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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236499, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153462

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

2.
Microbiol Res ; 249: 126771, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930840

RESUMO

Drought stress is expected to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in many parts of the world, with potential negative impacts on plant growth and productivity. The plants have evolved complex physiological and biochemical mechanisms to respond and adjust to water-deficient environments. The physiological and biochemical mechanisms associated with water-stress tolerance and water-use efficiency have been extensively studied. Besides these adaptive and mitigating strategies, the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play a significant role in alleviating plant drought stress. These beneficial microorganisms colonize the endo-rhizosphere/rhizosphere of plants and enhance drought tolerance. The common mechanism by which these microorganisms improve drought tolerance included the production of volatile compounds, phytohormones, siderophores, exopolysaccharides, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC deaminase), accumulation of antioxidant, stress-induced metabolites such as osmotic solutes proline, alternation in leaf and root morphology and regulation of the stress-responsive genes. The PGPR is an easy and efficient alternative approach to genetic manipulation and crop enhancement practices because plant breeding and genetic modification are time-consuming and expensive processes for obtaining stress-tolerant varieties. In this review, we will elaborate on PGPR's mechanistic approaches in enhancing the plant stress tolerance to cope with the drought stress.

3.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810565

RESUMO

Bacteria that surround plant roots and exert beneficial effects on plant growth are known as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). In addition to the plant growth-promotion, PGPR also imparts resistance against salinity and oxidative stress and needs to be studied. Such PGPR can function as dynamic bioinoculants under salinity conditions. The present study reports the isolation of phytase positive multifarious Klebsiella variicola SURYA6 isolated from wheat rhizosphere in Kolhapur, India. The isolate produced various plant growth-promoting (PGP), salinity ameliorating, and antioxidant traits. It produced organic acid, yielded a higher phosphorous solubilization index (9.3), maximum phytase activity (376.67 ± 2.77 U/mL), and copious amounts of siderophore (79.0%). The isolate also produced salt ameliorating traits such as indole acetic acid (78.45 ± 1.9 µg/mL), 1 aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (0.991 M/mg/h), and exopolysaccharides (32.2 ± 1.2 g/L). In addition to these, the isolate also produced higher activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (13.86 IU/mg protein), catalase (0.053 IU/mg protein), and glutathione oxidase (22.12 µg/mg protein) at various salt levels. The isolate exhibited optimum growth and maximum secretion of these metabolites during the log-phase growth. It exhibited sensitivity to a wide range of antibiotics and did not produce hemolysis on blood agar, indicative of its non-pathogenic nature. The potential of K. variicola to produce copious amounts of various PGP, salt ameliorating, and antioxidant metabolites make it a potential bioinoculant for salinity stress management.

4.
Environ Res ; 197: 111031, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744268

RESUMO

Extraction and exploration of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) to satisfy the rising world population's fossil fuel demand is playing havoc with human beings and other life forms by contaminating the ecosystem, particularly the soil. In the current review, we highlighted the sources of PHs contamination, factors affecting the PHs accumulation in soil, mechanisms of uptake, translocation and potential toxic effects of PHs on plants. In plants, PHs reduce the seed germination andnutrients translocation, and induce oxidative stress, disturb the plant metabolic activity and inhibit the plant physiology and morphology that ultimately reduce plant yield. Moreover, the defense strategy in plants to mitigate the PHs toxicity and other potential remediation techniques, including the use of organic manure, compost, plant hormones, and biochar, and application of microbe-assisted remediation, and phytoremediation are also discussed in the current review. These remediation strategies not only help to remediate PHs pollutionin the soil rhizosphere but also enhance the morphological and physiological attributes of plant and results to improve crop yield under PHs contaminated soils. This review aims to provide significant information on ecological importance of PHs stress in various interdisciplinary investigations and critical remediation techniques to mitigate the contamination of PHs in agricultural soils.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e236499, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729383

