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Braz J Anesthesiol ; 71(1): 50-57, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712254


BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgical approaches enhance recovery, reduce postoperative pain, and shorten hospital length-of-stay. Nevertheless, increased intra-abdominal pressure is associated with decreased renal blood flow, renal hypoxia and acute kidney injury. When combined with Trendelenburg positioning, renal function may further deteriorate. We tested the primary hypothesis that the combination of laparoscopic surgical approach and Trendelenburg position is associated with larger reductions in estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) within the initial 48 postoperative hours compared to open surgery without Trendelenburg positioning. Secondarily, we tested, if laparoscopic procedures are associated with greater incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury. METHODS: Adults who had laparoscopic colorectal surgery in Trendelenburg position at the Cleveland Clinic Main Campus from 2009 to 2016 were propensity-matched to patients who had comparable open procedures. Patients with pre-existing renal impairment were excluded. RESULTS: Among 7,357 eligible patients, 1,846 laparoscopic cases with Trendelenburg were matched to 1,846 open cases. No association was found between laparoscopic approach and postoperative eGFR. A significant protective effect of the laparoscopic procedure on the odds of having AKI was found. Patients who had laparoscopic surgeries were an estimated 0.70 (95% CI 0.55, 0.90, pHolm-adj = 0.006) times as likely to have AKI as open surgical patients. CONCLUSION: Despite compelling potential mechanisms, laparoscopic approach with Trendelenburg position in adult colorectal surgeries did not worsen postoperative eGFR, and actually reduced postoperative acute kidney injury. Given the other advantages of laparoscopic surgery, the approach should not be avoided for concerns about renal injury.

Anesth Analg ; 132(4): 1138-1145, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617181


BACKGROUND: Epidural block are often used for analgesia after open nephrectomy surgery. Subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block may be an alternative. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the continuous subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block is noninferior to epidural block for analgesia in patients having open partial nephrectomies. METHODS: Adults having open partial nephrectomies were randomly allocated to epidural or unilateral subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block. The joint primary outcomes were opioid consumption measured in morphine equivalents and pain measured on a numeric rating scale (0-10) from postanesthesia care unit (PACU) until 72 hours after surgery. The noninferiority deltas were 30% for opioid consumption and 1 point on a 0-10 scale for pain. Secondary outcomes included patient global assessment of pain management on the third postoperative day, the number of antiemetic medication doses through the third postoperative day, duration of PACU stay, and postoperative duration of hospitalization. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were randomized to anterior quadratus lumborum block and 29 to epidural analgesia. Neither pain scores nor opioid consumption in the quadratus lumborum patients were noninferior to epidural analgesia. At 72 hours, mean ± standard deviation pain scores in subcoastal anterior quadratus lumborum block and epidural group were 4.7 ± 1.8 and 4.1 ± 1.7, with an estimated difference in pain scores of 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-1.99; noninferiority P = .21). The median [Q1, Q3] opioid consumption was more than doubled in quadratus lumborum patients at 70 mg [43, 125] versus 30 mg [18, 75] in the epidural group with an estimated ratio of geometric means of 1.69 (95% CI, 0.66-4.33; noninferiority P = .80). Patient global assessment and duration of PACU and hospital stays did not differ significantly in the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to show that subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block are noninferior to epidural analgesia in terms of pain scores and opioid consumption for open partial nephrectomies. Effectiveness of novel blocks should be rigorously tested in specific surgical setting before widespread adoption.

Analgesia Epidural , Nefrectomia , Bloqueio Nervoso , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrectomia/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Ohio , Medição da Dor , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
Anesth Essays Res ; 10(3): 455-461, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27746532


CONTEXT: Various adjuvants are being used with local anesthetics for prolongation of intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. The α2-adrenergic agonist clonidine and potent opioid buprenorphine have the ability to potentiate the effects of local anesthetics. AIMS: The purpose of this prospective, double-blind study was to compare onset, duration of sensory and motor block, effect on hemodynamics, level of sedation, duration of postoperative analgesia, and any adverse effects of clonidine and buprenorphine. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Seventy-five American Society of Anesthesiologists Class I and II patients undergoing lower limb surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated into three Groups A, B, and C. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Control Group A received injection bupivacaine 0.5% (heavy) 2.5 ml + saline 0.5 ml whereas Group B received injection bupivacaine 0.5% (heavy) 2.5 ml + injection buprenorphine 50 µg and Group C received injection bupivacaine 0.5% (heavy) 2.5 ml + preservative free injection clonidine 50 µg intrathecally. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Unpaired Student's t-test and Z-test were used for comparing data. RESULTS: Statistically highly significant differences in mean time of sensory regression to L1, mean time to attain the Bromage Score of 1, and mean time of first rescue analgesic request were observed between the three groups. The patients did not suffer any serious side effects. CONCLUSION: Administration of buprenorphine and clonidine intrathecally does potentiate the duration of analgesia, sensory and motor block, with buprenorphine having a long-lasting effect.