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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555018

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare premature heart disease- and cancer-related deaths in women in the USA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed the US national database of death certificates of women aged <65 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research database between 1999 and 2018. We measured annual percentage changes (APCs) in age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs) and years of potential life lost per 100 000 persons due to heart disease and cancer. Overall, cancer was a more prevalent cause of premature death compared with heart disease. Between 1999 and 2018, the AAMRs decreased for both cancer (61.9/100 000 to 45.6/100 000) and heart disease (29.2/100 000 to 22.6/100 000). However, while APC in AAMR for cancer declined consistently over time, after an initial decline, APC in AAMR for heart disease increased between 2010 and 2018 [0.53 95% confidence interval (0.18-0.89)], with a significant rise in Midwest, medium/small metros, and rural areas after 2008. Compared with cancer, APC in AAMR for heart disease increased in women aged 25-34 years [2.24 (0.30-4.22); 2013-18) and 55-64 years [0.46 (0.13-0.80); 2009-13], as well as Non-Hispanic (NH) Whites [APC, 0.79 (0.46-1.13); 2009-18] and NH American Indian/Alaskan Native [2.71 (0.59-4.87); 2011-2018]. Consequently, the mortality gap between cancer and heart disease has narrowed from an AAMR of 32.7/100 000 to 23.0/100 000. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality gap between cancer and heart disease is decreasing among women <65 years. Intensive cardiovascular health interventions are required focusing on vulnerable young demographic subgroups and underserved regional areas to meet the American Heart Association's Impact Goal and Million Hearts Initiative.

3.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619896

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of this study was to compare functional outcomes through 1 year in patients with core-lab verified moderate to severe (Grades 2+ to 4+) functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) treated with the Carillon device or control in the blinded sham-controlled REDUCE-FMR (Carillon Mitral Contour System for Reducing Functional Mitral Regurgitation) study. METHODS AND RESULTS: The main outcomes of this analysis were the change in 6 min walk test (6MWT) distance, incidence of heart failure hospitalization or death, change in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, and change in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) score through 1 year of follow-up. The minimum clinically important difference (MCID) was defined as a ≥30 m increase in 6MWT distance, an NYHA decrease in ≥1 class, and a ≥3 point increase in KCCQ score. The proportion of patients achieving the MCID in each treatment group was compared using Fisher's exact test, and the number needed to treat (NNT) with the Carillon device was calculated. Among 83 patients (62 Carillon and 21 sham), no statistically significant group differences were observed in the baseline characteristics. All outcomes at 1 year numerically favoured the Carillon group, including MCID for the 6MWT distance (59% vs. 23%, P = 0.029; NNT = 2.8), NYHA class (48% vs. 33%, P = 0.38; NNT = 6.9), KCCQ score (69% vs. 47%, P = 0.14; NNT = 4.5), and freedom from heart failure hospitalization or death (60% vs. 48%, P = 0.45; NNT = 8.3). CONCLUSIONS: REDUCE-FMR was the first blinded sham-controlled trial to report outcomes with percutaneous therapy for the treatment of FMR. Trends towards improvement in mean 6MWT distance, KCCQ score, and NYHA class were observed with the Carillon device. A substantially higher number of patients achieved MCID for all patient-centred outcomes with the Carillon device compared with the sham procedure.

4.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) are increasingly diagnosed on coronary angiography; however, controversies persist regarding their optimal management. In the present study, we analysed the long-term outcomes of patients with CAAs following three different management strategies. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patient records with documented CAA diagnosis between 2000 and 2005. Patients were divided into three groups: medical management versus percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We analysed the rate of major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) over a period of 10 years. RESULTS: We identified 458 patients with CAAs (mean age 78±10.5 years, 74.5% men) who received medical therapy (N=230) or underwent PCI (N=52) or CABG (N=176). The incidence of CAAs was 0.7% of the total catheterisation reports. The left anterior descending was the most common coronary artery involved (38%). The median follow-up time was 62 months. The total number of MACCE during follow-up was 155 (33.8%); 91 (39.6%) in the medical management group vs 46 (26.1%) in the CABG group vs 18 (34.6%) in the PCI group (p=0.02). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that CABG was associated with better MACCE-free survival (p log-rank=0.03) than medical management. These results were confirmed on univariate Cox regression, but not multivariate regression (OR 0.773 (0.526 to 1.136); p=0.19). Both Kaplan-Meier survival and regression analyses showed that dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and anticoagulation were not associated with significant improvement in MACCE rates. CONCLUSION: Our analysis showed similar long-term MACCE risks in patients with CAA undergoing medical, percutaneous and surgical management. Further, DAPT and anticoagulation were not associated with significant benefits in terms of MACCE rates. These results should be interpreted with caution considering the small size and potential for selection bias and should be confirmed in large, randomised trials.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631325

