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1.
J Nutr ; 150(6): 1379-1387, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avocados are rich in unsaturated fat and fiber; clinical trials have investigated their effects on metabolic disease. There is high variability in individual changes following avocado consumption, which may be in part due to individual genetic differences. OBJECTIVE: Secondary analyses of the Persea americana for Total Health (PATH) Study were used to examine how single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) impact blood lipid changes following a daily meal containing avocado compared with control. METHODS: Adults (n = 115, 37% male) aged 25-45 y with overweight and obesity were randomly assigned to receive a daily isocaloric meal with (intervention) or without (control) a standardized amount (males: 175 g; females: 140 g) of avocado for 12 wk. Control meals were higher in saturated fat (17% of energy compared with 7%) and lower in fiber (4 g compared with 16 g) than intervention meals. Whole venous blood was taken at baseline and 12 wk to determine total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) concentrations. Seventeen SNPs in 10 genes related to lipoprotein metabolism were genotyped. Effects of SNP, diet, and SNP-diet interactions were determined using general linear models. RESULTS: No group-by-time effects were detected for changes in TC (P = 0.96), HDL cholesterol (P = 0.28), or TG (P = 0.06) over 12 wk. Three SNP-diet interactions were associated with final TC concentrations: ANGPTL3-rs10889337 (P = 0.01), ANGPTL4-rs2278236 (P = 0.02), and CD36-rs10499859 (P = 0.01). SNPs in GCKR and LPL were associated with TC changes (P = 0.01). The interaction between GCKR-rs1260326 and diet was such that C-homozygotes receiving avocado (n = 23) had final TC concentrations that were significantly lower than the C-homozygotes in the control group (n = 20) (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Results from these exploratory analyses indicate that avocado consumption may help manage dyslipidemia in adults with overweight and obesity; however, effectiveness may differ by genetic profile. Understanding the role of genetic variation in variability following dietary intervention can potentially inform personalized nutrition recommendations.

2.
J Nutr ; 150(3): 616-622, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is increasing, with about one-third of children overweight or obese. Obesity is characterized by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation that is related to cardiometabolic comorbidities. Inflammatory monocytes, which are classified into 3 different groups-classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes, with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4+) expression indicating a proinflammatory state-underlie several obesity-associated morbidities. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the responses of monocyte populations to beverages of differing macronutrient composition in children with healthy weight (HW) or overweight/obesity (OW/OB). METHODS: Ten HW children (5th to 84.9th percentile; mean age 12.29 ± 2.5 y) and 7 children with OW/OB (85th to 99.99th percentile; mean age 11.96 ± 3.8 y) completed the study. Adiposity was determined via DXA. Using a double-blinded, randomized, crossover design, participants consumed either a high-carbohydrate (CHO; 210 kcal; 0 g fat/56 g carbohydrates/0 g protein) or a whole-egg-based high-protein/fat (EGG; 210 kcal; 15 g fat/0 g carbohydrates/18 g protein) beverage. Venous blood was collected at baseline and 2 h postprandially for evaluation of metabolic and inflammatory responses. Repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson correlations were conducted. RESULTS: Consuming the CHO beverage significantly reduced the primary outcome: TLR4+ expression on classical monocytes in children with OW/OB only (25.60% decrease from baseline in OW/OB compared with 1.61% increase in HW). Children with OW/OB had significantly less percentages of TLR4+ nonclassical monocytes than HW (47.66% lower after CHO). Insulin and glucose (secondary outcomes), were significantly higher after the CHO condition compared with baseline (230.61% and 9.93% increase, respectively). Changes in glucose were significantly and negatively related to changes in monocyte populations in the CHO condition. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that high-carbohydrate beverages alter monocyte populations in the blood in children with OW/OB, which is related to glucose metabolism. These findings have implications for nutritional recommendations in children with overweight/obesity. National Clinical Trial registry trial number: NCT03597542.

3.
Hippocampus ; 30(3): 210-219, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369174

RESUMO

Researchers have taken a number of different approaches in their exploration of hippocampal function. One approach seeks to describe hippocampal function by probing the memory representations that the hippocampus supports. Another approach focuses on the role of the hippocampus in pattern separation and completion. Each of these approaches to understanding hippocampal function utilizes a distinct set of specialized tasks, and both of these task sets are known to be sensitive to changes in hippocampal function with age and disease status. But the question remains whether the tasks utilized in these two approaches tap into the same aspects of hippocampal function. We explored this question in the context of hippocampal development. Preadolescent children (N = 73) and young adults (N = 41) completed an identical battery of cognitive tasks consisting of a spatial reconstruction relational memory task, the mnemonic similarity task (MST)-an object-based pattern separation task, and a novel hybrid task-the Object Discrimination and Distribution (ODD) Task-designed to integrate and simultaneously tax pattern separation and spatial relational memory. Children did not demonstrate impairments in lure discrimination relative to young adults on either the object-based pattern separation task or for aspects of the ODD task that required pattern separation in the absence of relational memory demands but performed more poorly across aspects of tasks that required relational binding.