RESUMO

Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Assuntos
Chuva , Roedores , Agricultura , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Paquistão , Ratos , Simbiose
6.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(7): 768-778, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have extended the curative potential of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation to older adults with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplasia (MDS) but are associated with a high risk of disease relapse. Strategies to reduce recurrence are urgently required. Registry data have demonstrated improved outcomes using a sequential transplant regimen, fludarabine/amsacrine/cytarabine-busulphan (FLAMSA-Bu), but the impact of this intensified conditioning regimen has not been studied in randomized trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred forty-four patients (median age, 59 years) with high-risk AML (n = 164) or MDS (n = 80) were randomly assigned 1:1 to a fludarabine-based RIC regimen or FLAMSA-Bu. Pretransplant measurable residual disease (MRD) was monitored by flow cytometry (MFC-MRD) and correlated with outcome. RESULTS: There was no difference in 2-year overall survival (hazard ratio 1.05 [85% CI, 0.80 to 1.38] P = .81) or cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) (hazard ratio 0.94 [95%CI, 0.60 to 1.46] P = .81) between the control and FLAMSA-Bu arms. Detectable pretransplant MFC-MRD was associated with an increased CIR (2-year CIR 41.0% v 20.0%, P = .01) in the overall trial cohort with a comparable prognostic impact when measured by an unsupervised analysis approach. There was no evidence of interaction between MRD status and conditioning regimen intensity for relapse or survival. Acquisition of full donor T-cell chimerism at 3 months abrogated the adverse impact of pretransplant MRD on CIR and overall survival. CONCLUSION: The intensified RIC conditioning regimen, FLAMSA-Bu, did not improve outcomes in adults transplanted for high-risk AML or MDS regardless of pretransplant MRD status. Our data instead support the exploration of interventions with the ability to accelerate acquisition of full donor T-cell chimerism as a tractable strategy to improve outcomes in patients allografted for AML.

7.
Meat Sci ; 172: 108344, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096429

RESUMO

The demand of consumers from around the world for natural, nutritional and palatable pork meat is increasing with time. This study analyzed macro (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P), micro (Fe, Zn, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Se, Sr, Cs), trace (Li, Be, V, Co, Ga, Ba, U), and toxic trace (As, Cd, TI, and Pb) elements of pork meat from conventional and animal welfare farms in South Korea. Among the elements analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission, and mass spectrometric (ICP-OES, ICP-MS) techniques, K, Fe, Mn, and Ni content were higher in animal welfare pork meat. The trace and toxic trace elements content were lower than the standard values. The principal component and linear discriminant analyses (PCA, LDA) explained the highest variance (99.82%, 99.00%) of the group based on toxic elements. These findings can thus be used to evaluate animal welfare and conventional farms pork meat quality in South Korea as well as worldwide.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(1): e016215, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342227

RESUMO

Background Evidence-based medication adherence rates after a myocardial infarction are low. We hypothesized that 90-day prescriptions are underused and may lead to higher evidence-based medication adherence compared with 30-day fills. Methods and Results We examined patients with myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention between 2011 and 2015 in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry. Linking to Symphony Health pharmacy data, we described the prevalence of patients filling 30-day versus 90-day prescriptions of statins, ß-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and P2Y12 inhibitors after discharge. We compared 12-month medication adherence rates by evidence-based medication class and prescription days' supply and rates of medication switches and dosing changes. Among 353 259 patients with myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, 90-day evidence-based medication fill rates were low: 13.0% (statins), 12.3% (ß-blockers), 14.6% (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers), and 9.7% (P2Y12 inhibitors). Patients filling 90-day prescriptions were more likely older (median 69 versus 62 years) with a history of prior myocardial infarction (25.0% versus 17.9%) or percutaneous coronary intervention (30.3% versus 19.5%; P<0.01 for all) than patients filling 30-day prescriptions. The 12-month adherence rates were higher for patients who filled 90-day versus 30-day supplies: statins, 83.1% versus 75.3%; ß-blockers, 72.7% versus 62.9%; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, 71.1% versus 60.9%; and P2Y12 inhibitors, 78.5% versus 66.6% (P<0.01 for all). Medication switches and dosing changes within 12 months were infrequent for patients filling 30-day prescriptions-14.7% and 0.3% for 30-day P2Y12 inhibitor fills versus 6.3% and 0.2% for 90-day fills, respectively. Conclusions Patients who filled 90-day prescriptions had higher adherence and infrequent medication changes within 1 year after discharge. Ninety-day prescription strategies should be encouraged to improve post-myocardial infarction medication adherence.

