospital during the period of January 2018 to December 2018. Data were collected from purposively selected 73 admitted patients with pneumonia by interview, clinical examination and laboratory investigations using a pre-tested case record form. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0. Quantitative variables were summarized by mean and standard deviation. On the other hand qualitative variables were summarized by percentage. Necessary bivariate analysis was done. Majority (68.5%) of the patients were in the age group of 21 years to 50 years. Mean age of the patients was 41.9 years with a SD of 17.4 years. More than three fourth (57, 78.1%) were male and 16(21.9%) were female. More than two third (51, 69.9%) of the patients were smoker and 45(61.6%) was abuse of chewable tobacco or ghul. All the patients had fever (73, 100.0%); 70(95.9%) had cough, 50(68.5%) had chest pain, 10(13.5%) had respiratory distress and 8(11.0%) had haemoptysis. Vomiting was present in 9(12.3%) patients and 3(4.1%) had impaired level of consciousness. About one third of patients (32, 43.8%) had comorbidities. On chest X-ray consolidation was found in 59(80.8%) of patients with pneumonia. In 35(47.9%) patients serum Na⁺ level was normal and 38(52.1%) had different level of hyponatraemia; 26(35.6%) patients had mild hyponatraemia, 7(9.6%) had moderate hyponatraemia and 5(6.8%) had severe hyponatraemia. Majority (58, 79.5%) had lobar pneumonia and 71(97.3%) had community acquired pneumonia. Severity of pneumonia was assessed according to CURB 65. Less than half (35, 47.9%) of the patients had mild (score 0-1) pneumonia; 33(45.2%) had moderate (score 2) pneumonia and 5(6.8%) patients had severe (score ≥3) pneumonia. Average duration of hospital stay was 6.5±3.2 days. Maximum (69, 94.5%) patients were cured after treatment. In case of 3(4.1%) patients pneumonia was unresolved. One (1.4%) patients died due to pneumonia. In this study hyponatraemia was not associated with the severity of pneumonia (p>0.05) and outcome on discharge from the hospital (p>0.05). Difference in mean duration of hospital stay between patients of pneumonia with or without hyponatraemia was not significant (>0.05). The study results revealed that 52.1% patients with pneumonia developed different level of hyponatraemia. Hyponatraemia was not associated with the severity of pneumonia, duration of hospital stay and outcome of pneumonia.


Assuntos
Hiponatremia , Pneumonia , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Hiponatremia/epidemiologia , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(2): 503-508, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830135

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a declared pandemic by World Health Organization. The diagnostic tests are not of high specificity and sensitivity, so far. Pro-inflammatory biomarkers and High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) of chest are the common investigations performed to evaluate the diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19. The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of HRCT and to find out the relationship between the biomarkers and HRCT findings. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in the COVID-19 suspected isolation unit of a tertiary hospital from July 2020 to November of 2020. Data were collected from electronic medical record (EMR). Relationship test were done by t-test and one-way-ANOVA test. Total 123 cases were enrolled after matching with selection criterion. Mean age of male was 62.5 years and female 57.7 years. Highest frequency of participants was observed in the 60-69 year age group. According to HRCT% findings 4 groups were made. They are below 25%, 25%-50%, 51%-75% and 76%-100%. The distribution of case among these groups was 15%, 44%, 35% and 6% respectively. The relationship between biomarkers (NLR, D-dimer, Ferritin and CRP) and HRCT% was found significant (p<0.05). In HRCT 92.5% lesion were peripherally placed and 99.2% cases were affected by both lungs. The sensitivity and specificity of HRCT were found 46% and 72.6% respectively with 62% accuracy. Raised biomarkers are significantly related to the more lung involvement in case of COVID-19 suspected pneumonia patients. These biomarkers will be helpful as diagnostic and prognostic markers for this disease. HRCT percentage can play an important role as diagnostic and prognostic tool in case of COVID-19 suspected cases.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(2): 562-569, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830144

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), first reported in Wuhan, China is now a major global health threat - a pandemic. Public health control measures are the cornerstones in the fight against COVID-19 in the absence of an effective vaccine or proven treatment. The aim of this review was to explore the historical use case of various public health measures adopted today to tackle COVID-19 spread. Although our knowledge about this novel coronavirus transmission is evolving over time, the fundamental non-pharmaceutical interventions e.g., handwashing, wearing a mask, physical distancing, isolation, quarantine and border control which are adopted globally at present are not new. This review highlighted that historically and religiously similar approaches were practised in the medieval past for controlling disease outbreaks. The successful implementation of the public health control measures largely depends on health systems resilience, community engagement and changes in population behaviour. Combined global efforts are essential to strengthen health systems, improve the capability of research and transparent information sharing with both public and international bodies to combat the pandemic.


Assuntos
Pandemias , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Quarentena
15.
Physiol Plant ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847385

RESUMO

Drought can be considered as a cocktail of multiple stressful conditions that contribute to osmotic and ionic imbalance in plants. Considering that water is vital for plant life, the very survival of the plant becomes questionable during drought conditions. Water deficit affects a wide spectrum of morpho-physiological phenomena restricting overall plant growth, development and productivity. To evade such complications and ameliorate drought-induced effects, plants have a battery of various defence mechanisms. These mechanisms can vary from stomatal adjustments to osmotic adjustments and antioxidant metabolism to ion regulations. In this review, we critically evaluate how drought is perceived and signalled through the whole plant via abscisic acid mediated pathways. Additionally, the impact of drought on photosynthesis, gas exchange variables and reactive oxygen species pathway was also reviewed, along with the reversal of these induced effects through associated morpho-physiological counter mechanisms.