4.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 52(2): 434-440, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479005

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity during adolescence has multisystem health consequences. The objective of this work was to determine whether preadolescent overweight/obese children's bones respond to a 9-month physical activity intervention by increasing bone density similar to healthy weight children. METHODS: Participants included overweight/obese (BMI > 85%) and healthy weight (15% < BMI < 85%) preadolescents (8-9 yr old). Participants in the physical activity group participated in a 9-month physical activity curriculum every day after school. The wait list control group received no intervention. Both groups had overweight/obese children and healthy weight controls. Whole-body bone mineral content, area, and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry) at the beginning and end of the 9-month trial in the physical activity and control group. RESULTS: Overweight/obese preadolescent children had higher BMAD than healthy weight children (P < 0.001 for spine, leg, and whole body). However, the density/weight (BMAD/lean mass) was lower in overweight/obese children than that in healthy weight children, indicating that the density of bones in overweight/obese children may not compensate sufficiently for the excessive load due to weight. The change in BMAD over 9 months was greater in healthy weight children than overweight/obese children in the whole body and leg, but not the lumbar spine. Physical activity caused a site-specific increase in bone density, affecting the legs more than the lumbar spine, but there was no significant difference in the effect of exercise between the healthy weight and the overweight/obese group. CONCLUSIONS: The smaller change in BMAD over the 9 months and lower BMAD per unit lean mass in overweight/obese compared with healthy weight children may indicate a slower rate of bone mass accrual, which may have implications for bone health during skeletal growth in obese/overweight children.

5.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 147: 176-183, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have been utilized to study the cognitive implications of health-related behaviors, although many questions remain regarding the neural correlates underlying the cognition and adiposity relationship in childhood. Specifically, it is unknown whether excess fat mass is associated with the neural correlates of motor preparation and activation. The present work examined interrelationships between adiposity and ERPs that index inhibition, stimulus evaluation, and motor planning. METHOD: To further elucidate the neural components of inhibitory control that are sensitive to adiposity, N2, P3, and response- and stimulus-locked Lateralized Readiness Potential (LRPs) were measured while preadolescent children completed an attentional inhibition task. Whole body percent adiposity was measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). RESULTS: Adiposity was related to the response-locked LRP amplitudes and marginally to P3 amplitude during the incongruent trials, such that participants with less adiposity elicited larger LRP and P3 components. Furthermore, P3 was strongly related to participant reaction times, suggesting that while LRP is strongly associated with adiposity, P3 has a more direct relationship to behavioral task performance. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that while different cognitive functions may be affected by health-related characteristics, stimulus evaluation and motor activation may be particularly sensitive to excess adiposity in children. These findings extend previous work implicating adiposity in cognitive health in the pediatric population. STUDY IMPORTANCE: Clinical Registry Number: NCT02630667 at https://clinicaltrials.gov.

6.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 148: 13-24, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Excess adiposity increases risk for cognitive impairment. Consumption of avocado, a highly bioavailable source of the xanthophyll lutein, has been shown to improve retinal lutein accumulation and cognitive function. Thus, we evaluated the influence of avocado consumption on cognitive function and lutein status among adults with overweight and obesity using a randomized-controlled trial with matching design for pertinent study outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 84 adults (25-45 years, 31 males) were randomized to a treatment group (N = 47) that received a 12-week daily meal with fresh Hass avocado or a control group (N = 37) that received an isocaloric meal (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02740439). Serum lutein and macular pigment optical density (MPOD) were used to assess xanthophyll status. Attention and inhibition were assessed using the Flanker, Oddball and Nogo tasks with accompanying electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. RESULTS: Participants in the treatment group exhibited improvements in serum lutein and accuracy in the Flanker task. However, there were no relationships between performance and changes in lutein status, nor neuroelectric variables. No significant changes in MPOD were observed. CONCLUSION: Daily avocado intake over 12 weeks, after controlling for covariates, improved attentional inhibition and increased serum lutein concentrations among adults with overweight and obesity. However, the cognitive benefits were independent of changes in lutein concentrations. Additional work is necessary to determine non-carotenoid, or carotenoid interactive, mechanisms by which avocados may influence cognitive function.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847267

