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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250821, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345541

RESUMO

Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar o efeito de diferentes níveis de proteína sobre o crescimento, composição corporal, perfil de aminoácidos e sorologia de alevinos de Channa marulius. O experimento foi conduzido em dez happas instalados em tanques de terra, cada um abastecido com 10 peixes, por 90 dias. Quatro alimentos para peixes comerciais com níveis de 25%, 30%, 32% e 40% de proteína bruta (PB) foram dados aos peixes com 3% de seu peso corporal úmido três vezes ao dia. Os resultados do estudo revelaram que maior ganho de peso, taxa de conversão alimentar e taxa de sobrevivência foram observados em 30% de proteína alimentar. Enquanto isso, o conteúdo de umidade foi maior em peixes alimentados com 30% de PB, enquanto a proteína bruta mais alta foi registrada em peixes alimentados com 40% de PB. O menor conteúdo de gordura foi observado em rações com 32% de PB. O perfil de aminoácidos dos peixes revelou melhores resultados na ração com 30% de PB. Proteína total, glicose e globulina também foram maiores em peixes alimentados com ração com 30% de PB, enquanto a albumina foi mais alta com 40% de PB. Conclui-se que a ração com 30% de PB apresentou melhores resultados em termos de crescimento, perfil de aminoácidos e parâmetros sorológicos sem afetar a composição corporal dos peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes , Ração Animal/análise , Paquistão , Composição Corporal , Lagoas , Dieta
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552

RESUMO

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Ciclídeos , Moringa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Folhas de Planta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256486, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364500

RESUMO

This study explores the antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, total phenolic and flavonoids contents in the extracts of four locally available weeds plants namely Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium murale, Avena fatua and Phalaris minor with different solvents. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were determined via various in-vitro methods such as total antioxidant activity (TAA), reducing power (RP), DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays. Phytochemical screening was performed both qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were determined through Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride methods respectively. Methanol-chloroform solvent showed the presence of a high amount of TPC in milligram of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg of GAE/g of DW) in the extracts of all weeds. Their descending sequence was Avena fatua (74.09) ˃ Phalaris minor (65.66) ˃ Chenopodium murale (64.04) ˃ Convolvulus arvensis (61.905), while, chloroform solvent found to be best solvent for the extraction of TFC. Methanol-chloroform solvent was also found to be best solvent for TAA (Total antioxidant activity assay) which showed values in milligram of ascorbic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg of AAE /g of DW), for DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power (antioxidant activity) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids and glycosides in these weeds.


Este estudo investiga a atividade antioxidante, a triagem fitoquímica, os teores de fenólicos totais e de flavonoides nos extratos de quatro plantas daninhas disponíveis localmente, quais sejam, Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium murale, Avena fatua e Phalaris minor com diferentes solventes. As atividades antioxidantes desses extratos foram determinadas por meio de vários métodos in vitro, tais como atividade antioxidante total (TAA), poder redutor (RP), sequestro de radicais livres DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-Picril-hidrazil) e ensaios de sequestro de peróxido de hidrogênio. A triagem fitoquímica foi realizada tanto qualitativamente quanto quantitativamente. O teor de fenólicos totais (TPC) e o teor de flavonoides totais (TFC) foram determinados pelos métodos do reagente de Folin-Ciocalteu e do cloreto de alumínio, respectivamente. O solvente metanol-clorofórmio mostrou a presença de elevada quantidade de TPC em miligramas de ácido gálico equivalente por grama de peso seco (mg de GAE/g de DW) nos extratos de todas as plantas daninhas. Sua sequência descendente foi Avena fatua (74,09) ˃ Phalaris minor (65,66) ˃ Chenopodium murale (64,04) ˃ Convolvulus arvensis (61,905), enquanto o solvente clorofórmio foi o melhor solvente para a extração de TFC. O solvente metanol-clorofórmio também foi considerado o melhor solvente para AAT (ensaio de atividade antioxidante total), que apresentou valores em miligramas de equivalente de ácido ascórbico por grama de peso seco (mg de AAE/g de DW), para atividade sequestrante de DPPH, RP (atividade antioxidante) e atividade de sequestro de peróxido de hidrogênio. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de polifenóis, flavonoides, taninos, saponinas, alcaloides e glicosídeos nessas plantas daninhas.


