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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238891, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249229

RESUMO

Abstract Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Resumo Os manipuladores de alimentos desempenham um papel fundamental na transmissão de protozoários e helmintos parasitas patogenicamente importantes. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de protozoários patogênicos intestinais e helmintos parasitas entre manipuladores de alimentos na Universidade de Malakand, Lower Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas de 642 manipuladores de alimentos (todos do sexo masculino) em um estudo transversal de janeiro a novembro de 2017. Técnicas de montagem úmida e métodos de concentração usando soluções de sal e formol-éter. Trezentos e oitenta e quatro casos (59,8%) foram encontrados infectados com mais um parasita. A maioria dos indivíduos foi encontrada infectada por helmintos (47,6%) em comparação com protozoários intestinais (0,93%). Setenta e dois casos (11,2%) dos casos apresentavam infecção mista com protozoários intestinais e helmintos parasitas. A ordem de prevalência de helmintos intestinais foi Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40,1%), seguido por Taeniasa ginata (n = 96, 14,9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8,40%) e Trichuris trichura (n = 30, 4,60 %). Para protozoários intestinais, Entamoeba histolytica / dispar (n = 36, 5,64%) foi o único protozoário detectado. Monoparasitismo foi maior do que poliparasitismo. A renda familiar e o nível de escolaridade foram os fatores significativamente (P <0,05) associados na prevalência de parasitos. A pesquisa atual mostrou que os IPIs são principalmente os patógenos de origem alimentar, ainda um importante problema de saúde pública no Paquistão. Programas eficazes de controle da transferência de doenças parasitárias e seus fatores associados são recomendados.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238769, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249232

RESUMO

Abstract Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P<0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P<0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P<0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P<0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.


Resumo As doenças causadas pela traça humana continuam sendo um problema de saúde pediátrica nos países em desenvolvimento, incluindo o Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis em escolares de quatro distritos na região de Malakand, Paquistão. Quatrocentos espécimes fecais foram selecionados de maio de 2014 a julho de 2017, usando solução salina normal e solução de lugol iodo. Vinte e três (5,75%) indivíduos foram encontrados infectados por E. vermicularis. Cinco crianças (1,25%) foram infectadas apenas com E. vermicularis e dezoito (4,5%) foram misturadas com outros helmintos. Foram detectados E. vermicularis 23 (5,75%), ancilóstomo 11 (2,75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1,25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0,5%) e Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%). Com relação à idade, 5-8 anos foram mais parasitados, seguidos por 13-15 e 9-12 anos de idade (0,0296, P <0,05). Crianças do sexo masculino foram altamente (0,06700, P <0,05) infectadas do que as do sexo feminino. As crianças no distrito de Malakand foram encontradas mais infectadas, seguidas por Dir Upper, taxa de infecção semelhante foi observada em crianças dos distritos Lower Dir e Swat (0,0192, P <0,05). As crianças do nível primário foram altamente (0,0013, P <0,05) infectadas do que as dos níveis médio e alto. A enterobiose ainda é a doença parasitária mais comum em crianças. Os estudos sobre enterobiose devem ser conduzidos periodicamente para reconhecer a periculosidade dessa infecção parasitária em áreas remotas do país.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e249971, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278485

RESUMO

Abstract Stunting is a significant public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. This study assessed the prevalence of stunting and associated risk factors of stunting among preschool and school-going children in flood-affected areas of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting 656 households through multi-stage sampling. Respondent's anthropometric measurements, socio-demographic information and sanitation facilities were explored. A logistic regression model was used to determine determinants of stunting, controlling for all possible confounders. The overall prevalence of stunting in children was 40.5%, among children 36.1% boys and 46.3% of girls were stunted. The prevalence of stunting in under-five children was 50.7%. Female children (OR=1.35, 95% CI:0.94-2.0), children aged 13-24 months (OR=6.5, 95% CI: 3.0-13.9), mothers aged 15-24 years (OR=4.4, 95% CI: 2.6-7.2), joint family (OR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.4-3.0) did not have access to improved drinking water (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.9), and the toilet facility (OR=2.8, 95% CI, 1.9-4.3), while the children from district Nowshera (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2) were significantly (P<0.05) associated in univariate analysis. The regression model revealed that child age, maternal age, family type, quality of water, and toilet facility, were the significant (P<0.05) factors contributing to child stunting in the flood-hit areas. Identification of key factors might be helpful for policymakers in designing comprehensive community-based programs for the reduction of stunting in flood-affected areas. In disasters such as flood, the detrimental consequences of the stunting problem could be even more on children. Evidence-based education and care must be provided to the families in the flood-affected regions to reduce the stunting problem. The determinants of stunting should be targeted by making comprehensive policies regarding proper nutrition, livelihood, clean water, and sanitation facilities in flood-hit regions.