RESUMO

Active commuting to school (ACS) is an important source of physical activity among children. Recent research has focused on ACS and its benefits on cognition and academic achievement (AA), factors important for success in school. This review aims to synthesize literature on the relationship between ACS and cognition or AA among children and adolescents. Peer-reviewed articles in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library assessing ACS with cognition and/or AA among children, until February 2019, were selected. Twelve studies across nine countries (age range 4-18.5 years) were included. One study used accelerometers, whereas all others used self-report measures of ACS. A wide range of objective assessments of cognitive functioning and AA domains were used. Five among eight studies, and four among six found a positive relationship between ACS and cognitive or AA measure, respectively. Four studies found dose-response relationships, and some studies found sex differences. The quantitative analysis found that ACS was not significantly associated with mathematics score (odds ratio = 1.18; CI = 0.40, 3.48). Findings are discussed in terms of methodological issues, potential confounders, and the strength of the evidence. Future studies should conduct longitudinal studies and use objective measures of ACS to understand this relationship further.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Cognição , Exercício Físico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
8.
Appl Neuropsychol Child ; : 1-8, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846584

RESUMO

The relation between visual processing speed (critical flicker fusion thresholds [CFF] and psychomotor reaction time) and higher-level cognitive function was assessed using a cross-sectional sample (n = 51) of 7 to 13-year-old preadolescent children. Data on visual processing speed (CFF and psychomotor reaction time) and cognitive function (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities) were collected. Woodcock-Johnson III composite standard scores (brief intellectual ability [BIA], cognitive efficiency, processing speed, and executive processes) were calculated to control for age in the cognitive variables. CFF was related to cognitive efficiency, r(46) = 0.26, p = 0.036, and executive processes, r(44) = 0.25, p = 0.05, and showed a trend toward relating to processing speed, r(46) = 0.19, p = 0.09. Both psychomotor reaction time measures (fixed and variable) were related to executive processes and global intelligence (BIA) such that higher cognitive scores were associated with shorter reaction times, rs ranged from -0.25 to -0.29, ps < 0.05. In addition, fixed reaction time was related to cognitive efficiency, r(47) = -0.26, p < 0.05. The small nature of many of these relations suggests that visual processing speed is only one of many possible influences on the higher cognitive function of children.

9.
J Nutr ; 149(12): 2255-2264, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydration effects on cognition remain understudied in children. This is concerning since a large proportion of US children exhibit insufficient hydration. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of water intake on urinary markers of hydration and cognition among preadolescents. METHODS: A 3-intervention crossover design was used among 9- to 11-y-olds [n = 75 (43 males, 32 females); 58.2 ± 28.5 BMI percentile]. Participants maintained their water intake [ad libitum (AL)] or consumed high (2.5 L/d) or low (0.5 L/d) water for 4 d. The primary outcomes were performance on cognitive tasks requiring inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility assessed using a modified flanker, go/no-go, and color-shape switch tasks, respectively. Secondary outcomes included urine hydration indices [i.e., color, urine specific gravity (USG), osmolality] assessed using 24-h urine collected during day 4 of each intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to assess intervention effects. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in hydration across all 3 interventions. Urine color during the low intervention [median (IQR): 6 (2)] was greater than during AL [5 (2)], and both were greater than during the high intervention [18 (0)] (all P ≤ 0.01). Similarly, osmolality [low (mean ± SD): 912 ± 199 mOsmol/kg, AL: 790 ± 257.0 mOsmol/kg, high: 260 ± 115 mOsmol/kg] and USG [low (mean ± SD): 1.023 ± 0.005, AL: 1.020 ± 0.007, high: 1.005 ± 0.004] during the low intervention were greater during AL, and both were greater than during the high intervention (all P ≤ 0.01). USG and osmolality AL values were related to switch task measures (ß: 0.21 to -0.31, P < 0.05). Benefits of the high intervention were observed during the switch task, whereby participants exhibited 34% lower working memory cost relative to the low intervention. No significant changes in cognition were observed for the flanker and go/no-go tasks. CONCLUSIONS: The water intervention improved urinary markers of hydration and had selective benefits during task switching. Furthermore, children's cognitive flexibility selectively benefits from greater habitual hydration and water intake. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02816450.