Assuntos
Triticum , Flavonoides , Compostos Fenólicos , Plantas Daninhas/fisiologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Antioxidantes
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256732, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364524

RESUMO

Germin-like proteins (GLPs) play an important role against various stresses. Vitis vinifera L. genome contains 7 GLPs; many of them are functionally unexplored. However, the computational analysis may provide important new insight into their function. Currently, physicochemical properties, subcellular localization, domain architectures, 3D structures, N-glycosylation & phosphorylation sites, and phylogeney of the VvGLPs were investigated using the latest computational tools. Their functions were predicted using the Search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins (STRING) and Blast2Go servers. Most of the VvGLPs were extracellular (43%) in nature but also showed periplasmic (29%), plasma membrane (14%), and mitochondrial- or chloroplast-specific (14%) expression. The functional analysis predicted unique enzymatic activities for these proteins including terpene synthase, isoprenoid synthase, lipoxygenase, phosphate permease, receptor kinase, and hydrolases generally mediated by Mn+ cation. VvGLPs showed similarity in the overall structure, shape, and position of the cupin domain. Functionally, VvGLPs control and regulate the production of secondary metabolites to cope with various stresses. Phylogenetically VvGLP1, -3, -4, -5, and VvGLP7 showed greater similarity due to duplication while VvGLP2 and VvGLP6 revealed a distant relationship. Promoter analysis revealed the presence of diverse cis-regulatory elements among which CAAT box, MYB, MYC, unnamed-4 were common to all of them. The analysis will help to utilize VvGLPs and their promoters in future food programs by developing resistant cultivars against various biotic (Erysiphe necator and in Powdery Mildew etc.) and abiotic (Salt, drought, heat, dehydration, etc.) stresses.


As proteínas do tipo germin (GLPs) desempenham um papel importante contra vários estresses. O genoma de Vitis vinifera L. contém 7 GLPs; muitos deles são funcionalmente inexplorados. No entanto, a análise computacional pode fornecer informações importantes sobre sua função. Atualmente, as propriedades físico-químicas, localização subcelular, arquitetura de domínio, estruturas 3D, sítios de N-glicosilação e fosforilação e estudos filogenéticos dos VvGLPs foram conduzidos usando as ferramentas computacionais mais recentes. Suas funções foram previstas usando a ferramenta Search para recuperação de genes/proteínas em interação (STRING) e servidores Blast2Go. A maioria dos VvGLPs são extracelulares (43%) na natureza, mas também mostraram expressão periplasmática (29%), na membrana plasmática (14%) e específica para mitocôndrias ou cloroplastos (14%). A análise funcional previu atividades enzimáticas únicas para essas proteínas, incluindo terpeno sintase, isoprenoide sintase, lipoxigenase, fosfato permease, receptor quinase e hidrolases geralmente mediadas por cátion Mn +. VvGLPs mostraram similaridade na estrutura geral, forma e posição do domínio cupin. Funcionalmente, os VvGLPs controlam e regulam a produção de metabólitos secundários para lidar com vários estresses. Filogeneticamente, VvGLP1, -3, -4, -5 e VvGLP7 mostraram maior similaridade devido à duplicação, enquanto VvGLP2 e VvGLP6 revelaram uma relação distante. A análise do promotor revelou a presença de diversos elementos cis-reguladores, entre os quais CAAT box, MYB, MYC, sem nome-4, sendo comum a todos eles. A análise ajudará a utilizar VvGLPs e seus promotores em programas alimentares futuros, desenvolvendo cultivares resistentes contra vários estresses bióticos (Erysiphe necator e no oídio, etc.) e abióticos (sal, seca, calor, estresse hídrico, etc.).