9.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(12)2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255160

RESUMO

Drought is a major constraint in drylands for crop production. Plant associated microbes can help plants in acquisition of soil nutrients to enhance productivity in stressful conditions. The current study was designed to illuminate the effectiveness of desert rhizobacterial strains on growth and net-return of chickpeas grown in pots by using sandy loam soil of Thal Pakistan desert. A total of 125 rhizobacterial strains were isolated, out of which 72 strains were inoculated with chickpeas in the growth chamber for 75 days to screen most efficient isolates. Amongst all, six bacterial strains (two rhizobia and four plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains) significantly enhanced nodulation and shoot-root length as compared to other treatments. These promising strains were morphologically and biochemically characterized and identified through 16sRNA sequencing. Then, eight consortia of the identified isolates were formulated to evaluate the growth and development of chickpea at three moisture levels (55%, 75% and 95% of field capacity) in a glass house experiment. The trend for best performing consortia in terms of growth and development of chickpea remained T2 at moisture level 1 > T7 at moisture level 2 > T4 at moisture level 3. The present study indicates the vital role of co-inoculated bacterial strains in growth enhancement of chickpea under low moisture availability. It is concluded from the results that the consortium T2 (Mesorhizobium ciceri RZ-11 + Bacillus subtilis RP-01 + Bacillus mojavensis RS-14) can perform best in drought conditions (55% field capacity) and T4 (Mesorhizobium ciceri RZ-11 + Enterobacter Cloacae RP-08 + Providencia vermicola RS-15) can be adopted in irrigated areas (95% field capacity) for maximum productivity of chickpea.

10.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term outcomes for Medicare beneficiaries hospitalised with transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and role of ABCD2 score in identifying high-risk individuals are not studied. METHODS: We identified 40 825 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalised from 2011 to 2014 for a TIA to a Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-Stroke hospital and classified them using ABCD2 score. Proportional hazards models were used to assess 1-year event rates of mortality and rehospitalisation (all-cause, ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction, and gastrointestinal and intracranial haemorrhage) for high-risk versus low-risk groups adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 40 825 patients, 35 118 (86%) were high risk (ABCD2 ≥4) and 5707 (14%) were low risk (ABCD2=0-3). Overall rate of mortality during 1-year follow-up after hospital discharge for the index TIA was 11.7%, 44.3% were rehospitalised for any reason and 3.6% were readmitted due to stroke. Patients with ABCD2 score ≥4 had higher mortality at 1 year than not (adjusted HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.30). Adjusted risks for ischaemic stroke, all-cause readmission and mortality/all-cause readmission at 1 year were also significantly higher for patients with ABCD2 score ≥4 vs 0-3. In contrast, haemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction, gastrointestinal bleeding and intracranial haemorrhage risk were not significantly different by ABCD2 score. CONCLUSIONS: This study validates the use of ABCD2 score for long-term risk assessment after TIA in patients aged 65 years and older. Attentive efforts for community-based follow-up care after TIA are needed for ongoing prevention in Medicare beneficiaries who were hospitalised for TIA.

11.
Clin Diabetes ; 38(4): 371-381, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132507

RESUMO

Research has shown that getting to glycemic targets early on leads to better outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes; yet, there has been no improvement in the attainment of A1C targets in the past decade. One reason is therapeutic inertia: the lack of timely adjustment to the treatment regimen when a person's therapeutic targets are not met. This article describes the scope and priorities of the American Diabetes Association's 3-year Overcoming Therapeutic Inertia Initiative. Its planned activities include publishing a systematic review and meta-analysis of approaches to reducing therapeutic inertia, developing a registry of effective strategies, launching clinician awareness and education campaigns, leveraging electronic health record and clinical decision-support tools, influencing payer policies, and potentially executing pragmatic research to test promising interventions.