10.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 51(9): 1080-1087, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify participant characteristics and study methodology that influenced the completion of a 15-month community-based longitudinal study evaluating the impact of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education and Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program. DESIGN: Observational longitudinal 15-month study across 12 data collection timepoints. Sociodemographic characteristics were collected with a paper-based survey at baseline. SETTING: Five counties across central and southern Illinois. PARTICIPANTS: Women, aged 18 to 65 years (n = 297), recruited at sites likely to serve families eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education and Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (housing departments, child care centers, etc). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Predictors of participant attrition during the study duration. ANALYSIS: Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Ninety-seven participants were retained across the full study. In unadjusted models, greater income and education levels were significantly related to lower attrition; however, this relationship did not persist in a multivariate model. When adjusted for other characteristics, larger household size was the only measured variable significantly related to greater odds of attrition (odds ratio = 1.09; 95% confidence interval = 1.02, 1.17). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Several characteristics predicting attrition in other settings were not significant in this study. Future attrition analyses that evaluate social support, transportation capacity, and type of phone in longitudinal nutrition education studies are warranted.

11.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-10, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156061

RESUMO

Objectives: Obesity is associated with poorer brain health and cognitive function. However, it is not clear whether specific dietary factors may provide neuroprotective effects among individuals with overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of choline intake on neurophysiological markers of attentional control among young and middle-aged adults with overweight or obesity. Methods: 146 adults with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (34.0 ± 5.9 years, 57 males) participated in the study. Behavioral performance (accuracy and reaction time) and neuroelectric indices (event-related brain potentials [ERPs]) of attentional inhibition were assessed during a Flanker task. Specifically, the amplitude and latency of the P3 waveform in a central-parietal region of interest (ROI) were used to index attentional resource allocation and information processing speed, respectively. Choline intake and overall diet quality (Healthy Eating Index [HEI-2015]) were assessed using 7-day diet records. Intelligence Quotient was assessed using the Kaufman-Brief Intelligence Test. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between habitual dietary choline intake and cognitive outcomes following adjustment of demographic factors, IQ, HEI-2015, and BMI. Results: Choline intake was selectively associated with a lower peak amplitude of the P300 waveform during incongruent trials (ß = -0.25, p = <0.01). No significant relationships were observed for accuracy or reaction time. Discussion: Higher choline intake is associated with more efficient neural processing among adults with overweight and obesity. Intervention are necessary to determine whether choline consumption provides neuroprotective effects for executive function among individuals with elevated weight status.

12.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 74 Suppl 3: 19-24, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203295

RESUMO

The effects of optimal and insufficient hydration on human health have received increasing investigation in recent years. Specifically, water is an essential nutrient for human health, and the importance of hydration on cognition has continued to attract research interest over the last decade. Despite this focus, children remain a relatively understudied population relative to the effects of hydration on cognition. Of those studies investigating children, findings have been inconsistent, resulting from utilizing a wide variety of cognitive domains and cognitive assessments, as well as varied hydration protocols. Here, our aim is to create a primer for assessing cognition during hydration research in children. Specifically, we review the definition of cognition and the domains of which it is composed, how cognition has been measured in both field- and laboratory-based assessments, results from neuroimaging methods, and the relationship between hydration and academic achievement in children. Lastly, future research considerations are discussed.

13.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986960

RESUMO

Dietary carotenoids, plant pigments with anti-oxidant properties, accumulate in neural tissue and are often found in lower concentrations among individuals with obesity. Given previous evidence of negative associations between excess adiposity and memory, it is possible that greater carotenoid status may confer neuroprotective effects among persons with overweight or obesity. This study aimed to elucidate relationships between carotenoids assessed in diet, serum, and the macula (macular pigment optical density (MPOD)) and relational memory among adults who are overweight or obese. Adults aged 25-45 years (N = 94) completed a spatial reconstruction task. Task performance was evaluated for accuracy of item placement during reconstruction relative to the location of the item during the study phase. Dietary carotenoids were assessed using 7-day diet records. Serum carotenoids were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between carotenoids and task performance. Although initial correlations indicated that dietary lutein, beta-carotene, and serum beta-carotene were positively associated with memory performance, these relationships were not sustained following adjustment for age, sex, and BMI. Serum lutein remained positively associated with accuracy in object binding and inversely related to misplacement error after controlling for covariates. Macular carotenoids were not related to memory performance. Findings from this study indicate that among the carotenoids evaluated, lutein may play an important role in hippocampal function among adults who are overweight or obese.