Assuntos
Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Proteínas , Vitis/genética
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255055, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355865

RESUMO

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as alterações patológicas induzidas por carbofurano (CF) em garças-vaqueiras. Duzentas dessas garças foram criadas e divididas igualmente em quatro grupos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CF: 0,03 mg/L; 0,02 mg/L; 0,01 mg/L; e 0 mg/L (grupo controle). Foram realizadas análises de hematologia, bioquímica sérica, histopatologia e marcadores imunológicos. Nossos resultados confirmaram que CF induz condições anêmicas, leucocitose, atividade enzimática hepática elevada e alterações nos biomarcadores renais. Além disso, lesões microscópicas específicas, como necrose multifocal, núcleos picnóticos, hemorragias, congestão e proliferação de células inflamatórias, foram observadas no fígado, rim, baço e timo. Esses achados sugerem que o CF pode causar efeitos nocivos, portanto a aplicação desse agrotóxico no campo deve ser rigorosamente monitorada para mitigar a possibilidade de exposição a espécies não alvo.


Assuntos
Animais , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Aves , Bovinos
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253107, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355911

RESUMO

Abstract Life cycle assessment was carried out for a conventional wooden furniture set produced in Mardan division of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan during 2018-19. Primary data regarding inputs and outputs were collected through questionnaire surveys from 100 conventional wooden furniture set manufacturers, 50 in district Mardan and 50 in district Swabi. In the present study, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach was applied for a functional unit of one conventional wooden furniture set. Production weighted average data were modelled in the environmental impacts modelling software i.e., SimaPro v.8.5. The results showed that textile used in sofa set, wood preservative for polishing and preventing insects attack and petrol used in generator had the highest contribution to all the environmental impact categories evaluated. Total cumulative energy demand for wooden furniture set manufactured was 30,005 MJ with most of the energy acquired from non-renewable fossil fuel resources.


Resumo A abordagem de avaliação do ciclo de vida foi realizada para um conjunto de móveis de madeira convencional produzido na divisão Mardan da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa do Paquistão durante 2018-19. Os dados primários sobre entradas e saídas foram coletados por meio de pesquisas por questionário de 100 fabricantes de conjuntos de móveis de madeira convencionais, 50 no distrito de Mardan e 50 no distrito de Swabi. No presente estudo, a abordagem de avaliação do ciclo de vida do berço ao portão foi aplicada para uma unidade funcional de um conjunto de móveis de madeira convencional. Os dados da média ponderada da produção foram modelados no software de modelagem de impactos ambientais, isto é, SimaPro v.8.5. Os resultados mostraram que os têxteis usados ​​no conjunto de sofás, o preservativo de madeira para polir e prevenir o ataque de insetos e a gasolina usada no gerador tiveram a maior contribuição em todas as categorias de impacto ambiental avaliadas. A demanda total acumulada de energia para o conjunto de móveis de madeira fabricado foi de 30.005 MJ, com a maior parte da energia adquirida de recursos de combustíveis fósseis não renováveis.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário , Paquistão
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249211, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345523

RESUMO

Abstract This study was conducted to estimate the diversity and the occurrence of commercially important finfish species collected by twenty fish sampling site of Sindh and Baluchistan coasts of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan from January to December 2019. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of seawater were analyzed from these selected sites and found to be within suitable ranges required for fish growth and survive. A total of 81287 fish individuals were collected and identified as 49 species belonging to 26 families in our study. The most diversified family was Sparidae (13 species) followed by Carangidae and Lutjanidae (4 species), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 species), and Sciaenidae (2 species). The remaining 20 families were represented by only one species. The values of Shannon diversity index calculated for the four selected habitats revealed that high fish diversity was reported at Sonmiani Coast (H'=1.81), while less at Ormara Coast (H'=0.23). Likewise, Evenness index (E) was high at Sonmiani Coast (E=0.50) and less fish diversity was reported at Ormara Coast (E=0.06). Reducing risks to threatened marine species in coastal habitats also requires conservation actions at multiple scales. Thus, it was concluded that our study could be valuable in providing the more information's regarding to the diversity of finfish species and their occurrence along the Pakistan Coast. Further, to better understand the effects, regular monitoring and conservation measures should be taken to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and protect finfish diversity from further decline