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Palliative care (PC) improves outcomes in noncancer illness. We hypothesized the benefit is driven by studies of heart failure (HF) patients exclusively versus studies of other noncancer illnesses. OBJECTIVES: To assess difference in outcomes in trials with HF patients exclusively vs studies of other noncancer chronic illness. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of studies that assessed association of PC with hospital admissions, emergency department (ED) visits and advance care planning in noncancer chronic illness and compared studies of HF patients versus those with other noncancer chronic illness. RESULTS: Our analysis included 10 HF studies (n=4,057) and 16 non-HF studies (11 mixed conditions, 3 dementia, 2 COPD, n=10,235). PC led to reduction in hospital admissions in HF studies (OR=0.67 [95% CI=0.48-0.95]) but not in other noncancer illness studies (OR=0.86 [95% CI=0.62-1.21]). PC intervention was non-significant for change in ED visits in either HF (OR=0.70 [95% CI=0.38-1.28]) or other noncancer studies (OR=0.86 [95% CI=0.69-1.07]). Increase in advance care planning was noted in both HF (OR=4.29 [95% CI=1.44-12.76]) and other studies (OR=2.67 [95% CI=1.29-5.52]). Non-significant reductions in symptom burden were noted for both HF-studies and non-HF studies, though overall there was a significant improvement in symptom burden (weighted mean difference -1.15 [95% CI=-1.65, -0.65]). Similar results were noted when studies of mixed populations were excluded from the non-HF studies. CONCLUSION: PC is particularly effective at reducing potentially unwanted hospital admissions for patients with HF compared to other noncancer illnesses. Our findings should further encourage efforts to increase PC access to HF patients.

7.
ASAIO J ; 67(3): 239-244, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627595

RESUMO

Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation in patients with advanced heart failure due to hypertrophic or restrictive cardiomyopathy (HCM/RCM) presents technical and physiologic challenges. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies to evaluate the utilization and clinical outcomes associated with LVAD implantation in patients with HCM/RCM and compared these to patients with dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathy (DCM/ICM). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus from inception through May 2019 and included appropriate studies describing the use of an LVAD in patients with HCM/RCM. We identified six studies with a total of 2,766 patients with HCM/RCM and advanced heart failure, among whom 338 patients (12.2%) underwent LVAD implantation. In patients listed for transplant, the rate of LVAD implantation was significantly lower in patients with HCM/RCM compared to that in patients with DCM/ICM (4.4% vs. 18.2%, p < 0.001). Adverse clinical outcomes were significantly higher in HCM/RCM than in DCM/ICM, including operative/short-term mortality (14.0% vs. 9.0%), right ventricular failure (50.0% vs. 21.0%), infection (15.5% vs. 11.2%), bleeding (40.2% vs. 12.5%), renal failure (15.0% vs. 5.1%), stroke (5.0% vs. 2.4%), and arrhythmias (18.0% vs. 7.7%) (all p values <0.001).

8.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 44(3): 423-431, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Representation trends of women, older adults, and ethnic/racial minorities in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of atrial fibrillation (AF) are uncertain. METHODS: We systematically reviewed 134 AF related RCTs (phase II and III) encompassing 149,162 participants using Medline and ClinicalTrials.gov through April 2019 to determine representation trends of women, older patients (≥75 years), and ethnic/racial minorities. Weighted data on the prevalence of AF from epidemiological studies were used to compare the representation of the studied groups of interest in AF RCTs to their expected burden of the disease. RESULTS: Only 18.7% of the RCTs reported proportion of older patients, and 12.7% RCTs reported ethnic/racial minorities. The proportions of women in RCTs versus general population were 35.2% and 35.1%, of Hispanics were 11.9% and 5.2%, of Blacks were 1.2% and 5.7%, of American Indian/Alaskans were 0.2% and 0.2%, of Asians were 14.2% and 2.4%, of native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders were 0.05% and 0.1% and of non-Whites were 19.5% and 22.5%, respectively. The weighted mean age (SD) across the trials was 65.3 (3.2) years which was less than the corresponding weighted mean age of 71.1 (4.5) years in the comparative epidemiological data. CONCLUSION: The reporting of older patients and ethnic/racial minorities was poor in RCTs of AF. The representation of women and American Indian/Alaskan natives matched their expected population share of disease burden. Hispanics and Asians were over-represented and Blacks, native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders and non-Whites were under-represented in RCTs of AF.

