Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 176
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961126

RESUMO

Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris are protist pathogens that infect the central nervous system, causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis with mortality rates of over 95%. Quinazolinones and their derivatives possess a wide spectrum of biological properties, but their antiamoebic effects against brain-eating amoebae have never been tested before. In this study, we synthesized a variety of 34 novel arylquinazolinones derivatives (Q1-Q34) by altering both quinazolinone core and aryl substituents. To study the antiamoebic activity of these synthetic arylquinazolinones, amoebicidal and amoebistatic assays were performed against N. fowleri and B. mandrillaris. Moreover, amoebae-mediated host cells cytotopathogenicity and cytotoxicity assays were performed against human keratinocytes cells in vitro. The results revealed that selected arylquinazolinones derivatives decreased the viability of B. mandrillaris and N. fowleri significantly (P < 0.05) and reduced cytopathogenicity of both parasites. Furthermore, these compounds were also found to be least cytotoxic against HaCat cells. Considering that nanoparticle-based materials possess potent in vitro activity against brain-eating amoebae, we conjugated quinazolinones derivatives with silver nanoparticles and showed that activities of the drugs were enhanced successfully after conjugation. The current study suggests that quinazolinones alone as well as conjugated with silver nanoparticles may serve as potent therapeutics against brain-eating amoebae.

2.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105183, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542372

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the pathogenic helical spirochetes, Leptospira. Symptoms include sudden-onset fever, severe headaches, muscle pain, nausea and chills. Leptospirosis is endemic in developing countries such as Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, and Brazil where thousands of cases are reported annually. The disease risk factors include the high population of reservoirs, environmental factors, recreational factors, and occupational factors. To end the endemicity of leptospirosis, these factors need to be tackled. The management of leptospirosis needs to be refined. Early diagnosis remains a challenge due to a lack of clinical suspicion among physicians, its non-specific symptoms and a limited availability of rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests. The purpose of this review is to provide insight into the status of leptospirosis in developing countries focusing on the risk factors and to propose methods for the improved management of the disease.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/prevenção & controle , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
3.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 8(4)2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835647

RESUMO

The emergence of drug resistance combined with limited success in the discovery of newer and effective antimicrobial chemotherapeutics poses a significant challenge to human and animal health. Nanoparticles may be an approach for effective drug development and delivery against infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria. Here we discuss nanoparticles therapeutics and nano-drug delivery against bacterial infections. The therapeutic efficacy of numerous kinds of nanoparticles including nanoantibiotics conjugates, small molecules capped nanoparticles, polymers stabilized nanoparticles, and biomolecules functionalized nanoparticles has been discussed. Moreover, nanoparticles-based drug delivery systems against bacterial infections have been described. Furthermore, the fundamental limitation of biocompatibility and biosafety of nanoparticles is also conferred. Finally, we propose potential future strategies of nanomaterials as antibacterials.

4.
Pathogens ; 8(4)2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766722

RESUMO

T4 genotype Acanthamoeba are opportunistic pathogens that cause two types of infections, including vision-threatening Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and a fatal brain infection known as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). Due to the existence of ineffective treatments against Acanthamoeba, it has become a potential threat to all contact lens users and immunocompromised patients. Metal nanoparticles have been proven to have various antimicrobial properties against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Previously, different types of cobalt nanoparticles showed some promise as anti-acanthamoebic agents. In this study, the objectives were to synthesize and characterize the size, morphology, and crystalline structure of cobalt phosphate nanoparticles, as well as to determine the effects of different sizes of cobalt metal-based nanoparticles against A. castellanii. Cobalt phosphate octahydrate (CHP), Co3(PO4)2•8H2O, was synthesized by ultrasonication using a horn sonicator, then three different sizes of cobalt phosphates Co3(PO4)2 were produced through calcination of Co3(PO4)2•8H2O at 200 °C, 400 °C and 600 °C (CP2, CP4, CP6). These three types of cobalt phosphate nanoparticles were characterized using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Next, the synthesized nanoparticles were subjected to biological assays to investigate their amoebicidal, amoebistatic, anti-encystation, and anti-excystation effects against A. castellanii, as well as cell cytotoxicity. The overall results showed that 1.30 ± 0.70 µm of CHP microflakes demonstrated the best anti-acanthemoebic effects at 100 µg/mL, followed by 612.50 ± 165.94 nm large CP6 nanograins. However, amongst the three tested cobalt phosphates, Co3(PO4)2, the smaller nanoparticles had stronger antiamoebic effects against A. castellanii. During cell cytotoxicity analysis, CHP exhibited only 15% cytotoxicity against HeLa cells, whereas CP6 caused 46% (the highest) cell cytotoxicity at the highest concentration, respectively. Moreover, the composition and morphology of nanoparticles is suggested to be important in determining their anti-acathamoebic effects. However, the molecular mechanisms of cobalt phosphate nanoparticles are still unidentified. Nevertheless, the results suggested that cobalt phosphate nanoparticles hold potential for development of nanodrugs against Acanthamoeba.