Resumo Este estudo foi conduzido para estimar a diversidade e a ocorrência de espécies de peixes comercialmente importantes coletadas por vinte locais de amostragem de peixes nas costas de Sindh e Baluchistão do mar da Arábia, no Paquistão, de janeiro a dezembro de 2019. Além disso, as características físico-químicas da água do mar foram analisadas a partir desses peixes locais selecionados e considerados dentro dos intervalos adequados necessários para o crescimento e sobrevivência dos peixes. Um total de 8.1287 indivíduos de peixes foi coletado e identificado como 49 espécies pertencentes a 26 famílias em nosso estudo. A família mais diversificada foi Sparidae (13 espécies), seguida por Carangidae e Lutjanidae (4 espécies), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 espécies) e Sciaenidae (2 espécies). As 20 famílias restantes foram representadas por apenas uma espécie. Os valores do índice de diversidade de Shannon calculados para os quatro habitats selecionados revelaram que uma alta diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa Sonmiani (H' = 1,81), enquanto menos na costa Ormara (H' = 0,23). Da mesma forma, o índice de regularidade (E) foi alto na costa de Sonmiani (E = 0,50) e menos diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa de Ormara (E = 0,06). A redução dos riscos para as espécies marinhas ameaçadas em habitats costeiros também requer ações de conservação em várias escalas. Assim, concluiu-se que nosso estudo pode ser valioso para fornecer mais informações sobre a diversidade de espécies de peixes finos e sua ocorrência ao longo da costa do Paquistão. Além disso, para compreender melhor os efeitos, medidas regulares de monitoramento e conservação devem ser tomadas para mitigar a influência das atividades antropogênicas e proteger a diversidade de peixes finos de um declínio maior.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Água , Biodiversidade , Água do Mar , Ecossistema , Peixes
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249422, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339393

RESUMO

Abstract Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.


Resumo O estudo de 90 dias foi realizado em hapas instalados em tanques de terra. Peixes com peso inicial médio (220 g) foram distribuídos uniformemente em grupos triplicados em 15 hapas. Cinco dietas experimentais rotuladas como T1 (25% de CP e NRC recomendado nível de aminoácidos) como dieta controle, T2 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 5% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T3 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T4 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos) e T5 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 20% de suplementação de aminoácidos) foram preparadas. Os peixes foram alimentados com 3% do seu peso corporal duas vezes por dia às 10h00 e 16h00. Ganho de peso significativamente maior (420,18 ± 66,84a) e taxa de crescimento específico (13499,33 ± 1273,54a) juntamente com taxa de conversão alimentar melhorada (1, 29 ± 0,09b) e sobrevivência de cem por cento foram registrados durante o ensaio. Além disso, a análise aproximada da carne mostrou melhora significativa no nível de proteína bruta (81,77 ± 0,19a) servida com dieta contendo 20% de mistura de aminoácidos limitantes. Portanto, a limitação de aminoácidos pode ser uma fonte de alimentação econômica e usada com segurança na dieta de L. rohita.