Resumo A baixa estatura é um problema significativo de saúde pública em países de baixa e média renda. Este estudo avaliou a prevalência de nanismo e os fatores de risco associados de nanismo entre crianças em idade pré-escolar e em idade escolar em áreas afetadas por inundações do Paquistão. Foi realizado um estudo transversal visitando 656 domicílios por meio de amostragem em múltiplos estágios. As medidas antropométricas do entrevistado, informações sociodemográficas e instalações de saneamento foram exploradas. Um modelo de regressão logística foi usado para determinar os determinantes do nanismo, controlando todos os possíveis fatores de confusão. A prevalência geral de baixa estatura em crianças foi de 40,5%, entre as crianças 36,1% dos meninos e 46,3% das meninas com baixa estatura. A prevalência de baixa estatura em crianças menores de 5 anos foi de 50,7%. Crianças do sexo feminino (OR = 1,35, IC de 95%: 0,94-2,0), crianças de 13-24 meses (OR = 6,5, IC de 95%: 3,0-13,9), mães de 15-24 anos (OR = 4,4, IC de 95%: 2,6-7,2), família conjunta (OR = 2,1, IC 95%: 1,4-3,0) não tiveram acesso a água potável de qualidade (OR = 3,3, IC 95%: 1,9-5,9) e a banheiro (OR = 2,8, IC de 95%, 1,9-4,3), enquanto as crianças do distrito de Nowshera (OR = 1,7, IC de 95%: 0,9-3,2) foram significativamente (P < 0,05) associadas na análise univariada. O modelo de regressão revelou que a idade da criança, idade materna, tipo de família, qualidade da água e banheiro foram os fatores significativos (P < 0,05) que contribuíram para a baixa estatura infantil nas áreas afetadas pelas enchentes. A identificação de fatores-chave pode ser útil para os formuladores de políticas no planejamento de programas comunitários abrangentes para a redução da baixa estatura em áreas afetadas pelas enchentes. Em desastres como enchentes, as consequências prejudiciais do problema de baixa estatura podem ser ainda maiores para as crianças. Educação baseada em evidências e cuidados deve ser fornecida às famílias nas regiões afetadas pelas enchentes para reduzir o problema de nanismo. Os determinantes do retardo de crescimento devem ser almejados pela formulação de políticas abrangentes sobre nutrição adequada, meios de subsistência, água potável e instalações de saneamento nas regiões afetadas pelas enchentes.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238769, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285587

RESUMO

Abstract Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P<0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P<0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P<0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P<0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.


Resumo As doenças causadas pela traça humana continuam sendo um problema de saúde pediátrica nos países em desenvolvimento, incluindo o Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis em escolares de quatro distritos na região de Malakand, Paquistão. Quatrocentos espécimes fecais foram selecionados de maio de 2014 a julho de 2017, usando solução salina normal e solução de lugol iodo. Vinte e três (5,75%) indivíduos foram encontrados infectados por E. vermicularis. Cinco crianças (1,25%) foram infectadas apenas com E. vermicularis e dezoito (4,5%) foram misturadas com outros helmintos. Foram detectados E. vermicularis 23 (5,75%), ancilóstomo 11 (2,75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1,25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0,5%) e Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%). Com relação à idade, 5-8 anos foram mais parasitados, seguidos por 13-15 e 9-12 anos de idade (0,0296, P <0,05). Crianças do sexo masculino foram altamente (0,06700, P <0,05) infectadas do que as do sexo feminino. As crianças no distrito de Malakand foram encontradas mais infectadas, seguidas por Dir Upper, taxa de infecção semelhante foi observada em crianças dos distritos Lower Dir e Swat (0,0192, P <0,05). As crianças do nível primário foram altamente (0,0013, P <0,05) infectadas do que as dos níveis médio e alto. A enterobiose ainda é a doença parasitária mais comum em crianças. Os estudos sobre enterobiose devem ser conduzidos periodicamente para reconhecer a periculosidade dessa infecção parasitária em áreas remotas do país.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249422, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495169