5.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 538, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acanthamoeba is well known to produce a blinding keratitis and serious brain infection known as encephalitis. Effective treatment is problematic, and can continue up to a year, and even then, recurrence can ensue. Partly, this is due to the capability of vegetative amoebae to convert into resistant cysts. Cysts can persist in an inactive form for decades while retaining their pathogenicity. It is not clear how Acanthamoeba cysts monitor environmental changes, and determine favourable conditions leading to their emergence as viable trophozoites. METHODS: The role of ion transporters in the encystation and excystation of Acanthamoeba remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of sodium, potassium and calcium ion transporters as well as proton pump inhibitors on A. castellanii encystation and excystation and their effects on trophozoites. RESULTS: Remarkably 3',4'-dichlorobenzamil hydrochloride a sodium-calcium exchange inhibitor, completely abolished excystation of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, lanthanum oxide and stevioside hydrate, both potassium transport inhibitors, resulted in the partial inhibition of Acanthamoeba excystation. Conversely, none of the ion transport inhibitors affected encystation or had any effects on Acanthamoeba trophozoites viability. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that ion transporters are involved in sensory perception of A. castellanii suggesting their value as potential therapeutic targets to block cellular differentiation that presents a significant challenge in the successful prognosis of Acanthamoeba infections.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17012, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740685

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to human health, hence there is an urgent need to discover antibacterial molecule(s). Previously, we hypothesized that microbial gut flora of animals are a potential source of antibacterial molecules. Among various animals, Cuora amboinensis (turtle) represents an important reptile species living in diverse ecological environments and feed on organic waste and terrestrial organisms and have been used in folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to mine turtle's gut bacteria for potential antibacterial molecule(s). Several bacteria were isolated from the turtle gut and their conditioned media were prepared. Conditioned media showed potent antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pyogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae) pathogenic bacteria. Conditioned media-mediated bactericidal activity was heat-resistant when treated at 95°C for 10 min. By measuring Lactate dehydrogenase release, the results showed that conditioned media had no effect on human cell viability. Tandem Mass Spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of various secondary metabolites, i.e., a series of known as well as novel N-acyl-homoserine lactones, several homologues of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines, and rhamnolipids, which are the signature metabolites of Pseudomonas species. These findings are significant and provide the basis for rational development of therapeutic interventions against bacterial infections.

7.
ACS Infect Dis ; 5(12): 2039-2046, 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612700

RESUMO

Brain-eating amoebae cause devastating infections in the central nervous system of humans, resulting in a mortality rate of 95%. There are limited effective therapeutic options available clinically for treating granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba castellanii (A. castellanii) and Naegleria fowleri (N. fowleri), respectively. Here, we report for the first time that guanabenz conjugated to gold and silver nanoparticles has significant antiamoebic activity against both A. castellanii and N. fowleri. Gold and silver conjugated guanabenz nanoparticles were synthesized by the one-phase reduction method and were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and atomic force microscopy. Both metals were facilely stabilized by the coating of guanabenz, which was examined by surface plasmon resonance determination. The average size of gold nanoconjugated guanabenz was found to be 60 nm, whereas silver nanoparticles were produced in a larger size distribution with the average diameter of around 100 nm. Guanabenz and its noble metal nanoconjugates exhibited potent antiamoebic effects in the range of 2.5 to 100 µM against both amoebae. Nanoparticle conjugation enhanced the antiamoebic effects of guanabenz, as more potent activity was observed at a lower effective concentration (2.5 and 5 µM) compared to the drug alone. Moreover, encystation and excystation assays revealed that guanabenz inhibits the interconversion between the trophozoite and cyst forms of A. castellanii. Cysticdal effects against N. fowleri were also observed. Notably, pretreatment of A. castellanii with guanabenz and its nanoconjugates exhibited a significant reduction in the host cell cytopathogenicity from 65% to 38% and 2% in case of gold and silver nanoconjugates, respectively. Moreover, the cytotoxic evaluation of guanabenz and its nanoconjugates revealed negligible cytotoxicity against human cells. Guanabenz is already approved for hypertension and crosses the blood-brain barrier; the results of our current study suggest that guanabenz and its conjugated gold and silver nanoparticles can be repurposed as a potential drug for treating brain-eating amoebic infections.