Assuntos
Animais , Cyprinidae , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Aminoácidos
9.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(4): 100652, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ayurdvedic derived medicines are most promising and effective in the treatment of several cardiovascular diseases. Cocculus hirsutus (CH) has been reported for broad spectrum of activities like anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, cardiotonic and hypotensive etc. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to find the cardio-protective effect of CH in experimental hypertension in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For acute renal hypertension, CH animals were pre-treated with CH-1 (250 mg/kg) and CH-2 (500 mg/kg) p. o. for 14 days. On the 15th day, hypertension was induced by renal occlusion and the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was recorded. For CAL pretreatment of CH-1 and CH-2 was given for 7 days on the 8th day animals were operated on for ligation. The MABP and the time of onset of ventricular tachycardia (VT), premature ventricular systole (PVS) were recorded. For induction of hypercholesterolemia, animals were fed with a high cholesterol diet (CD) with CH-1 and CH-2 for 21 days. The antioxidant potential of CH was done using the assay of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). RESULTS: CH treatment significantly decreases the MABP, the onset of VT and PVS. The histology show intact cardiac muscle with minimum necrosis and inflammation. CH treatment shows significant decrease in cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose while HDL levels are significantly increased. The aortic section of CH-treated animals shows the intact layers of the artery, normal thickness and restoration of antioxidant enzymatic activity. CONCLUSION: The study shows significant cardio protective effect of CH in experimental animals.

10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(4): 925-930, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189534

RESUMO

Well established and common practice in conservative management of omphalocele major is escharotics therapy with different topical agents. Among them mercurochrome, alcohol, silver salts, povidone iodine, acacia nilotca paste are commonly used. It is a comparative study between application of acacia nilotica paste and povidone iodine solution as a primary non surgical treatment of omphalocele major regarding efficacy and safety of these two topical agents. A double blind randomized controlled study was conducted at the department of Paediatric Surgery, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2016 to June 2019. In this study 20 cases of omphalocele major and randomly divided into two equal groups. Group A and Group B treated with acacia nilotica paste and povidone iodine solution respectively. Gastroschisis, ruptured-omphalocele major or omphalocele minor excluded in this study. The size of the fascial defect in cm, time required for full oral feeding tolerance and duration of hospital stay were evaluating parameters. Patients with Group A tolerated full oral feeding earlier, shorter total hospital stay duration and low mortality rate than those from Group B. Application of acacia nilotica is a safe and effective treatment of omphalocele major regarding rapid full oral feeding tolerance, shorter hospital stay and low mortality rate.


Assuntos
Acacia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Hérnia Umbilical , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Hérnia Umbilical/tratamento farmacológico , Hérnia Umbilical/cirurgia , Humanos , Merbromina/uso terapêutico , Povidona-Iodo/uso terapêutico , Sais/uso terapêutico , Prata/uso terapêutico
11.
Bioengineering (Basel) ; 9(10)2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36290557

RESUMO

Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne fungus causing sheath blight disease in cereal crops including rice. Genetic resistance to sheath blight disease in cereal crops is not well understood in most of the host(s). Aside from this, a comparative study on the different hosts at the biochemical and proteomic level upon R. solani infection was not reported earlier. Here, we performed proteomic based analysis and studied defense pathways among cultivated rice (cv. Pusa Basmati-1), wild rice accession (Oryza grandiglumis), and barley (cv. NDB-1445) after inoculation with R. solani. Increased levels of phenol, peroxidase, and ß-1, 3-glucanase were observed in infected tissue as compared to the control in all of the hosts. Wild rice accession O. grandiglumis showed a higher level of biochemical signals than barley cv. NDB 1445 and cultivated rice cv. Pusa Basmati-1. Using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS), differently expressed proteins were also studied in control and after inoculation with R. solani. Wild rice accession O. grandiglumis induced a cysteine protease inhibitor and zinc finger proteins, which have defense functions and resistance against fungal pathogens. On the other hand, barley cv. NDB-1445 and cultivated rice cv. Pusa Basmati-1 mainly induce energy metabolism-related proteins/signals after inoculation with R. solani in comparison to wild rice accession O. grandiglumis. The present comprehensive study of R. solani interaction using three hosts, namely, Pusa Basmati-1 (cultivated rice), O. grandiglumis (wild rice), and NDB-1445 (barley) would interpret wider possibilities in the dissection of the protein(s) induced during the infection process. These proteins may further be correlated to the gene(s) and other related molecular tools that will help for the marker-assisted breeding and/or gene editing for this distressing disease among the major cereal crops.