Assuntos
Luteína/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/psicologia , Memória Espacial , Adiposidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Macula Lutea/química , Pigmento Macular/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 3(2): nzy094, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820489

RESUMO

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of visceral adiposity-related risk factors, affects approximately 35% of the United States population. Although improvement in diet quality is an important approach to reducing MetS risk, the role of particular dietary components remains unclear, especially among younger adults. Individual dietary components have been implicated in ameliorating or exacerbating MetS risk; however, the extent to which these factors contribute to MetS prevention has received little attention. Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess relations between diet and individual MetS components in young to middle-aged adults who are overweight and/or obese. Methods: Participants aged 25-45 y (N = 117) with overweight and obesity, but no other diagnosed metabolic disease, recorded dietary intake over 7 d. MetS components (waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides [TGs], and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL]) were measured. Visceral adipose tissue was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Linear regression was used to assess relations between diet and MetS risk factors, adjusting for age, sex, and visceral adipose tissue. Results: MetS prevalence in this sample was 32%. Energy-adjusted total fiber intake (ß = -0.21, P = 0.02) was inversely associated with TG concentrations. No significant relations were observed between other dietary factors and MetS components. These findings indicate that among MetS components, TG concentrations are potentially sensitive to fiber consumption. Conclusions: These results provide cross-sectional evidence supporting the protective influence of dietary fiber on MetS components among young to middle-aged adults. Additional, well-designed clinical trials are needed to assess the causal relations between various types of dietary fiber and metabolic disease.

15.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(15): e1801059, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816627

RESUMO

SCOPE: Macular accumulation of xanthophyll carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin) is known to have neuroprotective potential, yet their influence on cognition among overweight adults and those with obesity remains limited. This study examines the impact of macular xanthophylls on attentional resource allocation and information processing speed among adults with BMI ≥ 25 kg m-2 . METHODS AND RESULTS: Adults between 25 and 45 years (N = 101) complete heterochromatic flicker photometry to determine macular pigment optical density (MPOD). Event-related brain potentials are recorded during a visual oddball task. Amplitude and latency of the N2 and P3 indexed attentional resource allocation and information processing speed. Covariates included age, sex, education, intelligence quotient (IQ), %Fat (DXA), and dietary lutein and zeaxanthin (Diet History Questionnaire II). MPOD is inversely related to P3 peak amplitude during standard trials and P3 peak latency during target trials. Therefore, individuals with higher MPOD dedicate fewer attentional resources when attentional demands are low while exhibiting faster information processing speed when attentional demands are increased. Further, MPOD is inversely related to the N2 mean amplitude during targets, signifying greater inhibitory control. CONCLUSION: These findings are the first to link macular xanthophylls to neuroelectric indices of attentional and inhibitory control among adults with overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Pigmento Macular/metabolismo , Sobrepeso , Xantofilas/metabolismo , Adulto , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Luteína/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Zeaxantinas/farmacologia
16.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 51(5): 616-622, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between school lunch timing (before vs after recess) on physical activity (PA) during recess and energy balance and food intake at lunch. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used to examine lunch intake and PA during recess among fourth- and fifth-graders (n = 103) over 5 school days. Lunch and PA were measured using a weighted plate waste technique and accelerometry, respectively. RESULTS: Children who received lunch before recess accumulated lower residual energy (ie, energy intake at lunch minus energy expenditure during recess) and consumed a greater proportion of milk servings. No timing effects were observed for other lunch and PA variables. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Lunch intake and activity during recess are related to lunch timing policy. Findings warrant further examination using experimental and quasi-experimental studies to better understand the impact of timing on health behaviors.

17.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-10, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Habitual diet impacts mood and the human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota. Yet, studies infrequently control for diet when evaluating associations between mood and GI microbiota. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate relationships among diet, GI microbiota, and mood in adults without mood disorders by conducting a cross-sectional examination of dietary intake, subjective emotional state, and fecal microbial taxa abundances. METHODS: Adults (N = 133; 25-45 years of age) without physician-diagnosed mood disorders were studied. Fecal DNA was extracted, and the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Sequences were analyzed using QIIME2. Subjective mood state was assessed using the 42-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42). Habitual dietary intake was measured with the National Cancer Institute's Diet History Questionnaire II, and diet quality was evaluated with the 2010 Healthy Eating Index (HEI). RESULTS: Relationships were observed between 28 bacterial taxa and DASS-42 scores. Sex-dependent associations were observed among 21 bacterial taxa and DASS-42 scores, including an inverse relationship between Anxiety scale scores and Bifidobacterium in females and an inverse relationship between Depression scale scores and Lactobacillus in males. HEI total fruit and dairy components were inversely associated with Depression and Stress scales, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest GI microbes are related to mood in adults without diagnosed mood disorders and that these relationships differ by sex and are influenced by dietary fiber intake. Incorporating dietary intake data in gut-microbiota-brain studies may help clarify the roles of specific microbes and dietary components in mental health symptoms.