8.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 8(4)2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600971

RESUMO

Infections due to multi-drug resistant bacteria are on the rise and there is an urgent need to develop new antibacterials. In this regard, a series of six functionally diverse new quinazolinone compounds were synthesized by a facile one-pot reaction of benzoic acid derivatives, trimethoxymethane and aniline derivatives. Three compounds of 3-aryl-8-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one, and 3-aryl-6,7-dimethoxyquinazolin4(3H)-one were prepared and tested against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Furthermore, we determined whether conjugation with silver nanoparticles improved the antibacterial efficacy of these quinazolinone derivatives. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), Zetasizer analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic methods (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using bactericidal evaluation, effects were determined against selected Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of nanoconjugates on human cells were determined. The UV-vis spectrum of silver nanoparticles conjugated quinazolinone displayed surface plasmon resonance band in the range of 400-470 nm, and the size of nanoparticles was detected to be in the range of 100-250 nm by dynamic light scattering (DLS). FT-IR study confirmed the stabilization of silver nanoparticles by the presence of diverse functional arayl on each compound. SEM further revealed the construction of spherical nanoparticles. Among the quinazolinone derivative tested, two compounds (QNZ 4, QNZ 6) conjugated with silver nanoparticles showed enhanced antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli K1, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, B. cereus and P. aeruginosa as compared to the compounds.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animals and animal-derived products have been used as traditional medicine for centuries based on belief that such animals possess properties to counter disease. Intriguingly, animals such as snakes feed on germ-infested rodents, while water monitor lizards thrive on rotten matter in unhygienic conditions. We hypothesized that such creatures survive the assault of superbugs and are able to fend off disease by producing antimicrobial substances. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the potential antibacterial activity in sera/lysates of animals living in polluted environments. METHODS: Among various animals, we selected snake (Reticulatus malayanus) that feed on germ-infested rodents, rats (Rattus rattus), water monitor lizard (Varanus salvator), frog (Lithobates catesbeianus), fish (Oreochromis mossambicus), chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), and pigeon (Columba livia). Species were dissected and their organ lysates/sera were collected. Crude extracts were tested for bactericidal effects against neuropathogenic E. coli K1, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. To determine whether lysates/sera protect human cells against bacterial-mediated damage, cytotoxicity assays were performed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release as an indicator of cell death. Lysates/sera were partially characterized using heat-treatment and pronase-treatment and peptide sequences were determined using Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). RESULTS: The findings revealed that snake and water monitor lizard sera exhibited potent broad-spectrum bactericidal effects against all bacteria tested. Heat inactivation and pronase-treatment inhibited bactericidal effects indicating that activity is heat-labile and pronase-sensitive suggesting that active molecules are proteinaceous in nature. LCMS analyses revealed the molecular identities of peptides. CONCLUSION: The results revealed that python that feed on germ-infested rodents and water monitor lizards that feed on rotten organic waste possess antibacterial activity in a heat-sensitive manner and several peptides were identified through LC-MS. We hope that the discovery of antibacterial activity in the sera of animals living in polluted environments will stimulate research in finding antibacterial agents from unusual sources as this has potential for the development of novel strategies in the control of infectious diseases.

10.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 8(4)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554316

RESUMO

For the past few decades, there has been limited progress in the development of novel antibacterials. Previously, we postulated that the gut microbiota of animals residing in polluted environments are a forthcoming supply of antibacterials. Among various species, the water monitor lizard is an interesting species that feeds on organic waste and the carcass of wild animals. Gut microbiota of the water monitor lizard were sequestered, identified and cultivated in RPMI-1640 to produce conditioned medium (CM). Next, the antimicrobial properties of CM were evaluated versus a selection of Gram-negative (Escherichia coli K1, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus). CM were partially characterized by heat inactivation at 95°C for 10 min and tested against P. aeruginosa and S. pyogenes. CM were also tested against immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells lines. The results demonstrated that gut microbiota isolated from water monitor lizard produced molecules with remarkable bactericidal activities. To determine the identity of the active molecules, CM were subjected to Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Several molecules were identified belonging to the classes of flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, polyhydroxy alkaloids, polyacetylenes, bisphenols, amides, oxylipin and pyrazine derivatives with known broad-spectrum antimicrobial, anti-tumour, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic attributes. Furthermore, the detailed analysis of these molecules could lead us to develop effective therapeutic antibacterials.