12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(13): 4677-4692, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856359

RESUMO

The escalation of cancer cases globally, especially breast cancer, is of concern. Angiogenesis is hallmark of cancer pathogenesis and plays an important role in cancer progression and metastasis. Pro-angiogenic agents, secreted by tumor cells, form new blood vessels, and produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS promote angiogenesis via two major pathways: namely Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) dependent and non-VEGF dependent pathways. As a consequence of unbalanced ROS overproduction and low antioxidants levels, oxidative stress occurs and promotes angiogenesis in breast cancer tissues. Thus, the potential use of antioxidants as a preventive therapy in breast cancer. Preclinical studies depict that vitamins A and E may counter oxidative stress resulting in reduction of metastasis and viability of breast cancer. Furthermore, clinical studies demonstrate a decline in breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women upon the consumption of antioxidants. Herein, we discuss various pro-angiogenic agents that may play an important role in breast cancer angiogenesis. Moreover, the contribution of oxidative stress in inducing the angiogenic process is extensively reviewed here. Furthermore, the findings of pre-clinical and clinical studies on the use of antioxidants, namely vitamins A and E, in breast cancer are deliberated upon, along with the role of angiogenesis in cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Neoplasias da Mama , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
13.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(9): 799-808, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35492021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Management of head and neck cancer patients provides unique challenges. Palliation serves to optimise quality-of-life by alleviating suffering and maintaining dignity. Prompt recognition and management of suffering is paramount to achieving this. This study aimed to assess perceived confidence, knowledge and adequacy of palliative training among UK-based otolaryngologists. METHOD: Eight multiple-choice questions developed by five palliative care consultants via the Delphi method were distributed over five weeks. Knowledge, perceived confidence and palliative exposure among middle-grade and consultant otolaryngologists were assessed, alongside training deficits. RESULTS: Overall, 145 responses were collated from middle-grade (n = 88, 60.7 per cent) and consultant (n = 57, 39.3 per cent) otolaryngologists. The mean knowledge score was 5 out of 10, with 22.1 per cent (n = 32) stating confidence in palliative management. The overwhelming majority (n = 129, 88.9 per cent) advocated further training. CONCLUSION: A broad understanding of palliative care, alongside appropriate specialist involvement, is key in meeting the clinical needs of palliative patients. Curriculum integration of educational modalities such as simulation and online training may optimise palliative care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Otolaringologia , Cirurgiões , Tomada de Decisões , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Reino Unido
14.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(2): 406-411, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383758

RESUMO

Spleen is a haemo-lymph organ and belongs to the reticuloendothelial system of human body, develops from mesodermal proliferation between the two leaves of dorsal mesogastrium. The microscopic structure of spleen is variable depending on the developmental stage of the organ, and the age and immune status of the individual. In our country, we depend on foreign data which came from the subjects of different races and from the individuals under different geographic conditions. So the study was carried out to minimize the dependency on foreign standards and to identify the diameter of white pulp in different age and sex of the Bangladeshi individuals with a view to establish local data bank related to spleen of Bangladeshi people. This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 65 postmortem human spleens (34 of male and 31 of female) to find out the number and diameter of white pulp of spleen of Bangladeshi people by purposive sampling technique. And done in Autopsy laboratory of the Department of Forensic Medicine of Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh from 16th October 2016 to 15th January 2017. The samples were divided into three age groups including Group A (5-20 years), Group B (21-40 years) and Group C (41-60 years). Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. For statistical analysis, unpaired student 't' test was done. The mean±SD number of white pulp of male spleen was greater than female spleen in Group A, B and C but mean±SD diameter of white pulp of female spleen was found greater than male spleen in all groups. Comparison of number of white pulp between sexes showed that statistically there was no significant difference within all the age groups at p>0.05 level. No age change was evident in diameter of white pulp but in between sexes, diameter is greater in females than males. Mean difference of diameter of white pulp between sexes showed no significant difference within the age groups at p>0.05.