12.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(11)2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126620

RESUMO

The performance of genomic prediction (GP) on genetically correlated traits can be improved through an interdependence multi-trait model under a multi-environment context. In this study, a panel of 237 soft facultative wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines was evaluated to compare single- and multi-trait models for predicting grain yield (GY), harvest index (HI), spike fertility (SF), and thousand grain weight (TGW). The panel was phenotyped in two locations and two years in Florida under drought and moderately drought stress conditions, while the genotyping was performed using 27,957 genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) makers. Five predictive models including Multi-environment Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictor (MGBLUP), Bayesian Multi-trait Multi-environment (BMTME), Bayesian Multi-output Regressor Stacking (BMORS), Single-trait Multi-environment Deep Learning (SMDL), and Multi-trait Multi-environment Deep Learning (MMDL) were compared. Across environments, the multi-trait statistical model (BMTME) was superior to the multi-trait DL model for prediction accuracy in most scenarios, but the DL models were comparable to the statistical models for response to selection. The multi-trait model also showed 5 to 22% more genetic gain compared to the single-trait model across environment reflected by the response to selection. Overall, these results suggest that multi-trait genomic prediction can be an efficient strategy for economically important yield component related traits in soft wheat.

13.
J Mol Biol ; : 166667, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058880

RESUMO

BCR signaling triggers a cascade of intracellular mediators that eventuates in transcription factor activation. Signaling is proximally mediated by Src family tyrosine kinases, the most abundant being Lyn. Key mediators are grouped together as the signalosome, and failure of any single member of this group leads to failure of signaling via this classical pathway. Recent work has revealed an alternate pathway for BCR signaling, in which signalosome elements are bypassed for downstream events such as ERK and PKCδ phosphorylation. This pathway is created by B cell treatment with IL-4 prior to BCR triggering. After IL-4 treatment, the alternate pathway for pERK operates in parallel with the classical pathway for pERK, whereas PKCδ phosphorylation is specific to the alternate pathway. Remarkably, Lyn is not required for B cell activation via the classical pathway; however, Lyn is indispensable and irreplaceable for B cell activation via the alternate pathway. Thus, Lyn operates at a branch point that determines the nature of the B cell response to BCR activation. The mechanism underlying the absolute dependence of alternate pathway signaling on Lyn is unknown. Here, our current understanding of receptor crosstalk between IL-4R and BCR is summarized along with several possible mechanisms for the role of Lyn in alternate pathway signaling. Further dissection of alternate pathway signaling and the role of Lyn is likely to provide important information relating to normal B cell responses, malignant B cell expansion, and generic principles relating to receptor interactions and crosstalk.

14.
Am J Manag Care ; 26(13 Suppl): S275-S286, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073970

RESUMO

Innovative value strategies for reimbursement of medications include value-based agreements (VBAs) between payers and pharmaceutical manufacturers, which have the potential to improve affordability and patient access to therapy, as well as lead to a reduction in downstream health events and associated medical costs. VBAs link payment for a medication to its performance in real-world clinical practice measured against prespecified outcomes that are aligned to existing evidence. Given its high prevalence, economic burden, and impact on mortality, cardiovascular disease (namely, coronary heart disease) represents an opportunity for VBAs to contribute to improved health outcomes and patient experiences while reducing or containing total medical costs. AstraZeneca developed a VBA framework directly comparing 2 antiplatelet therapies indicated to treat acute coronary syndrome (ACS)-ticagrelor and clopidogrel-based on the PLATO trial, which demonstrated superiority for ticagrelor in reducing the incidence of recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with ACS. Between 2015 and 2018, 11 contract-years of VBAs utilizing this framework were implemented in commercial and Part D health insurance plans, totaling nearly 32,000 unique patients in which pooled analyses were conducted. Aggregated VBA results indicate that ticagrelor consistently outperformed expectations in reducing recurrent MI vs clopidogrel, while also illustrating how comparative VBA frameworks of this nature may overcome challenges noted for VBAs and be utilized more broadly in future applications.