RESUMO

Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cyprinidae , Aminoácidos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais
6.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 353-359, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508343

RESUMO

Curcumin is a potent antimicrobial herb used traditionally as a spice in culinary. This study was designed to evaluate the antiviral effects of curcuma longa extract against H9 influenza virus. A total of 60 embryonated eggs were equally divided into 5 groups with 12 eggs in each group. Group 1 (G1) served as uninfected negative control. Whereas Group 2 (G2) was kept as positive control infected with known virus @ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Group 3 (G3) was offered Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml and H9N2 virus (@ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Similarly, Group 4 (G4) was inoculated with extract of Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml per egg, whereas Group 5 (G5) was given Ribazole @ 0.2 ml/ egg. The crude extract and virus were administered on the 15th day of incubation and were checked after every 24 hours up to 96th hour post inoculation by random selection of 3 eggs. Death and survival rate were noted in all groups. Gross and histopathological lesions were also observed. Results revealed that Curcuma longa extract had significantly (p<0.05) reduced the mortality rate of embryos infected with H9N2 virus. In G3, increased lymphocytes and mild fatty changes were seen in liver. Whereas, mature RBCs, plasma cells and some lymphoblast's were observed in Spleen. Similarly, the bursa follicles were with lymphocytic aggregation. The G4 (Curcuma longa) and G5 (Ribazole) were with maximum embryo survival after 48 and 72 h post inoculation. This study revealed potential antiviral activity of Curcuma longa against H9N2 influenza viruses and can be opted as alternative to antibiotics and antiviral drugs to minimize the antimicrobial resistance in human and animal population.

8.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 671-677, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226454

RESUMO

Neonatal sepsis is associated with increased mortality and morbidity including prolonged hospital stay. Management of such cases is difficult, costly and need expert centers in many cases. Therefore, continued surveillance is mandatory to identify risk factors of neonatal sepsis which help optimizing its management. With the above idea, this cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in the department of Neonatology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2017 to December 2017 to observe the effects of maternal and neonatal risk factors in the development of neonatal sepsis and to determine risk factors of neonatal sepsis. Ninety four neonates (0-28 days) who were admitted in NICU with suspected sepsis were included in this study by purposive sampling technique. After admission written informed consent from parents or guardians obtained and histories were obtained including perinatal history and full physical examination of the infants were done and septic screening were sent. All the relevant information was recorded in a pre-designed questionnaire and all data were compiled, tabulated and then analyzed by SPSS version 21.0. Among 94 cases, 72.3% were preterm and 27.6% were term. There was male predominance and male/ female ratio was 1.9:1. Most (76.6%) of the patient admitted within 72 hours of birth. Most (83%) had low birth weight (<2500gm). Most came from rural area 61(64.9%) and also from low income family 59(62.8%). Premature onset of labour 40(42.6%), PROM >18 hours 36(38.3%), vaginal route of delivery 52(55.3%), instrumental resuscitation 15(16%), prelacteal feeding 11(11.7%), bottle feeding 15(16%) were the antenatal, natal and postnatal risk factors in this study. Also the neonatal factors, like prematurity, resuscitation at birth and low APGAR score carried the significant risk of developing sepsis. Poor feeding, lethargy, respiratory distress, jaundice were more common presenting symptoms. Tachycardia, tachypnea, chest indrawing, cyanosis hypothermia, hyperthermia and apnoea were found as more common presenting sign of sepsis in this study. Based on result it is concluded that prolonged rupture of membrane>18 hours, vaginal route of delivery, preterm birth, instrumental resuscitation, prelacteal feeding, bottle feeding were the major perinatal risk factors in this study.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Nascimento Prematuro , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Sepse Neonatal/diagnóstico , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
9.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e249971, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259717