11.
Med Chem ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen widely spread in the environment. Acanthamoeba causes excruciating keratitis which can lead to blindness. The lack of effective drugs and its ability to form highly resistant cyst are one of the foremost limitations against successful prognosis. Current treatment involves mixture of drugs at high doses but still recurrence of infection can occur due to ineffectiveness of drugs against the cyst form. Pyridine and its natural and synthetic derivatives are potential chemotherapeutic agents due to their diverse biological activities. OBJECTIVE: To study the antiamoebic effects of four novel synthetic dihydropyridine (DHP) compounds against Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. Furthermore, to evaluate their activity against amoeba-mediated host cells cytopathogenicity as well as their cytotoxicity against human cells. METHOD: Dihydropyridines were synthesized by cyclic dimerization of alkylidene malononitrile derivatives. Four analogues of functionally diverse DHPs were tested against Acanthamoeba castellanii by using amoebicidal, encystation and excystation assays. Moreover, Lactate dehydrogenase assays were carried out to study cytopathogenicity and cytotoxicity against human cells. RESULTS: These compounds showed significant amoebicidal and cysticidal effects at 50 µM concentration, whereas, two of the DHP derivatives also significantly reduced Acanthamoeba-mediated host cell cytotoxicity. Moreover, these DHPs were found to have low cytotoxicity against human cells suggesting a good safety profile, and they can be employed as therapeutic agents. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that DHPs have potential against Acanthamoeba especially against the more resistant cyst stage and can be assessed further for drug development.

12.
Eur J Med Chem ; 182: 111575, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415900

RESUMO

We report one-pot synthesis of a series of new 3-aryl-8-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-ones (QNZ) and their antimicrobial activity against Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to T4 genotype. A library of fifteen synthetic derivatives of QNZs was synthesized, and their structural elucidation was performed by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and electron impact mass spectrometry (EI-MS). Elemental analyses and high-resolution mass spectrometry data of all derivatives were found to be in agreeable range. Amoebicidal assays performed at concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 µg/mL revealed that all derivatives of QNZ significantly decreased the viability of A. castellanii and QNZ 2, 5, 8, and 13 were found to have efficient antiamoebic effects. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) imaging of amoeba treated with compounds 5 and 15 showed that these compounds cause structural alterations on the walls of A. castellanii. Furthermore, several QNZs inhibited the encystation and excystationas as well as abolished A. castellanii-mediated host cells cytopathogenicity in human cells. Whereas, these QNZs showed negligible cytotoxicity when tested against human cells in vitro. Hence, this study identified potential lead molecules having promising properties for drug development against A. castellanii. A brief structure-activity relationship is also developed to optimize the hit of most potent compounds from the library. To the best of our knowledge, it is first of its kind medicinal chemistry approach on a single class of compounds i.e., quinazolinone against keratitis and brain infection causing free-living amoeba, A. castellanii.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba castellanii/efeitos dos fármacos , Amebicidas/farmacologia , Quinazolinonas/farmacologia , Amebicidas/síntese química , Amebicidas/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Estrutura Molecular , Quinazolinonas/síntese química , Quinazolinonas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347828

RESUMO

Naegleria fowleri (N. fowleri) causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) which almost always results in death. N. fowleri is also known as "brain-eating amoeba" due to its literal infestation of the brain leading to an inflammatory response in the brain tissues. Currently, there is no single drug that is available to treat PAM, and most treatments are combinations of antifungal, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory drugs. Recently nanotechnology has gained attention in chemotherapeutic research converging on drug delivery, while oleic acid (OA) has shown positive effects on the human immune system and inflammatory processes. In continuation of our recent research in which we reported the effects of oleic acid conjugated with silver nanoparticles (OA-AgNPs) against free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii, in this report, we show their antiamoebic effects against N. fowleri. OA alone and its nanoconjugates were tested against the amoeba by using amoebicidal and host cell cytopathogenicity assays. Trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine cell viability. The results revealed that OA-AgNPs exhibited significantly enhanced antiamoebic effects (P < 0.05) against N. fowleri as compared to OA alone. Evidently, lactate dehydrogenase release shows reduced N. fowleri-mediated host cell cytotoxicity. Based on our study, we anticipate that further studies on OA-AgNPs could potentially provide an alternative treatment of PAM.