16.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 19(4): 166-172, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe from a noninterventional registry (Utilization of Ticagrelor in the Upstream Setting for Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome), the short-term ischemic and hemorrhagic outcomes in patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI) are managed with a loading dose (LD) of a P2Y12 inhibitor (P2Y12i) given at least 4 hours before diagnostic angiography and delineation of coronary anatomy. Prior data on the effects of such "upstream loading" have been inconsistent. METHODS: In 53 US hospitals, we evaluated the in-hospital care and outcomes of patients with confirmed non-ST elevation MI managed with an interventional strategy and loaded upstream (at least 4 h before diagnostic angiography) with oral P2Y12i therapy. Patients entered into the database were grouped into 1 of 4 cohorts for analysis: (1) overall cohort, (2) thienopyridine (clopidogrel or prasugrel) load, (3) ticagrelor load, and (4) ticagrelor-consistent. The fourth cohort is a subset of cohort 3 that received ticagrelor throughout the index hospital stay and at discharge. We evaluated in-hospital clinical course and ischemic and bleeding outcomes in all patients and also 30-day outcomes in the ticagrelor-consistent cohort. RESULTS: A total of 3355 patients were enrolled, of whom 1087 had 30-day follow-up. The mean (±SD) age was 63.3 ± 12.5 years, and 62.6% were male. Thrombolysis in MI and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events scores placed these patients in the intermediate risk range, and CRUSADE scores were in the moderate risk range. The LD in Utilization of Ticagrelor in the Upstream Setting for Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome was clopidogrel in 45.6%, ticagrelor in 53.6%, and prasugrel in 0.8%. The median upstream interval (LD to angiography) was 17:27 hours and did not change appreciably over the course of the data collection period (2/15-10/19). Access was radial in 48.6% and femoral in 51.4%. Postangiography management was medical only in 32.3%, percutaneous coronary intervention in 59.4%, and coronary artery bypass grafting in 8.3%. Median length of stay was 2.7 days, and median time from angiography to coronary artery bypass grafting was 3.6 days. In-hospital mortality was 0.51%, and major bleeding (thrombolysis in MI) was 0.24%; the in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events rate was 0.7%, and stent thrombosis occurred in 0.18%. No significant differences were seen between the ticagrelor and clopidogrel cohorts in hospital, but 16% received more than 1 P2Y12i in-hospital. On follow-up (93.2% response), 86.7% of patients reported taking ticagrelor as directed. CONCLUSIONS: Upstream loading of P2Y12i was associated with very low rates of bleeding and short length of stay in a large cohort of non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI) patients managed invasively.

17.
Pediatr Radiol ; 50(9): 1191-1204, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638055

RESUMO

Pediatric radiology departments across the globe face unique challenges in the midst of the current COVID-19 pandemic that have not been addressed in professional guidelines. Providing a safe environment for personnel while continuing to deliver optimal care to patients is feasible when abiding by fundamental recommendations. In this article, we review current infection control practices across the multiple pediatric institutions represented on the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR) Quality and Safety committee. We discuss the routes of infectious transmission and appropriate transmission-based precautions, in addition to exploring strategies to optimize personal protective equipment (PPE) supplies. This work serves as a summary of current evidence-based recommendations for infection control, and current best practices specific to pediatric radiologists.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pediatria/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Radiologistas , Criança , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Serviço Hospitalar de Radiologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698541

RESUMO

Shoot apical meristems (SAM) are tissues that function as a site of continuous organogenesis, which indicates that a small pool of pluripotent stem cells replenishes into lateral organs. The coordination of intercellular and intracellular networks is essential for maintaining SAM structure and size and also leads to patterning and formation of lateral organs. Leaves initiate from the flanks of SAM and then develop into a flattened structure with variable sizes and forms. This process is mainly regulated by the transcriptional regulators and mechanical properties that modulate leaf development. Leaf initiation along with proper orientation is necessary for photosynthesis and thus vital for plant survival. Leaf development is controlled by different components such as hormones, transcription factors, miRNAs, small peptides, and epigenetic marks. Moreover, the adaxial/abaxial cell fate, lamina growth, and shape of margins are determined by certain regulatory mechanisms. The over-expression and repression of various factors responsible for leaf initiation, development, and shape have been previously studied in several mutants. However, in this review, we collectively discuss how these factors modulate leaf development in the context of leaf initiation, polarity establishment, leaf flattening and shape.