Assuntos
Baço , Adolescente , Adulto , Autopsia , Bangladesh , Cadáver , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(2): 416-420, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383760

RESUMO

This study was done to see the changes in the number of Purkinje cells per square mm in different age groups of Bangladeshi people. This cross-sectional descriptive type of study was done on total 40 postmortem human cerebellums, in the Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh from July 2016 to June 2017. The specimens were collected from morgue in the department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, by purposive sampling technique. All the specimens were grouped into four categories: Group A (20 to 29 years), Group B (30 to 39 years), Group C (40 to 49 years) and Group D (50 to 59 years). Paraffin blocks of cerebellum were cut at 4-5µm thickness and stained with routine "Haematoxylin and Eosin" (H & E) stain. Estimation of number of Purkinje cell was done by using the counting circle and examined under the light microscope. In the present study, the mean±SD number of Purkinje cell was found 128.67±25.15 per sq mm in Group A, 136.53±34.45 in Group B per sq mm, 135.55±29.44 per sq mm in Group C, 127.69±35.31 per sq mm in Group D.


Assuntos
Células de Purkinje , Autopsia , Bangladesh , Cadáver , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
16.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e256732, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293478

RESUMO

Germin-like proteins (GLPs) play an important role against various stresses. Vitis vinifera L. genome contains 7 GLPs; many of them are functionally unexplored. However, the computational analysis may provide important new insight into their function. Currently, physicochemical properties, subcellular localization, domain architectures, 3D structures, N-glycosylation & phosphorylation sites, and phylogeney of the VvGLPs were investigated using the latest computational tools. Their functions were predicted using the Search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins (STRING) and Blast2Go servers. Most of the VvGLPs were extracellular (43%) in nature but also showed periplasmic (29%), plasma membrane (14%), and mitochondrial- or chloroplast-specific (14%) expression. The functional analysis predicted unique enzymatic activities for these proteins including terpene synthase, isoprenoid synthase, lipoxygenase, phosphate permease, receptor kinase, and hydrolases generally mediated by Mn+ cation. VvGLPs showed similarity in the overall structure, shape, and position of the cupin domain. Functionally, VvGLPs control and regulate the production of secondary metabolites to cope with various stresses. Phylogenetically VvGLP1, -3, -4, -5, and VvGLP7 showed greater similarity due to duplication while VvGLP2 and VvGLP6 revealed a distant relationship. Promoter analysis revealed the presence of diverse cis-regulatory elements among which CAAT box, MYB, MYC, unnamed-4 were common to all of them. The analysis will help to utilize VvGLPs and their promoters in future food programs by developing resistant cultivars against various biotic (Erysiphe necator and in Powdery Mildew etc.) and abiotic (Salt, drought, heat, dehydration, etc.) stresses.


Assuntos
Vitis , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vitis/genética
17.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e257622, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293518

RESUMO

Green synthesis has been introduced as an alternative to chemical synthesis due to the serious consequences. Metal nanoparticles synthesized through green approach have different pharmaceutical, medical and agricultural applications. The present study followed a green and simple route for the preparation of potentially bioactive gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Au NPs were prepared via green synthesis approach using crude basic alkaloidal portion of the tuber of Delphinium chitralense. The green synthesized Au NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Morphological analysis shows that Au NPs have cubic geometry with different sizes. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis confirmed the synthesis of Au NPs while XRD proved their pure crystalline phase. The Au NPs showed promising dose dependent inhibition of both AChE and BChE as compared to the crude as well as standard drug.


Assuntos
Delphinium , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
18.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 32(1): 11-16, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332105

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the mental health of children, adolescents, and their parents. This study aimed to assess the emotional and behavioural changes in children and adolescents and their association with parental depression during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. METHODS: On 7 May 2020 during COVID-19 lockdown, an online questionnaire was distributed through social media and made available for 10 days. Data were collected from parents of children aged 4 to 17 years. The Bangla version of the parent-rated version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to determine the behavioural and emotional disturbances of the children and adolescents. The Bangla version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess the depression status of parents. RESULTS: There were 512 participants. 21.5% of children and adolescents had emotional and behavioural problems. More boys than girls had abnormal peer relationship problems (21.1% vs 15.4%, p = 0.03). Of the parents, 16.2% had moderate depression, 5.5% moderately severe depression, and 2.9% severe depression. 8.2% and 2.9% of parents reported that it was very difficult and extremely difficult, respectively, to do work, take care of things at home, or get along with other people; the proportion was higher in mothers than fathers (χ2 = 11.4, df = 3, p = 0.01). The PHQ-9 total score of parents mildly correlated with the SDQ score of children and adolescents (r = 0.51, p = 0.01). In multiple linear regression, a combination of parent sex (ß = 0.08, p < 0.001), child's history of developmental/psychiatric problems (ß = 0.02, p = 0.67), and the SDQ total score of children and adolescents (ß = 0.52, p = 0.03) accounted for 27% of the variability in PHQ total score of parents. CONCLUSION: During lockdown, the prevalence of psychiatric disorder among children and adolescents and their parents increased. The depression status of parents mildly correlated with the behavioural and emotional disturbances of children and adolescents. We recommend opening the schools as soon as the situation improves and developing interventions such as virtual mental health assessment for children and adolescents and their parents.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pais , Projetos Piloto
19.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e256486, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293544

RESUMO

This study explores the antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, total phenolic and flavonoids contents in the extracts of four locally available weeds plants namely Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium murale, Avena fatua and Phalaris minor with different solvents. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were determined via various in-vitro methods such as total antioxidant activity (TAA), reducing power (RP), DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays. Phytochemical screening was performed both qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were determined through Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride methods respectively. Methanol-chloroform solvent showed the presence of a high amount of TPC in milligram of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg of GAE/g of DW) in the extracts of all weeds. Their descending sequence was Avena fatua (74.09) ˃ Phalaris minor (65.66) ˃ Chenopodium murale (64.04) ˃ Convolvulus arvensis (61.905), while, chloroform solvent found to be best solvent for the extraction of TFC. Methanol-chloroform solvent was also found to be best solvent for TAA (Total antioxidant activity assay) which showed values in milligram of ascorbic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg of AAE /g of DW), for DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power (antioxidant activity) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids and glycosides in these weeds.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Picratos , Triticum
20.
Clin Radiol ; 77(6): 399-408, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35177229

RESUMO

Castleman Disease (CD) is a rare entity that typically presents as an enhancing nodal mass in the mediastinum or head and neck region on computed tomography (CT). It may manifest as unicentric or multicentric regions of lymph node enlargement. A key clinical issue in the context of CD is delayed diagnosis, which contributes adversely to patient outcome, given that accurate diagnosis facilitates earlier treatment of this curable disease. This article will address relevant imaging aspects, with reference to typical and atypical imaging features of CD, illustrated using examples from our specialist centre; the imaging journey for patients with CD; and will provide practical pointers to radiologists in differentiating CD from other benign and malignant causes of enhancing lymphadenopathy, including lymphoma and neoplastic adenopathy. We will also review current classification tools and staging challenges with reference to World Health Organization guidelines, International Working Group guidelines as well as the Lugano classification. Finally, we will discuss the potential role of additional imaging techniques in CD, highlighting novel imaging methods and expanded utilities from our specialist centre.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante , Linfadenopatia , Radiologia , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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