16.
Toxicology ; : 152804, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930529

RESUMO

Trichloroethene (TCE) exposure is associated with the induction of autoimmune diseases (ADs). Although oxidative stress plays a major role in TCE-mediated autoimmunity, the underlying molecular mechanisms still need to be delineated. Dysregulation of redox-sensitive nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like2 (Nrf2), resulting in uncontrolled antioxidant and cytoprotective genes, and pro-inflammatory MAPK signaling pathways could be critical in TCE-mediated disease progression. This study was, therefore, focused on establishing status and contribution of Nrf2 and MAPK signaling in TCE-mediated inflammatory and autoimmune responses, especially during disease progression. To achieve these objectives, time-response studies were conducted by treating female MRL+/+ mice with TCE (0.5 mg/ml, a dose relevant to human exposure) for 24, 36 and 52 wks. TCE exposure led to reduction in Nrf2 expression, but increased phos-NF-κB (p65) and iNOS along with increased phosphorylation of MAPKs (p38, ERK and JNK) and downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12, TNF-α and RANTES in the livers in a time-dependent manner. These changes were also associated with time-dependent increases in liver protein carbonyls and induction of serum anti-dsDNA antibodies (marker of systemic lupus erythematosus disease), further supporting the role of oxidative stress and Nrf2/MAPK signaling in TCE-mediated autoimmune response progression. The mechanistic role of MAPK in TCE-mediated autoimmunity was further established by treating MRL+/+ mice with sulforaphane (SFN; 8 mg/kg, i.p., every other day) along with TCE (10 mmol/kg, i.p., every 4th day) for 6 wks using an established protocol, and by in vitro treatment of T cells with dichloroacetyl chloride (a TCE metabolite) with/without p38 MAPK inhibitor. SFN treatment attenuated the TCE-mediated phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. More importantly, treatment with SFN or p38 inhibitor led to suppression of downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12 and TNF-α. These findings thus support the contribution of Nrf2 and MAPK signaling pathways and help in delineating novel potential therapeutic targets against TCE-mediated autoimmunity.

17.
Methods ; 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930572

RESUMO

Drug resistance and inability to distinguish between cancerous and non-cancerous cells are important obstacles in the treatment of cancer. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) is now emerging as a crucial material to challenge this global issue due to its tunable properties. Developing an effective, inexpensive, and eco-friendly method in order to tailor the properties of ZnO NPs with enhanced anticancer efficacy is still challenging. For the first time, we reported a facile, inexpensive, and eco-friendly approach for green synthesis of ZnO-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (ZnO-RGO NCs) using garlic clove extract. Garlic has been playing one of the most important dietary and medicinal roles for humans since centuries. We aimed to minimize the use of toxic chemicals and enhance the anticancer potential of ZnO-RGO NCs with minimum side effects to normal cells. Aqueous extract of garlic clove was used as reducing and stabilizing agent for green synthesis of ZnO-RGO NCs from the zinc nitrate and graphene oxide (GO) precursors. A potential mechanism of ZnO-RGO NCs synthesis with garlic clove extract was also proposed. Preparation of pure ZnO NPs and ZnO-RGO NCs was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The in vitro study showed that ZnO-RGO NCs induce two-fold higher cytotoxicity in human breast cancer (MCF7) and human colorectal cancer (HCT116) cells as compared to pure ZnO NPs. Besides, biocompatibility of ZnO-RGO NCs in non-cancerous human normal breast (MCF10A) and normal colon epithelial (NCM460) cells was higher than those of pure ZnO NPs. This work highlighted a facile and inexpensive green approach for the preparation of ZnO-RGO NCs with enhanced anticancer activity and improved biocompatibility.

18.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block is a commonly performed anesthesiology technique in the upper extremity. Local anesthetics may be administered at different temperatures for both neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the temperature of the local anesthetic at the time of administration on the onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks in infraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block. METHODS: A total of 80 patients undergoing elective upper extremity surgery were randomly assigned to one of the following groups using a computer-based randomization software; low temperature (4 °C) (Group L, n = 26), room temperature (25 °C) (Group R, n = 27) and warmed (37 °C) (Group W, n = 27). A 1:1 mixture of 2% lidocaine and 0.5% bupivacaine was used as local anesthetic. Infraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block was performed under ultrasound guidance in all patients preoperatively. The onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks were recorded. RESULTS: Each group had different onset of motor (p < 0.001) and sensory (p < 0.001) blocks. The duration of motor block was similar between groups (p = 221). However, a significant difference was found in the duration of sensory block between group L (399.1 ± 40.8 min) and group R (379.6 ± 27.6 min) (p = 0.043). There was no complication related to nerve block procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of the local anesthetic at lower temperatures may prolong the onset of both motor and sensory blocks in infraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block.

19.
Br J Surg ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829231

RESUMO

Laparoscopic surgery has been undermined throughout the COVID-19 pandemic by concerns that it may generate an infectious risk to the operating team through aerosolization of peritoneal particles. There is anyway a need for increased awareness and understanding of the occupational hazard for surgical teams regarding unfiltered escape of pollutants generated by surgical smoke and other microbials. Here, the aerosol-generating nature of this access modality was confirmed through repeatable real-time methodology both qualitatively and quantitively to inform best practice and additional engineering solutions to optimize the operating room environment.

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