19.
Microorganisms ; 8(7)2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659895

RESUMO

Moisture stress in rainfed areas has significant adverse impacts on plant growth and yield. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) plays an important role in the revegetation and rehabilitation of rainfed areas by modulating plant growth and metabolism and improving the fertility status of the rhizosphere soils. The current study explored the positive role of PGPR and salicylic acid (SA) on the health of the rhizosphere soil and plants grown under rainfed conditions. Maize seeds of two different varieties, i.e., SWL-2002 (drought tolerant) and CZP-2001 (drought sensitive), were soaked for 4 h prior to sowing in 24-h old culture of Planomicrobium chinense strain P1 (accession no. MF616408) and Bacillus cereus strain P2 (accession no. MF616406). The foliar spray of SA (150 mg/L) was applied on 28-days old seedlings. The combined treatment of the consortium of PGPR and SA not only alleviated the adverse effects of low moisture stress of soil in rainfed area but also resulted in significant accumulation of leaf chlorophyll content (40% and 24%), chlorophyll fluorescence (52% and 34%) and carotenoids (57% and 36%) in the shoot of both the varieties. The PGPR inoculation significantly reduced lipid peroxidation (33% and 23%) and decreased the proline content and antioxidant enzymes activities (32% and 38%) as compared to plants grown in rainfed soil. Significant increases (>52%) were noted in the contents of Ca, Mg, K Cu, Co, Fe and Zn in the shoots of plants and rhizosphere of maize inoculated with the PGPR consortium. The soil organic matter, total nitrogen and C/N ratio were increased (42%), concomitant with the decrease in the bulk density of the rhizosphere. The PGPR consortium, SA and their combined treatment significantly enhanced the IAA (73%) and GA (70%) contents but decreased (55%) the ABA content of shoot. The rhizosphere of plants treated with PGPR, SA and consortium showed a maximum accumulation (>50%) of IAA, GA and ABA contents, the sensitive variety had much higher ABA content than the tolerant variety. It is inferred from the results that rhizosphere soil of treated plants enriched with nutrients content, organic matter and greater concentration of growth promoting phytohormones, as well as stress hormone ABA, which has better potential for seed germination and establishment of seedlings for succeeding crops.

20.
Acta Radiol ; : 284185120933530, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic valvular heart disease leads to systolic dysfunction and left atrial enlargement that ultimately results in heart failure. PURPOSE: To investigate prognostic importance of Echocardiography and plasma natriuretic peptide levels that increase as a compensatory response and can be used as predictive markers for cardiac hypertrophy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The patients were divided into three groups: 51 with left ventricle hypertrophy due to aortic valve disease; 126 with left atrial enlargement due to mitral valve dysfunction; and 76 with both conditions. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) plasma levels were measured in all three respective groups showing dilated cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: The mean left ventricular end-diastolic dimension at 64.3 ± 1.6 mm (P < 0.00) and left atrial dimension at 58.3 ± 3.7 mm (P < 0.00) were significantly high. However, patients with both conditions showed significantly high values for left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (63.3 ± 3 mm, P < 0.00) and left atrial dimension (54.9 ± 4 mm, P < 0.00) when compared with controls. A significant positive correlation was found between plasma natriuretic peptides levels and dilated cardiomyopathy. The mean values of ANP were 173 ± 46.6 pg/mL (P < 0.00), 140.4 ± 42.4 pg/mL (P < 0.00), and 295.1 ± 67.5 pg/mL (P < 0.00), significantly high in all three respective disease groups. The levels of BNP were also significantly high at 189 ± 44.5 pg/mL (P < 0.00), 166.6 ± 36.6 pg/mL (P < 0.00), and 323 ± 69.1 pg/mL (P < 0.00) in the disease groups with left ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial enlargement, and the disease group showing both characteristics, respectively. CONCLUSION: Significant positive associations were found between left ventricle hypertrophy and left atrial enlargement with ANP and BNP.

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