9.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420498

RESUMO

AIMS: In this secondary analysis of the EMPEROR-Reduced trial, we sought to evaluate whether the benefits of empagliflozin varied by baseline health status and how empagliflozin impacted patient-reported outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Health status was assessed by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaires-clinical summary score (KCCQ-CSS). The influence of baseline KCCQ-CSS (analyzed by tertiles) on the effect of empagliflozin on major outcomes was examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Responder analyses were performed to assess the odds of improvement and deterioration in KCCQ scores related to treatment with empagliflozin. Empagliflozin reduced the primary outcome of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization regardless of baseline KCCQ-CSS tertiles [hazard ratio (HR) 0.83 (0.68-1.02), HR 0.74 (0.58-0.94), and HR 0.61 (0.46-0.82) for <62.5, 62.6-85.4, and ≥85.4 score tertiles, respectively; P-trend = 0.10]. Empagliflozin improved KCCQ-CSS, total symptom score, and overall summary score at 3, 8, and 12 months. More patients on empagliflozin had ≥5-point [odds ratio (OR) 1.20 (1.05-1.37)], 10-point [OR 1.26 (1.10-1.44)], and 15-point [OR 1.29 (1.12-1.48)] improvement and fewer had ≥5-point [OR 0.75 (0.64-0.87)] deterioration in KCCQ-CSS at 3 months. These benefits were sustained at 8 and 12 months and were similar for other KCCQ domains. CONCLUSION: Empagliflozin improved cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization risk across the range of baseline health status. Empagliflozin improved health status across various domains, and this benefit was sustained during long-term follow-up. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03057977.

11.
Am Heart J ; 233: 86-91, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385359

RESUMO

In this report, we aim to provide an updated meta-analysis of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors trial data with the new trial data on sotagliflozin, a first-in-class dual SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitor. We searched Medline, Cochrane library, and Embase databases for randomized clinical trials comparing cardiovascular and kidney outcomes between SGLT2 and dual SGLT1/2 inhibitors and placebo. Nine randomized clinical trials with a total of 60,914 patients with type 2 diabetes were included. In patients with type 2 diabetes, the use of SGLT2 and dual SGLT1/2 inhibitors improves the cardiovascular and kidney outcome.

13.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(2): 137-145, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have similar reverse cardiac remodeling with sacubitril/valsartan as patients without T2DM. BACKGROUND: Sacubitril/valsartan promotes reverse cardiac remodeling and improves outcomes in patients with HFrEF. Patients with HFrEF with T2DM have worse prognosis than those without T2DM. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of PROVE-HF (Prospective Study of Biomarkers, Symptom Improvement, and Ventricular Remodeling During Sacubitril/Valsartan Therapy for Heart Failure), we examined changes in N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), measures of cardiac remodeling, and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Summary (KCCQ-OS) scores from baseline to 12 months following initiation of sacubitril/valsartan between patients with HFrEF with and without T2DM. Using latent growth curve modeling, we evaluated the longitudinal association between changes in NT-proBNP, left ventricular ejection fraction, and KCCQ-OS. RESULTS: Among 794 patients enrolled, 361 (45.5%) had T2DM. NT-proBNP concentrations were modestly higher at baseline among patients with T2DM but were reduced after initiation of sacubitril/valsartan. Cross-sectional improvement was observed in left ventricular ejection fraction (T2DM: 28.3% at baseline and 37% at 12 months vs. non-T2DM: 28.1% at baseline and 38.3% at 12 months) and KCCQ-OS (T2DM: 71 at baseline and 83 at 12 months vs. non-T2DM: 76 at baseline and 88 at 12 months). Similar changes were also observed for other echocardiographic measures. In longitudinal analyses, the average NT-proBNP change was similar in patients with T2DM (-5.6% vs. -7.1% per 90-day interval; p = 0.64), whereas improvements in KCCQ-OS scores were slightly smaller (2.1 vs. 3.46 per 90-day interval; p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril/valsartan favorably affects natriuretic peptide levels, reverse cardiac remodeling, and health status in patients with HFrEF with and without T2DM. (Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan Therapy on Biomarkers, Myocardial Remodeling and Outcomes [PROVE-HF]; NCT02887183).