15.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 280, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Species of Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens which can cause sight threatening Acanthamoeba keratitis and a rare but deadly brain infection, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. Due to conversion of Acanthamoeba trophozoites to resistant cyst stage, most drugs are found to be ineffective at preventing recurrence of infection. This study was designed to test the antiacanthamoebic effects of different cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) against trophozoites and cysts, as well as parasite-mediated host cell cytotoxicity. METHODS: Three different varieties of CoNPs were synthesized by utilizing hydrothermal and ultrasonication methods and were thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Amoebicidal, encystation, excystation, and host cell cytopathogenicity assays were conducted to study the antiacanthamoebic effects of CoNPs. RESULTS: The results of the antimicrobial evaluation revealed that cobalt phosphate Co3(PO4)2 hexagonal microflakes, and 100 nm large cobalt hydroxide (Co(OH)2) nanoflakes showed potent amoebicidal activity at 100 and 10 µg/ml against Acanthamoeba castellanii as compared to granular cobalt oxide (Co3O4) of size 35-40 nm. Furthermore, encystation and excystation assays also showed consistent inhibition at 100 µg/ml. CoNPs also inhibited amoebae-mediated host cell cytotoxicity as determined by lactate dehydrogenase release without causing significant damage to human cells when treated alone. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, these findings determined, for the first time, the effects of composition, size and morphology of CoNPs against A. castellanii. Co3(PO4)2 hexagonal microflakes showed the most promising antiamoebic effects as compared to Co(OH)2 nanoflakes and granular Co3O4. The results reported in the present study hold potential for the development of antiamoebic nanomedicine.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba castellanii/efeitos dos fármacos , Amebicidas/farmacologia , Cobalto/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Células Cultivadas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
AMB Express ; 9(1): 95, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254123

RESUMO

The discovery of novel antimicrobials from animal species under pollution is an area untapped. Chinese red-headed centipede is one of the hardiest arthropod species commonly known for its therapeutic value in traditional Chinese medicine. Here we determined the antibacterial activity of haemolymph and tissue extracts of red-headed centipede, Scolopendra subspinipes against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Lysates exhibited potent antibacterial activities against a broad range of bacteria tested. Chemical characterization of biologically active molecules was determined via liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. From crude haemolymph extract, 12 compounds were identified including: (1) L-Homotyrosine, (2) 8-Acetoxy-4-acoren-3-one, (3) N-Undecylbenzenesulfonic acid, (4) 2-Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, (5) 3H-1,2-Dithiole-3-thione, (6) Acetylenedicarboxylate, (7) Albuterol, (8) Tetradecylamine, (9) Curcumenol, (10) 3-Butylidene-7-hydroxyphthalide, (11) Oleoyl Ethanolamide and (12) Docosanedioic acid. Antimicrobial activities of the identified compounds were reported against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites, that possibly explain centipede's survival in harsh and polluted environments. Further research in characterization, molecular mechanism of action and in vivo testing of active molecules is needed for the development of novel antibacterials.

17.
Int. microbiol ; 22(2): 239-246, jun. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184830

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (SN) have been recently developed as a new class of antimicrobial agents against numerous pathogenic microorganisms. SN have also been used as efficient drug delivery systems and have been linked with increasing drug potency. Here, we demonstrated the enhanced antifungal efficacy of nystatin (NYT) and fluconazole (FLU) after conjugation with SN. The antifungal bioactivity of NYT- and FLU-coated SN was evaluated against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404 by the agar tube dilution method. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antifungal efficacy of NYT and FLU with their SN and, finally, the combination of both nanoparticles as NYT-SN + FLU-SN against pathogenic fungi. The results indicated that all test samples showed a dose-dependent response against tested fungi. SN significantly enhanced the antifungal effects of NYT and FLU as compared to drugs alone. We observed a remarkable increase in the percent inhibition of both fungi (90-100%) when treated with a combination of both nanoparticles NYT-SN + FLU-SN at 200 μg/mL only. Furthermore, the morphological modifications occurred at the surface of fungal species were also analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). While tested against primary human cell line, all SN showed negligible cytotoxicity. Hence, these results suggest that the combination of SN with NYT and FLU may have clinical implications in the treatment of fungal infections. However, in vivo studies are needed before recommending the use of these nanoparticles safely in clinical situations


No disponible


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata/farmacologia , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Nistatina/farmacologia , Aspergillus/ultraestrutura , Candida albicans/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2295-2304, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093751