18.
Early Hum Dev ; 129: 52-59, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery (CS) is an increasingly common mode of delivery comprising over 30% of all deliveries in the U.S. The long-term impact of this delivery mode on child development remains unclear. AIMS: We investigated the relationship between mode of delivery (vaginal vs. CS) and timing of developmental milestones and adiposity in preadolescence, as well as additional milestones beyond motor/language development including toilet training, dressing, and feeding self. STUDY DESIGN: This study utilized a retrospective survey given to a parent/guardian and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in preadolescence, respectively. A composite z-score was calculated based on nine questions pertaining to developmental milestones i.e., parent-reported age for supporting head by self, rolling over, sitting up, standing, walking, talking, toilet-training, dressing, and feeding self. SUBJECTS: 7-10-year-old (N = 104) children in East-Central Illinois. OUTCOME MEASURES: Composite z-score for timing of attainment of developmental milestones, mode of delivery, and preadolescent adiposity. RESULTS: Vaginally-born children had a lower composite z-score, signifying earlier attainment of developmental milestones, relative to both emergency and planned CS-born children. Further, elective CS-born children had greater adiposity in preadolescence, relative to vaginal and emergency cesarean-section born children. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest relationships between delivery mode, developmental milestones, and obesity in preadolescence. Additionally, they provide novel insights into the differential impact of elective versus emergency CS.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-12, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Creativity requires the ability to combine existing mental representations in new ways and depends, in part, on the hippocampus. Hippocampal function is, in turn, affected by a number of health factors, including aerobic fitness, excess adiposity, and diet. Specifically, in rodent studies, diets high in saturated fatty acids and sugar - hallmarks of a western diet- have been shown to negatively impact hippocampal function and thereby impair performance on cognitive tasks that require the hippocampus. Yet relatively few studies have examined the relationship between diet and hippocampal-dependent cognition in children. METHODS: The current study therefore sought to explore the relationship of several diet quality markers including dietary lipids (saturated fatty acids and omega-3 fatty acids), simple carbohydrates (added sugars), and dietary fiber with creativity in preadolescent children. Participants (N = 57; mean age = 9.1 years) completed the Verbal Form of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), a standardized test of creativity known to require the hippocampus. Additionally, participants completed a 3-day food intake record with the assistance of a parent, underwent dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess central adiposity, and VO2max testing to assess aerobic fitness. RESULTS: Added sugar intake was negatively associated, and dietary fiber was positively associated with overall TTCT performance. These relationships were sustained even after controlling for key covariates. DISCUSSION: These findings are among the first to report an association between added sugar consumption and hippocampal-dependent cognition during childhood and, given the key role of the hippocampus in learning and memory, as well as creative thinking, have potential educational and public health implications.

20.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518029

RESUMO

Impairment in cognitive flexibility is a trait characteristic among individuals with diagnosed eating disorders. However, the extent to which these relationships exist in individuals with overweight or obesity remains unclear. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge characterizing the neural underpinnings of these relationships. The current study aimed to investigate disordered eating attitudes and cognitive flexibility among adults with overweight and obesity. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and a task-switching paradigm were collected from 132 adults (50 males, Body Mass Index (BMI) = 32.0 ± 5.8 kg/m²). Behavioral measures (accuracy and reaction time (RT)) and neuroelectric indices (amplitude and latency) of the P3 component were assessed. Hierarchical linear regressions, following adjustment of age, sex, intelligence quotient (IQ), weight status, and diet quality were developed using summative and subscale scores of the EAT-26. Higher EAT-26 summative scores, and the Dieting subscale, were related to longer RT. Only the Bulimia and Food Preoccupation subscale was related to longer P3 latency. The relationship between disordered eating attitudes and cognitive flexibility extends to individuals with overweight and obesity and is independent of age, sex, IQ, weight status, and diet quality. These findings are important, as differences in cognitive flexibility can lead to behavioral rigidity. Future work should aim to examine other neuroelectric components to identify where differences driving behavioral latencies may be occurring.


Assuntos
Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia
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