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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246514, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285640

RESUMO

Abstract The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey's medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.


Resumo O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614125

RESUMO

We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Peixes , Animais
3.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 929-935, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605458

RESUMO

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has rapidly become the procedure of choice for the treatment of calculus cholecystitis for having clear advantage over open method in reducing surgical morbidity, postoperative pain and complication. But still patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy complain of considerable pain especially on first post-operative day necessitating use of better methods for postoperative analgesia. This quasi experimental study was done in Surgery Unit III, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital from July 2016 to June 2017 to assess the role of intraperitoneal normal saline instillation following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in relieving postoperative pain. In this study total 200 patients of calculus cholecystitis were enrolled according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and assigned equally into two groups by non-equivalent control group design. Both the control group and experimental group were managed according to the standard protocol and operated in routine operation theater. The experimental group (n=100) was additionally instilled with 25-30ml/kg body weight of normal saline at 37°C at the gallbladder bed and subdiaphragmatic space at the end of surgery and all the data were recorded in individual case record form. Among the sample most of the patients were between 25-60 years of ages with the peak age being between 43-51 years. Eighty one percent (81%) of the total patients were female with male female ratio being 1:5.25 in Control group and 1:3.54 in Experimental group. The VAS scores for visceral pain in experimental group were significantly less than that of control group at 6 hours (p<0.001), 12 hours (p<0.001), 24 hours (p<0.001) and 48 hours (p=0.026). The VAS scores for shoulder tip pain in experimental group were also significantly less than that of control group at 6 hours (p<0.001), 12 hours (p<0.018) and 24 hours (p=0.004). The administration of analgesics was also significantly less in the experimental group than in control group at 6 hours (p<0.001), 12 hours (p<0.001), 24 hours (p=0.313) and 48 hours (p=0.297) with no significant differences at 72 hours. The mean hospital stay in this study was 2.2±0.7 days in the control group and 2.1±0.8 days in the experimental group showing no significant difference (p>0.05). Intraperitoneal normal saline instillation following laparoscopic cholecystectomy may be an eminent choice for reducing postoperative pain improving patient's experience.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Solução Salina , Adulto , Analgésicos , Anestésicos Locais , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468529

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is an important foodborne pathogen associated to food intoxication and other multiple infections in human being. Its presence in salted food is a serious issue due to its salt tolerance potential. A study was conducted to analyze the presence of enterotoxins producing drug resistance S. aureus in salted sea fish from Gwadar. Freshly persevered samples (n=50) of salted fish were subjected to analyze the presence of S. aureus using 16S rRNA and Nuc genes primers. The isolates were then evaluated for drug resistance and enterotoxins producing potential using specific primers for MecA (methicillin resistance gene), (SEA) staphylococcal enterotoxin A and (SEB) staphylococcal enterotoxin B genes. Total 13/50 (26%) of the samples were found positive for the presence of S. aureus, preliminary confirmed with biochemical profiling and finally with the help of target genes presence. The isolates were found showing 100% resistant to methicillin, which were molecularly confirmed by the presence of MecA gene present in genome. The isolates 5/13 (38%) were positive for SEA and 3/13 (23%) for SEB genes, whereas 2/13 (15%) were confirmed having both SEA and SEB genes in its genome. It was also confirmed that all the isolates were capable to form biofilm over the glass surfaces. It was concluded that the study confirmed the presence of enterotoxigenic methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aurous (MRSA) in salted fish product, that poses gross food safety concern. Preventive and control measures are necessary to handle this serious food safety concern.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Animais , Produtos Pesqueiros , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
5.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 353-359, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508343

RESUMO

Curcumin is a potent antimicrobial herb used traditionally as a spice in culinary. This study was designed to evaluate the antiviral effects of curcuma longa extract against H9 influenza virus. A total of 60 embryonated eggs were equally divided into 5 groups with 12 eggs in each group. Group 1 (G1) served as uninfected negative control. Whereas Group 2 (G2) was kept as positive control infected with known virus @ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Group 3 (G3) was offered Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml and H9N2 virus (@ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Similarly, Group 4 (G4) was inoculated with extract of Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml per egg, whereas Group 5 (G5) was given Ribazole @ 0.2 ml/ egg. The crude extract and virus were administered on the 15th day of incubation and were checked after every 24 hours up to 96th hour post inoculation by random selection of 3 eggs. Death and survival rate were noted in all groups. Gross and histopathological lesions were also observed. Results revealed that Curcuma longa extract had significantly (p<0.05) reduced the mortality rate of embryos infected with H9N2 virus. In G3, increased lymphocytes and mild fatty changes were seen in liver. Whereas, mature RBCs, plasma cells and some lymphoblast's were observed in Spleen. Similarly, the bursa follicles were with lymphocytic aggregation. The G4 (Curcuma longa) and G5 (Ribazole) were with maximum embryo survival after 48 and 72 h post inoculation. This study revealed potential antiviral activity of Curcuma longa against H9N2 influenza viruses and can be opted as alternative to antibiotics and antiviral drugs to minimize the antimicrobial resistance in human and animal population.

6.
Immunohematology ; 37(3): 113-117, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591376

RESUMO

Genotyping can be used to identify rare blood group antigens and to solve suspected blood group discrepancies, particularly when serologic methods are limited. Unfortunately, only a few such studies have been performed in Pakistan. The present study was conducted to determine the frequency of Dombrock blood group alleles by genotyping samples from blood donors from the north of Pakistan. Blood samples were taken with consent from 300 blood donors; DNA was extracted and tested for DO*01 and DO*02 alleles by sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP), followed by gel electrophoresis. Allele frequencies were calculated. The observed and expected genotype frequencies were compared using the χ2 test. The allele frequencies for DO*01 and DO*02 were 0.40 and 0.60, respectively. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This study in Pakistani blood donors provides Dombrock blood group allele frequencies by PCR-SSP. This approach is efficient and economical and can be applied in developing countries. The findings can contribute to the development of in-house red blood cell panels, identification of rare blood types, and establishment of a national rare blood donor program.Genotyping can be used to identify rare blood group antigens and to solve suspected blood group discrepancies, particularly when serologic methods are limited. Unfortunately, only a few such studies have been performed in Pakistan. The present study was conducted to determine the frequency of Dombrock blood group alleles by genotyping samples from blood donors from the north of Pakistan. Blood samples were taken with consent from 300 blood donors; DNA was extracted and tested for DO*01 and DO*02 alleles by sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP), followed by gel electrophoresis. Allele frequencies were calculated. The observed and expected genotype frequencies were compared using the χ2 test. The allele frequencies for DO*01 and DO*02 were 0.40 and 0.60, respectively. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This study in Pakistani blood donors provides Dombrock blood group allele frequencies by PCR-SSP. This approach is efficient and economical and can be applied in developing countries. The findings can contribute to the development of in-house red blood cell panels, identification of rare blood types, and establishment of a national rare blood donor program.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Alelos , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Paquistão
7.
J Reprod Immunol ; 148: 103369, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492567

RESUMO

This study investigated if immunomodulatory treatment improves the in-vitro fertilization (IVF) success rates of women with two or more recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL) and repeated implantation failures (RIF) with cellular immune abnormalities and thrombophilia. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 197 RPL patients who received immunomodulatory and anticoagulation treatment undergoing IVF cycles (fresh or frozen embryo transfer). Patients were divided into four groups; Group 1: women with RPL but without RIF, Group 2: women with RPL and RIF (≥3), Group 3: women with RPL after IVF cycles (>2) and without RIF, and Group 4: women with RPL after IVF cycles and RIF. Patients received immunomodulatory treatment with prednisone-only or prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) and anticoagulation treatment with low molecular weight heparin and low dose aspirin. IVF success rates of study groups were compared to those of the historical controls. The pregnancy rate of IVF cycles with immunomodulatory treatment was significantly increased in all patients (48.2 % vs. 33.0 %, P < 0.001), Group 1 (54.2 % vs. 30.5 %, P < 0.005) and Group 2 (33.3 % vs. 11.0 %, P < 0.005) as compared to historical controls. The live birth rates per ET cycle were significantly improved for all patients (1.8 % vs. 39.6 %, P < 0.001), and study groups compared to their historical controls (Group 1, 43.1 % vs. 0 %; Group 2, 33.3 % vs. 2.5 %; Group 3, 45.5 % vs. 2.3 %; and Group 4, 16.7 % vs. 1.2 %, P < 0.001, respectively). Immunomodulatory and anticoagulation treatment significantly improved the reproductive outcomes of IVF cycles in women with a history of RPL and/or RIF of immune etiologies.