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype is an opportunistic pathogen which is associated with blinding eye keratitis and rare but fatal central nervous system infection. A. castellanii pose serious challenges in antimicrobial chemotherapy due to its ability to convert into resistant, hardy shell-protected cyst form that leads to infection recurrence. The fatty acid composition of A. castellanii trophozoites is known to be most abundant in oleic acid which chemically is an unsaturated cis-9-Octadecanoic acid and naturally found in animal and vegetable fats and oils. This study was designed to evaluate antiacanthamoebic effects of oleic acid against trophozoites, cysts as well as parasite-mediated host cell cytotoxicity. Moreover, oleic acid-conjugated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were also synthesized and tested against A. castellanii. Oleic acid-AgNPs were synthesized by chemical reduction method and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Viability, growth inhibition, encystation, and excystation assays were performed with 10 and 5 µM concentration of oleic acid alone and oleic acid-conjugated AgNPs. Bioassays revealed that oleic acid alone and oleic acid-conjugated AgNPs exhibited significant antiamoebic properties, whereas nanoparticle conjugation further enhanced the efficacy of oleic acid. Phenotype differentiation assays also showed significant inhibition of encystation and excystation at 5 µM. Furthermore, oleic acid and oleic acid-conjugated AgNPs also inhibited amoebae-mediated host cell cytotoxicity as determined by lactate dehydrogenase release. These findings for the first time suggest that oleic acid-conjugated AgNPs exhibit antiacanthamoebic activity that hold potential for therapeutic applications against A. castellanii.


Assuntos
Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/tratamento farmacológico , Acanthamoeba castellanii/efeitos dos fármacos , Amebicidas/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Ácido Oleico/farmacologia , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/parasitologia , Amebicidas/química , Animais , Olho/parasitologia , Humanos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Ácido Oleico/química , Prata/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(5): 713-720, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030451

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype may cause a fatal brain infection known as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and the vision-threatening eye infection Acanthamoeba keratitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiamoebic effects of three clinically available antidiabetic drugs, Glimepiride, Vildagliptin and Repaglinide, against A. castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. Furthermore, we attempted to conjugate these drugs with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to enhance their antiamoebic effects. Amoebicidal, encystation, excystation, and host cell cytotoxicity assays were performed to unravel any antiacanthamoebic effects. Vildagliptin conjugated silver nanoparticles (Vgt-AgNPs) characterized by spectroscopic techniques and atomic force microscopy were synthesized. All three drugs showed antiamoebic effects against A. castellanii and significantly blocked the encystation. These drugs also showed significant cysticidal effects and reduced host cell cytotoxicity caused by A. castellanii. Moreover, Vildagliptin-coated silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and are shown to enhance its antiacanthamoebic potency at significantly reduced concentration. The repurposed application of the tested antidiabetic drugs and their nanoparticles against free-living amoeba such as Acanthamoeba castellanii described here is a novel outcome that holds tremendous potential for future applications against devastating infection.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba castellanii/efeitos dos fármacos , Amebicidas/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Nanoconjugados/química , Amebicidas/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Carbamatos/química , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Piperidinas/química , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Prata/química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Vildagliptina/química , Vildagliptina/farmacologia
20.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 10(6): 2692-2696, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970208

RESUMO

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a deadly brain infection, is caused by brain-eating amoeba Naegleria fowleri. The current first line of treatment against PAM is a mixture of amphotericin B, rifampin, and miltefosine. Since, no single effective drug has been developed so far, the mortality rate is above 95%. Moreover, severe adverse side effects are associated with these drugs. Nanotechnology has provided several advances in biomedical applications especially in drug delivery and diagnosis. Herein, for the first time we report antiamoebic properties of cinnamic acid (CA) and gold nanoparticles conjugated with CA (CA-AuNPs) against N. fowleri. CA-AuNPs were successfully synthesized by sodium borohydride reduction of tetrachloroauric acid. Size and morphology were determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) while the surface plasmon resonance band was analyzed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry for the characterization of the nanoparticles. Amoebicidal and cytopathogenicity (host cell cytotoxicity) assays revealed that both CA and CA-AuNPs displayed significant anti- N. fowleri properties ( P < 0.05), whereas nanoparticles conjugation further enhanced the anti- N. fowleri effects of CA. This study established a potential drug lead, while CA-AuNPs appear to be promising candidate for drug discovery against PAM.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA