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1.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-12, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762004

RESUMO

The deleterious impact of toxic constituents of hair dyes over the human health has gained immense attention in the recent past. Their oncogenicity, mutagenicity, role in protein modification, impact on cellular metabolism has been documented. There is little information on the mechanism of reactivity of hair dye components with the nucleic acids and its implications. This work, therefore, uses computational, biophysical/biochemical, microscopic and cell-based study to analyze the interaction of monocyclic aromatic amine and a hair dye component, 4-chloro-orthophenylenediamine (4-Cl-OPD) with the DNA, its impact on DNA structure and cell survival. The results suggest that 4-Cl-OPD binds with the DNA in minor groove of the duplex involving three base pairs preferentially the G-C residues, induces strand breaks and makes DNA thermally labile through loss of hydrogen bonding/base unstacking. 4-Cl-OPD causes fragmentation of DNA, reduction in size of the molecule, alters B-DNA conformation and disrupts its secondary structure. The modified DNA gives fragmented appearance, shows broken strands and aggregation in ultra-structural analysis. 4-Cl-OPD induces ROS generation in lymphocytes, increases the comet's average tail length and reduces the viability of lymphocytes. This study forms a base for establishing the direct toxicity of 4-Cl-OPD at the molecular and cellular level through direct production of superoxide radicalCommunicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

2.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 714: 109077, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728171

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of debilitating maladies involving protein aggregation. To this day, all advances in neurodegenerative disease therapeutics have helped symptomatically but have not prevented the root cause of the disease, i.e., the aggregation of involved proteins. Antibiotics are becoming increasingly obsolete due to the rising multidrug resistance strains of bacteria. Thus, antibiotics, if put to different use as therapeutics against other diseases, could pave a new direction to the world of antibiotics. Hence, we studied the antibiotic levofloxacin for its potential anti-amyloidogenic behavior using human lysozyme, a protein involved in non-systemic amyloidosis, as a model system. At the sub-stoichiometric level, levofloxacin was able to inhibit amyloid formation in human lysozyme as observed by various spectroscopic and microscopic methods, with IC50 values as low as 8.8 ± 0.1 µM. Levofloxacin also displayed a retarding effect on seeding phenomena by elongating the lag-phase (from 0 to 88 h) at lower concentration, and arresting lysozyme fibrillation at the lag stage in sub-stoichiometric concentrations. Structural and computational analyses provided mechanistic insight showing that levofloxacin stabilizes the lysozyme in the native state by binding to the aggregation-prone residues, and thereby inhibiting amyloid fibrillation. Levofloxacin also showed the property of disrupting amyloid fibrils into a smaller polymeric form of proteins which were less cytotoxic as confirmed by hemolytic assay. Therefore, we throw new light on levofloxacin as an amyloid inhibitor and disruptor which could pave way to utilization of levofloxacin as a potential therapeutic against non-systemic amyloidosis and neurodegenerative diseases.

3.
Protein Pept Lett ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823456

RESUMO

The failure of protein to correctly fold into its functional and unique three dimensional form leads to misfolded or partially folded protein. When these rogue proteins and polypeptides escape the quality control mechanism within the body, they result in aberrant aggregation of proteins into characteristic amyloid fibrils. This is the main cause for the number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. This review aims to summarise the underlying mechanisms of protein folding, misfolding and aggregation. It also highlights the recent technologies for the structural characterisation and detection of amyloid fibrils in addition to the various factors responsible for the aggregate formation and the strategies to combat the aggregation process. Besides, the journey from origin to the current scenario of protein aggregation is also concisely discussed.