14.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301829

RESUMO

Current international guidelines recommend switching angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-i) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) to sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) in stable outpatients affected by heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) who remain symptomatic despite being on optimal medical therapy. Since these guidelines were published, new data may support further clinical applications and benefits of S/V beyond ambulatory HFrEF patients. The efficacy of S/V seems to be consistent across a wider array of subgroups including age, sex, etiology of HF, comorbidities, EF and estimated cardiovascular risk, with safety and tolerability profiles similar to ACE-I and ARBs. Additional clinical trial data are required to confirm the potential benefits of S/V in patients with mid-range or preserved EF, as suggested by analysis of PARAGON-HF, or in combination with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors or in post-myocardial infarction HF. In this article we summarize the new evidence on the effects and safety profile of S/V in HF and discuss current perspectives and persisting gaps. Currently, available evidence may support S/V as a first-line therapy in outpatient or in-hospital HFrEF patients, and possibly also in HFmrEF patients.

15.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 403, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the overlapping clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza, parallels are often drawn between the two diseases. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are at a higher risk for severe manifestations of both illnesses. Considering the high transmission rate of COVID-19 and with the seasonal influenza approaching in late 2020, the dual epidemics of COVID-19 and influenza pose serious cardiovascular implications. This review highlights the similarities and differences between influenza and COVID-19 and the potential risks associated with coincident pandemics. MAIN BODY: COVID-19 has a higher mortality compared to influenza with case fatality rate almost 15 times more than that of influenza. Additionally, a significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes has been noted in patients with CVD, with ~ 15 to 70% of COVID-19 related deaths having an underlying CVD. The critical care need have ranged from 5 to 79% of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19, a proportion substantially higher than with influenza. Similarly, the frequency of vascular thrombosis including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism is markedly higher in COVID-19 patients compared with influenza in which vascular complications are rarely seen. Unexpectedly, while peak influenza season is associated with increased cardiovascular hospitalizations, a decrease of ~ 50% in cardiovascular hospitalizations has been observed since the first diagnosed case of COVID-19, owing in part to deferred care. CONCLUSION: In the coming months, increasing efforts towards evaluating new interventions will be vital to curb COVID-19, especially as peak influenza season approaches. Currently, not enough data exist regarding co-infection of COVID-19 with influenza or how it would progress clinically, though it may cause a significant burden on an already struggling health care system. Until an effective COVID-19 vaccination is available, high coverage of influenza vaccination should be of utmost priority.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191637

RESUMO

AIMS: Discontinuation or non-publication of trials may hinder scientific progress and violates the commitment made to research participants. We sought to identify the prevalence of discontinuation and non-publication of heart failure (HF) clinical trials. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a cross-sectional search of ClinicalTrials.gov to identify all completed and discontinued HF clinical trials. We limited our search to only include trials that were completed by 31 December 2017. Trials were investigated to identify reasons for discontinuation. Informative termination was defined as trial termination due to safety or efficacy concerns. Data pertaining to the trial phase, funding, intervention, enrolment, and trial completion date were extracted for each trial. A total of 572 trials were included. Of these, 21% (n = 118) were discontinued before completion. Patient accrual was the most frequently cited reason (n = 42; 36%) for trial discontinuation, followed by informative termination (n = 16; 14%) and funding (n = 14; 12%). Overall, 24 780 patients were enrolled in trials that were terminated. Of trials that were completed and not terminated, nearly one-third (n = 131/454; 29%) were not published. Seventy-nine (24%) trials were published within 12 months, 192 (59%) within 24 months, and 252 (78%) trials within 36 months. CONCLUSIONS: Discontinuation and non-publication of HF trials is common. This raises ethical concerns towards participants who volunteer for research and are exposed to potential risks, inconvenience, and discomfort without furthering scientific progress.

18.
Am Heart J ; 232: 10-22, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214130

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) use is associated with improved cardiovascular and kidney outcomes. However, the magnitude and potential heterogeneity of effect across patients with varying types of cardiometabolic and kidney disease is unclear. To examine the effect of SGLT2i on cardiovascular and kidney outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and independent of T2DM status, among patients with heart failure (HF), and chronic kidney disease. METHOD: Medline, Embase, Cochrane library and scientific conferences were searched from inception till September 24, 2020 for randomized controlled trials comparing cardiovascular and kidney outcomes between SGLT2i and placebo. Random effects hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: Eight trials with a combined 59,747 patients were included. In the overall population, SGLT2i reduced the risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.84; 95% CI [0.78-0.91]), cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.84; 95% CI [0.76-0.93]) hospitalization for HF (HR 0.69; 95% CI [0.64-0.74]), myocardial infarction (HR 0.91; 95% CI [0.84-0.99]), and composite kidney outcome (HR 0.62; 95% CI [0.56-0.70]). There was no significant effect on the risk of stroke (HR 0.98; 95% CI [0.86-1.11]). Results were consistent across subgroups stratified by diabetes and HF status. SGLT2i use was not associated with a greater risk of hypoglycemia (OR 0.92; 95% CI [0.84-1.01]) or amputation (OR 1.25; 95% CI [0.97-1.62]). There were 64 diabetic ketoacidosis events with SGLT2i use and 18 with placebo (OR 2.86; 95% CI [1.39-5.86]). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with cardiometabolic and kidney disease, SGLT2i improved cardiovascular and kidney outcomes, regardless of T2DM, HF, and/or CKD status. The magnitude of risk reduction was largest for hospitalization for HF and progression of kidney disease, more modest for mortality and MI and absent for stroke.

19.
Circulation ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175585

RESUMO

Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, but additional information is needed about whether glycemic status influences the magnitude of their benefits on heart failure and renal events. Methods: Patients with class II-IV heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were randomized to receive empagliflozin (10 mg daily) or placebo in addition to recommended therapy. We prespecified a comparison of the effect of empagliflozin in patients with and without diabetes. Results: Of the 3730 patients enrolled, 1856 (50%) had diabetes, 1268 (34%) had prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4%), and 606 (16%) had normoglycemia (HbA1c <5.7%). The risks of the primary outcome (cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure), total hospitalizations for heart failure, and adverse renal outcomes were higher in patients with diabetes, but were similar between patients with prediabetes and normoglycemia. Empagliflozin reduced the risk of the primary outcome in patients with and without diabetes (hazard ratio 0.72 [95% CI 0.60-0.87] and 0.78 [95% CI 0.64-0.97], respectively, interaction P =0.57). Patients with and without diabetes also did not differ with respect to the effect of empagliflozin on total hospitalizations for heart failure, on the decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate over time, and on the risk of serious adverse renal outcomes. Among these endpoints, the effects of the drug did not differ in patients with prediabetes or normoglycemia. When analyzed as a continuous variable, baseline HbA1c did not significantly modify the benefits of empagliflozin on the primary outcome (P-interaction=0.40). Empagliflozin did not lower HbA1c in patients with prediabetes or normoglycemia and was not associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia. Conclusions: In the EMPEROR-Reduced trial, empagliflozin significantly improved cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, independent of baseline diabetes status and across the continuum of HbA1c.

20.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(11): e007070, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessment of heterogeneity in meta-analyses is critical to ensure the consistency of pooled results. Therefore, we sought to assess the evaluation and reporting of heterogeneity in heart failure (HF) meta-analyses. METHODS: Study level meta-analyses pertaining to HF were selected from January 2009 to July 2019, published in 11 high impact factor journals. We tabulated the overall proportion of the meta-analyses reporting statistical heterogeneity and specific metrics and methods employed to quantify and explore heterogeneity. RESULTS: Of 126 HF meta-analyses (612 outcomes), heterogeneity was reported for 422 outcomes (68.9 %) in 108 meta-analyses. Out of the 422 outcomes reporting statistical heterogeneity, 137 outcomes (32.5%) had no observable heterogeneity: (I2=0%), 40 outcomes (9.5%) had low heterogeneity (I2<25%), 76 outcomes (18%) had moderate heterogeneity (I2=25%-50%), and 169 outcomes (40%) had high heterogeneity (I2>50%). Reporting of statistical heterogeneity was not significantly associated with year of publication, funding source, disclosure information, or the type of studies pooled. Sensitivity analysis (n=68) was the most common statistical technique employed to evaluate the source of heterogeneity followed by subgroup analyses (n=59) and meta-regression (n=40). CONCLUSIONS: Despite being an essential component of meta-analyses, heterogeneity was not reported for nearly 30% of outcomes and variably handled in contemporary HF meta-analyses. As meta-analyses increase across HF science, interpreting and handling of heterogeneity should be standardized.

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