RESUMO

Stunting is a significant public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. This study assessed the prevalence of stunting and associated risk factors of stunting among preschool and school-going children in flood-affected areas of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting 656 households through multi-stage sampling. Respondent's anthropometric measurements, socio-demographic information and sanitation facilities were explored. A logistic regression model was used to determine determinants of stunting, controlling for all possible confounders. The overall prevalence of stunting in children was 40.5%, among children 36.1% boys and 46.3% of girls were stunted. The prevalence of stunting in under-five children was 50.7%. Female children (OR=1.35, 95% CI:0.94-2.0), children aged 13-24 months (OR=6.5, 95% CI: 3.0-13.9), mothers aged 15-24 years (OR=4.4, 95% CI: 2.6-7.2), joint family (OR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.4-3.0) did not have access to improved drinking water (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.9), and the toilet facility (OR=2.8, 95% CI, 1.9-4.3), while the children from district Nowshera (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2) were significantly (P<0.05) associated in univariate analysis. The regression model revealed that child age, maternal age, family type, quality of water, and toilet facility, were the significant (P<0.05) factors contributing to child stunting in the flood-hit areas. Identification of key factors might be helpful for policymakers in designing comprehensive community-based programs for the reduction of stunting in flood-affected areas. In disasters such as flood, the detrimental consequences of the stunting problem could be even more on children. Evidence-based education and care must be provided to the families in the flood-affected regions to reduce the stunting problem. The determinants of stunting should be targeted by making comprehensive policies regarding proper nutrition, livelihood, clean water, and sanitation facilities in flood-hit regions.


Assuntos
Inundações , Transtornos do Crescimento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
S Afr J Surg ; 59(2): 66a-66f, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212575

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare, slow-growing, spindle cell neoplasm with low to intermediate grade malignant potential, commonly found in young and middle-aged adults, more in males than females. DFSP mostly originates in the dermis; rarely, it may be located in the deeper tissues without dermal involvement. Typically, DFSP appears as a multinodular mass, which then spreads into the subcutaneous tissues and muscle; it rarely dedifferentiates to high-grade fibrosarcoma, and more rarely, it may metastasise. We describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in three female patients with histologically proven DFSP and review the literature.

12.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238769, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037078

RESUMO

Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P<0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P<0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P<0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P<0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.


Assuntos
Enterobíase , Helmintos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterobíase/epidemiologia , Enterobius , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
13.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238891, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037080

RESUMO

Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Fezes , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública
14.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(2): 368-375, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830116

RESUMO

The central sulcus (CS) is a prominent landmark of the brain, separating the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe and the primary motor cortex from the primary somatosensory cortex. Variations in the morphology of the central sulcus are seen with respect to the length and depth of the central sulcus. This study was done to establish a normal standard of length and depth of central sulcus in different age and sex groups of Bangladeshi people. Interhemispheric age and gender differences of the central sulcus were done by cross sectional descriptive study which was performed into four categories- Group A (20 to 29 years), Group B (30 to 39 years), Group C (40 to 49 years) and Group D (50 years & above). The specimens were collected from morgue in the department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh by purposive sampling technique. The length of central sulcus was measured by using thread and the depth was measured by using wooden stick at middle of the upper, middle and lower third of the central sulcus in superolateral surface. The mean length of central sulcus was 10.51±0.529cm to 9.78±0.996cm in male and 10.27±0.786cm to 8.83±0.379cm in female. Depth of the central sulcus was 1.333±0.100cm to 1.029±0.125cm in male and 1.173±0.144cm to 1.01±0.200cm in female. The difference in mean length & depth of the central sulcus for both left and right hemisphere between male and female was statistically non significant in all age groups. In present study the length and depth of the central sulcus showed gradual decreasing values with advancing age. Knowledge of morphometry of central sulcus is not only important during neurosurgery of brain but also holds tremendous significance in diagnosis and management of diseases of the cerebral cortex. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the length and depth of the central sulcus of Bangladeshi people which will minimize the dependency on foreign standards.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral , Autopsia , Bangladesh , Cadáver , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5971, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727595