4.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-19, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821213

RESUMO

The RxAc drug loaded on Tween80-chitosan-TPP nanoparticles (NRxAc) has been characterized and probed by UV-Vis, PXRD, FTIR, DLS and SEM technique. The physicochemical characteristics of NRxAc have been employed and evaluated for formulation of drug, particle size, external morphology, drug content and in vitro drug release. Multi-spectroscopic (i.e. fluorescence, UV-Vis, CD spectroscopy) and molecular docking techniques were also used to study the interaction of BSA with RxAc and NRxAc. RxAc and NRxAc quenched the fluorescence emission of BSA via a static quenching mechanism. The experimental data of Fluorescence demonstrated that the binding constant of RxAc and NRxAc were found around 104 L.mol-1, which suggests moderate binding affinity with BSA via hydrophobic forces. Through the site marker displacement experiments and molecular docking, the probable binding location of RxAc and NRxAc has been suggested in subdomain IB (site III) of BSA. Altogether, the results of present study can provide an important insight and a great deal of helpful information for future design of antiulcer drugs. Hence, The RxAc-loaded chitosan nanoparticles produced might be utilized as a successful tool for developing and using antiulcer drugs.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 190: 44-55, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480905

RESUMO

With varying clinical symptoms, most neurodegenerative diseases are associated with abnormal loss of neurons. They share the same common pathogenic mechanisms involving misfolding and aggregation, and these visible aggregates of proteins are deposited in the central nervous system. Amyloid formation is thought to arise from partial unfolding of misfolded proteins leading to the exposure of hydrophobic surfaces, which interact with other similar structures and give rise to form dimers, oligomers, protofibrils, and eventually mature fibril aggregates. Accumulating evidence indicates that amyloid oligomers, not amyloid fibrils, are the most toxic species that causes Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). AD has recently been recognized as the 'twenty-first century plague', with an incident rate of 1% at 60 years of age, which then doubles every fifth year. Currently, 5.3 million people in the US are afflicted with this disease, and the number of cases is expected to rise to 13.5 million by 2050. PD, a disorder of the brain, is the second most common form of dementia, characterized by difficulty in walking and movement. Keeping the above views in mind, in this review we have focused on the roles of amyloid in neurodegenerative diseases including AD and PD, the involvement of amyloid in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to neurodegeneration, are also considered in the review.

7.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-10, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278954

RESUMO

Since the first appearance of a novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) caused by a novel human coronavirus, and especially after the infection started its rapid spread over the world causing the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemics, a very substantial part of the scientific community is engaged in the intensive research dedicated to finding of the potential therapeutics to cure this disease. As repurposing of existing drugs represents the only instant solution for those infected with the virus, we have been working on utilization of the structure-based virtual screening method to find some potential medications. In this study, we screened a library of 646 FDA approved drugs against the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and the main protease of this virus. Scoring functions revealed that some of the anticancer drugs (such as Pazopanib, Irinotecan, and Imatinib), antipsychotic drug (Risperidone), and antiviral drug (Raltegravir) have a potential to interact with both targets with high efficiency. Further we performed molecular dynamics simulations to understand the evolution in protein upon interaction with drug. Also, we have performed a phylogenetic analysis of 43 different coronavirus strains infecting 12 different mammalian species.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 186: 580-590, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271045

RESUMO

Protein misfolding and aggregation can be induced by a wide variety of factors, such as dominant disease-associated mutations, changes in the environmental conditions (pH, temperature, ionic strength, protein concentration, exposure to transition metal ions, exposure to toxins, posttranslational modifications including glycation, phosphorylation, and sulfation). Misfolded intermediates interact with similar intermediates and progressively form dimers, oligomers, protofibrils, and fibrils. In amyloidoses, fibrillar aggregates are deposited in the tissues either as intracellular inclusion or extracellular plaques (amyloid). When such proteinaceous deposit occurs in the neuronal cells, it initiates degeneration of neurons and consequently resulting in the manifestation of various neurodegenerative diseases. Several different types of molecules have been designed and tested both in vitro and in vivo to evaluate their anti-amyloidogenic efficacies. For instance, the native structure of a protein associated with amyloidosis could be stabilized by ligands, antibodies could be used to remove plaques, oligomer-specific antibody A11 could be used to remove oligomers, or prefibrillar aggregates could be removed by affibodies. Keeping the above views in mind, in this review we have discussed protein misfolding and aggregation, mechanisms of protein aggregation, factors responsible for aggregations, and strategies for aggregation inhibition.

9.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 709: 108981, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214556

RESUMO

Screening of inhibitors that slow down or suppress amyloid fibrils formation relies on some simple but sensitive spectroscopy techniques. Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay is one of the most common, amyloid specific and sensitive method. However, if an inhibitor is itself fluorescent in the ThT fluorescence range, its screening becomes complicated and require complementary assays. One of such molecules, 6, 7-dihydroxycoumarin (6, 7-DHC, also known as aesculetin, esculetin, and cichorigenin) is fluorescent in the ThT emission range and absorbs in the ThT excitation range. Therefore, it can produce a subtractive effect attributed to primary inner filter effect and/or additive effect due to its self-fluorescence in ThT assay. Our study shows that 6, 7-DHC produces an additive effect in ThT fluorescence, which is minimized at high concentration of ThT and decrease in ThT fluorescence is solely due to its inhibitory effect against HSA fibrillation. These ThT fluorescence-based results are verified through other complementary assays, such as Rayleigh and dynamic light scattering and amyloid-specific Congo red binding assay. Furthermore, hydrophobicity reduction is studied through Nile red (NR) and kinetics through far-UV circular dichroism (far-UV CD) in place of the most commonly employed ThT assay owing to extremely high fluorescence of 6, 7-DHC during initial incubation period.


Assuntos
Proteínas Amiloidogênicas/metabolismo , Benzotiazóis/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacologia , Multimerização Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Umbeliferonas/farmacologia , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/toxicidade , Humanos , Espalhamento de Radiação , Umbeliferonas/química , Umbeliferonas/toxicidade
10.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-11, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121621

RESUMO

Geminiviruses consist of a single-stranded DNA genome that replicates by a rolling circle (RCR) and recombination-dependent (RDR) modes of replication. The AC1 or Rep is the indispensable viral protein required for the RCR mode of replication. Since these viruses encode only a few proteins, they depend on several host factors for replication, transcription, and other physiological processes. To get insights into the repertoire of host factors influencing the replication of geminiviruses, we performed phage display experiments which led to the identification of putative mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) Rep interacting host proteins. These proteins might directly or indirectly participate in geminivirus biology. MCM3 was one of the Rep-interacting partners obtained in the phage display results. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), the interaction of the MYMIV Rep with Arabidopsis thaliana MCM3 (AtMCM3) was confirmed. We report the involvement of AtMCM3 in the replication of MYMIV DNA through an ex vivo system. The physiological relevance of the interaction between AtMCM3 and MYMIV Rep is reflected by yeast replication assay.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

11.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-8, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121623

RESUMO

Loratadine is an important anti-allergic drug. It is a second generation antihistamine drug used to treat allergic rhinitis, hay fever and urticaria. Human serum alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AG) is an important acute phase protein and its serum concentration is found to increase in inflammation and acute response.The binding interaction between loratadine and AG is studied using spectroscopy and molecular docking techniques. The results obtained from fluorescence quenching experiments demonstrated that the fluorescence intensity of AG is quenched by loratadine. Loratadine was found to bind AG with the binding constant of ≈104 at 298 K. The Gibb's free energy change was found to be negative for the interaction of loratadine with AG indicating the binding process is spontaneous. Binding of loratadine with AG induced ordered structures in the protein. Hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions were the main bonding forces between AG-loratadine as revealed by molecular docking results. This study suggests the importance of binding of anti-allergic drug to AG spatially in the diseases where the plasma concentration of AG increases many folds and interaction with this protein becomes significant. This study will help in design of drug dosage and adjustment accordingly to achieve optimal treatment outcome. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 181: 605-611, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766591

RESUMO

The outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019, have highlighted the concerns about the lack of potential vaccines or antivirals approved for inhibition of CoVs infection. SARS-CoV-2 RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) which is almost preserved across different viral species can be a potential target for development of antiviral drugs, including nucleoside analogues (NA). However, ExoN proofreading activity of CoVs leads to their protection from several NAs. Therefore, potential platforms based on the development of efficient NAs with broad-spectrum efficacy against human CoVs should be explored. This study was then aimed to present an overview on the development of NAs-based drug repurposing for targeting SARS-CoV-2 RdRp by computational analysis. Afterwards, the clinical development of some NAs including Favipiravir, Sofosbuvir, Ribavirin, Tenofovir, and Remdesivir as potential inhibitors of RdRp, were surveyed. Overall, exploring broad-spectrum NAs as promising inhibitors of RdRp may provide useful information about the identification of potential antiviral repurposed drugs against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Nucleosídeos/farmacologia , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/virologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/antagonistas & inibidores
13.
Curr Med Chem ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602067

RESUMO

Oxidative stress response is critical for the malignant cells. It plays dual role by helping cancer cells survive and proliferate but also causing apoptosis and apoptosis like cell death. The oxidative stress response is characterized by a tight regulation of gene expression by a series of transcription factors (OSRts; oxidative stress response transcription factors). In this communication, we review the role of OSRts, notably NRF2 and p53 as well as other transcription factors, that modulate the response. We discuss how the oxidative stress response is hierarchal and controls 'live or die' signals. This is followed by a discussion on how plant derived molecules, including polyphenols, which are described both as prooxidants and antioxidants within the cancer cells, have been reported to affect the activities of OSRts. Deriving an example from preliminary data from our group, we discuss how plant derived molecules might modulate the oxidative stress response by causing structural perturbations in the proteinacious transcription factors, notably Nrf2 and p53. We look at this information in the light of understanding how plant derived molecules maybe used as lead compounds to develop modulators of the oxidative stress response.

14.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(5): 1525-1534, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308140

RESUMO

Interaction of levocabastine with human serum albumin (HSA) is investigated by applying fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy and molecular docking methods. Levocabastine is an important drug in treatment of allergy and currently a target drug for drug repurposing to treat other diseases like vernal keratoconjuctivitis. Fluorescence quenching data revealed that levocabastine bind weakly to protein with binding constant in the order of 103 M-1. Förster resonance energy transfer results indicated the binding distance of 2.28 nm for levocabastine. Synchronous fluorescence result suggest slight blue shift for tryptophan upon levocabastine binding, binding of levocabastine impelled rise in α-helical structure in protein, while there are minimal changes in tertiary structure in protein. Moreover, docking results indicate levocabastine binds to pocket near to the drug site-I in HSA via hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Understanding the interaction of levocabastine with HSA is significant for the advancement of therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for optimal treatment results.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Assuntos
Albumina Sérica Humana , Sítios de Ligação , Dicroísmo Circular , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Piperidinas , Ligação Proteica , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Termodinâmica
15.
J Neurosci Res ; 99(3): 750-777, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217763

RESUMO

Without protective and/or therapeutic agents the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection known as coronavirus disease 2019 is quickly spreading worldwide. It has surprising transmissibility potential, since it could infect all ages, gender, and human sectors. It attacks respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, hepatic, and endovascular systems and can reach the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) through known and unknown mechanisms. The reports on the neurological manifestations and complications of the SARS-CoV-2 infection are increasing exponentially. Herein, we enumerate seven candidate routes, which the mature or immature SARS-CoV-2 components could use to reach the CNS and PNS, utilizing the within-body cross talk between organs. The majority of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients suffer from some neurological manifestations (e.g., confusion, anosmia, and ageusia). It seems that although the mature virus did not reach the CNS or PNS of the majority of patients, its unassembled components and/or the accompanying immune-mediated responses may be responsible for the observed neurological symptoms. The viral particles and/or its components have been specifically documented in endothelial cells of lung, kidney, skin, and CNS. This means that the blood-endothelial barrier may be considered as the main route for SARS-CoV-2 entry into the nervous system, with the barrier disruption being more logical than barrier permeability, as evidenced by postmortem analyses.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Periférico/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/virologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Nervo Olfatório/metabolismo , Nervo Olfatório/virologia , Sistema Nervoso Periférico/virologia
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 167: 382-394, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278431

RESUMO

It is reported that approximately 40 million people are suffering from dementia, globally. Dementia is a group of symptoms that affect neurons and cause some mental disorders, such as losing memory. Alzheimer's disease (AD) which is known as the most common cause of dementia, is one of the top medical care concerns across the world. Although the exact sources of the disease are not understood, is it believed that aggregation of amyloid-beta (Aß) outside of neuron cells and tau aggregation or neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) formation inside the cell may play crucial roles. In this paper, we are going to review studies that targeted inhibition of amyloid plaque and tau protein tangle formation, to suppress or postpone AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/metabolismo , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/patologia , Placa Amiloide/metabolismo , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Agregados Proteicos , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteínas tau/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas tau/genética
17.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2020: 8363685, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908463

RESUMO

In the present study, we employ fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and molecular docking methods. Binding of anticancer drug anastrozole with human lysozyme (HL) is studied. Binding of anastrozole to HL is moderate but spontaneous. There is anastrozole persuaded hydrodynamic change in HL, leading to molecular compaction. Binding of anastrozole to HL also decreased in vitro lytic activity of HL. Molecular docking results suggest the electrostatic interactions and van der Waals forces played key role in binding interaction of anastrozole near the catalytic site. Binding interaction of anastrozole to proteins other than major transport proteins in blood can significantly affect pharmacokinetics of this molecule. Hence, rationalizing drug dosage is important. This study also points to unrelated effects that small molecules bring in the body that are considerable and need thorough investigation.


Assuntos
Anastrozol/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Muramidase/química , Análise Espectral , Anastrozol/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Muramidase/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 164: 1794-1808, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ß-Cell death is the key feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The misfolding of human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (hIAPP) is regarded as one of the causative factors of T2DM. Recent studies suggested that a diet based on date fruits presents various health benefits, as these fruits are naturally enriched in plant polyphenols. METHOD: In this study, we used a broad biophysical approach, using cell biology techniques and bioinformatic tools, to demonstrate that various polyphenols from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit significantly inhibited hIAPP aggregation and cytotoxicity. RESULT: Our results suggest that all of the polyphenols showed inhibitory effects, albeit varied, on the formation of toxic hIAPP amyloids. Correlation between cell viability assay, permeabilization of synthetic phospholipid vesicles tests, and ANS florescence measurements, revealed that both classes of polyphenols protected INS-1E cells from the toxicity of amylin aggregates. Docking results showed that the used polyphenols physically interacted with both hIAPP amyloidogenic region (residues Ser20-Ser29) and the non-amyloidogenic regions via hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions, thus reducing aggregation levels. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the benefits of consuming dates and the great potential of its polyphenols as a potential therapy for the prevention and treatment of T2DM as well as for many other amyloid-related diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Polipeptídeo Amiloide das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Phoeniceae/química , Amiloide/química , Amiloidose/dietoterapia , Linhagem Celular , Frutas , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Polipeptídeo Amiloide das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Phoeniceae/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 159: 79-86, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407943

RESUMO

Ntf2 is a nuclear envelope protein, which play a pivotal role in nucleocytoplasmic transport and mediates the nuclear import of RanGDP. It interacts with various nucleoporins along with Ran-GDP and part of a multicomponent system that assembles at the nuclear pore complex (NCP) during nuclear import. Here, we have described the biophysical characterization of Ntf2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recombinant Ntf2 showed increment in the ß-sheet content as well as decrement in the α-helix content from pH-7.0 to pH-4.0. A subsequent decrease in the pH led to increment in the α-helical content along with decrement in ß-sheet content. Intrinsic fluorescence studies demonstrated the unfolding of the protein below physiological pH. Ntf2 showed stabilization as well as phenomenal phase transition (ß sheet to α helix) by increase in alcohol concentration from 10% to 70%. Further increase in alcohol concentration (90%) resulted in residual secondary structure in Ntf2 protein. Presence of ammonium sulfate also stabilizes the secondary structure of Ntf2 protein. The structural characterization reveals the flexibility and the stability of Ntf2 at various conditions. These structural alterations in Ntf2 protein probably occurs in the course of nucleocytoplasmic transport when it interacts with other proteins moving towards its final destination.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/química , Desdobramento de Proteína , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Etanol/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Estabilidade Proteica
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