RESUMO

Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) inhibit ice growth by adsorbing onto specific ice planes. Microbial AFPs show diverse antifreeze activity and ice plane specificity, while sharing a common molecular scaffold. To probe the molecular mechanisms responsible for AFP activity, we here characterized the antifreeze activity and crystal structure of TisAFP7 from the snow mold fungus Typhula ishikariensis. TisAFP7 exhibited intermediate activity, with the ability to bind the basal plane, compared with a hyperactive isoform TisAFP8 and a moderately active isoform TisAFP6. Analysis of the TisAFP7 crystal structure revealed a bound-water network arranged in a zigzag pattern on the surface of the protein's ice-binding site (IBS). While the three AFP isoforms shared the water network pattern, the network on TisAFP7 IBS was not extensive, which was likely related to its intermediate activity. Analysis of the TisAFP7 crystal structure also revealed the presence of additional water molecules that form a ring-like network surrounding the hydrophobic side chain of a crucial IBS phenylalanine, which might be responsible for the increased adsorption of AFP molecule onto the basal plane. Based on these observations, we propose that the extended water network and hydrophobic hydration at IBS together determine the TisAFP activity.

16.
Physiol Res ; 70(1): 13-26, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728924

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2-) generated by NAD(P)H oxidases have emerged as important molecules in blood pressure regulation. This study investigated the effect of apocynin and catalase on blood pressure and renal haemodynamic and excretory function in an L-NAME induced hypertension model. Forty Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats (n=8 per group) were treated with either: vehicle (WKY-C); L-NAME (WKY-L, 15 mg/kg/day in drinking fluid); WKY-L given apocynin to block NAD(P)H oxidase (WKY-LApo, 73 mg/kg/day in drinking water.); WKY-L given catalase to enhance ROS scavenging (WKY-LCat, 10000 U/kg/day i.p.); and WKY-L receiving apocynin plus catalase (WKY-LApoCat) daily for 14 days. L-NAME elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP), 116+/-1 to 181±4 mmHg, reduced creatinine clearance, 1.69+/-0.26 to 0.97+/-0.05 ml/min/kg and fractional sodium excretion, 0.84+/-0.09 to 0.55+/-0.09 % at day 14. Concomitantly, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) increased six fold, while plasma total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), plasma nitric oxide (NO) and plasma total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were decreased by 60-70 % and Nox 4 mRNA expression was increased 2-fold. Treatment with apocynin and catalase attenuated the increase in SBP and improved renal function, enhanced antioxidative stress capacity and reduced the magnitude of Nox4 mRNAs expression in the L-NAME treated rats. This study demonstrated that apocynin and catalase offset the development of L-NAME induced hypertension, renal dysfunction and reduced oxidative stress status, possibly contributed by a reduction in Nox4 expression during NOS inhibition. These findings would suggest that antioxidant compounds such as apocynin and catalase have potential in treating cardiovascular diseases.

17.
Clin Radiol ; 76(5): 391.e1-391.e18, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579517

RESUMO

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) encompasses over 40 different haematological malignancies, including low and high-grade neoplasms, such as follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) respectively. A key clinical issue in the context of NHL is delayed and inaccurate diagnosis, which contributes adversely to patient morbidity and mortality. This article will address relevant imaging aspects, with particular reference to advancements in NHL imaging, including computed tomography (CT), integrated positron-emission tomography (PET)-CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We provide multiparametric (anato-functional) imaging display items, including histological correlation. We will also introduce our original concept of "Specialist Integrated Haematological Malignancy Imaging Reporting" (SIHMIR), a paradigm shift in lymphoma radiology.


Assuntos
Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
18.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(1): 62-68, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397852

RESUMO

Anorectal malformations (ARM) incorporate a broad spectrum of diseases, can affect both sexes, and involve the distal anus and rectum as well as the uro-genital tracts. Defects range from the minor which can be treated easily with an excellent outcome, to those are complex and often associated with other anomalies are difficult to manage with poor functional prognosis. This study was done to observe the hospital incidence of Anorectal malformations, frequency of types, sex distribution and spectrum of associations with ARM. The effects of presence of associated anomalies on morbidity and mortality also observed. Detailed history, clinical examinations and relevant investigations were performed for the primary and as well as the associated anomalies. A total of 80 patients were admitted in the department of pediatric surgery in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital during the period of June 2016 to May 2017. Age of the patients was ranging from 1-180 days with the mean age of 0.49±1.002 months. Male: Female ratio was 1.6: 1. Among them 48(60%) were high and 32(40%) were low variety of ARM. In male 37(46.2%) had high and 13(13.7%) were low variety whereas in female 11(13.7%) were high and 19(23.7%) had low ARM. Associated anomalies were seen in 25(31.2%) patient -18 in males and 7 in females; 20 in high and 5 in low ARM. Associated anomalies were uro-genital 11(13.8%), cardiovascular 10(12.5%), vertebral 4(5%), limb defects 3(3.5%) and others 2(2.5%). Four patients have more than one anomaly. Anorectal malformations occur more in boys than girls. Males were more likely to have high lesions and without fistula was the common defect. Low variety ARM were found more in females with Anovestibular fistula is the commonest defect. The most common associated anomalies were recto urinary fistula (13.8%). Associations were more in high than low ARM but not significant (p>0.05). Post operative complications were more in high ARM in both sexes with associated anomalies. The effects of types and associations on morbidity and mortality were significantly different (p<0.05).


Assuntos
Malformações Anorretais , Fístula Retal , Canal Anal , Malformações Anorretais/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Reto , Coluna Vertebral
19.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(1): 154-158, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397867

RESUMO

Calcarine sulcus, one of the major sulcus of occipital lobe of cerebral hemisphere which is intimately related with visual function. The detailed anatomy of this lobe is essential for the surgeons and radiologists for clinical investigation & surgery. The aim of the present study was to identify the variation of this sulcus of the occipital lobe. This study was done to establish a normal standard in length of calcarine sulcus in different age & sex groups of Bangladeshi people. Inter-hemispheric age and gender differences of this sulcus was done by cross sectional descriptive study which was performed into four categories: Group A (20 to 29 years), Group B (30 to 39 years), Group C (40 to 49 years) and Group D (50 years & above). The specimens were collected from morgue in the department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh by purposive sampling technique. The length of calcarine sulcus was measured by using thread. The mean length of calcarine sulcus was lowest to highest values 7.07±0.616cm to 7.86±0.792cm in male and 6.53±0.808cm to 7.62±0.806cm in female. The mean difference of the length of right calcarine sulcus between group A & D was statistically significant at p<0.05, but not significant in any other age & sex groups for both left and right hemisphere. In present study, the length of the calcarine sulcus showed gradual decreasing values with advancing age. For proper planning of neurosurgical procedures and radiological representation of visual functional areas, detailed knowledge on the variation of this sulcus is essential. Proper knowledge of calcarine sulcus can permit safer access to deep structures and reduce operative complications. The present study will also help to increase the information pool on the length of the calcarine sulcus of Bangladeshi people which will minimize the dependency on foreign standards.


Assuntos
Lobo Occipital , Autopsia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Cadáver , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
J Appl Microbiol ; 130(1): 14-24, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692438

RESUMO

The gut microbiome is well recognized to have a pivotal role in regulation of the health and behaviour of the host, affecting digestion, metabolism, immunity, and has been linked to changes in bones, muscles and the brain, to name a few. However, the impact of microgravity environment on gut bacteria is not well understood. In space environments, astronauts face several health issues including stress, high iron diet, radiation and being in a closed system during extended space missions. Herein, we discuss the role of gut bacteria in the space environment, in relation to factors such as microgravity, radiation and diet. Gut bacteria may exact their effects by synthesis of molecules, their absorption, and through physiological effects on the host. Moreover we deliberate the role of these challenges in the dysbiosis of the human microbiota and possible dysregulation of the immune system.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos da radiação , Radiação , Voo Espacial , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos da radiação , Ausência de Peso/efeitos adversos
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