8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246514, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378682

RESUMO

The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey's medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.


Assuntos
Mycoplasma gallisepticum , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Estudos Transversais , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genética , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
9.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(4): 464-469, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851665

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the knowledge, perceptions, and attitude of young doctors and nurses at Kind Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) Jeddah, KSA, regarding the effectiveness of telemedicine in dealing with the patients for either follow-up or continuous monitoring of chronic diseases. Material and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out on the young doctors and nursing staff at KAUH. An online questionnaire addressing all the required fields, i.e., background essential demography, perceptions, acceptance, and knowledge regarding telemedicine's utility, was sent to the targeted population of health care workers. Completed responses were analyzed statistically as per study objectives. Results: The response rate in our study was 85%. A total of 335 participants responded to our questionnaire. One hundred seventy-one (51.1%) were doctors, whereas one hundred sixty-four (48.9%) were the nursing staff. Among doctors, 50 (29.4%) were recent graduates, whereas, in the nursing side, 77 (46.7%) were the senior nursing students. The knowledge and attitude of the young nursing staff were relatively better than the senior staff taking part in the study and the trends were found statistically significant. Conclusion: Our study participants, being young, were enthusiastic, had good knowledge regarding the advantages and limitations of telemedicine in managing the selected groups of patients. Their perception and attitude were quite positive. This is an encouraging trend in the promotion of telemedicine as an established way of managing patients with special requirements in an effective way. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of telemedicine in emergencies to protect both patients and health care workers by reducing chronic patients' avoidable hospital visits.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem , Telemedicina , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Percepção , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
New Microbes New Infect ; 38: 100770, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014380

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan city of China in late December 2019 and identified as a novel coronavirus. Due to its contagious nature, the virus spreads rapidly and causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The global tally of COVID-19 was 28 million in early September 2020. The fears and stress associated with SARS-CoV-2 has demolished the socio-economic status worldwide. Researchers are trying to identify treatments, especially antiviral drugs and/or vaccines, that could potentially control the viral spread and manage the ongoing unprecedented global crisis. To date, more than 300 clinical trials have been conducted on various antiviral drugs, and immunomodulators are being evaluated at various stages of COVID-19. This review aims to collect and summarize a list of drugs used to treat COVID-19, including dexamethasone, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, tociluzimab, nitazoxanide and ivermectin. However, some of these drugs are not effective and their use has been suspended by WHO.

11.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 565-573, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132399

RESUMO

Abstract Due to increased number of herbicide resistant weeds, it is needed to explore the allelopathic potential of plants as an alternative. The research was conducted to investigate allelopathic effects of Carica papaya L. leaf powder and aqueous extract on seeds as well as pre-germinated seeds of Avena fatua L., Helianthus annuus L., Rumex dentatus L., Zea mays L. and Triticum aestivum L. on filter paper and soil in Weed Management Program Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Protection at PARC Institute of Advanced Studies in Agriculture, National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. Germination percentage (%), radicle length (cm) and plumule length (cm) were parameters observed for 'Plant leaf powder bioassay' and 'Aqueous extract method'. Most significant growth inhibition was observed in A. fatua seedlings in filter paper method. A. fatua radicle length was reduced by C. papaya aqueous extract (80%) and leaf powder (89%) bioassays. Plumule length was reduced under the influence of aqueous extract (57-73%) and powdered material (59-77%). The inhibitory effects on other test species were in sequence of H. annuus followed by Z. mays and R. dentatus. The aqueous extract showed non-significant effect on wheat seed germination, radicle and plumule growth. It is suggested that C. papaya aqueous extract can be used as source of weed management in wheat crop.


Resumo Devido ao aumento do número de ervas daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas, é necessário explorar o potencial alelopático das plantas como uma alternativa. A pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos alelopáticos do pó foliar de Carica papaya e do extrato aquoso das sementes, bem como das sementes pré-germinadas de Avena fatua, Helianthus annuus, Rumex dentatus, Zea mays e Triticum aestivum em papel de filtro e solo no Laboratório do Programa de Manejo de Ervas Daninhas, Departamento de Plantas e Proteção Ambiental do Instituto PARC de Estudos Avançados em Agricultura, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Agrícola, Islamabad, Paquistão. A porcentagem de germinação (%), o comprimento radicular e o comprimento da plúmula (cm) foram os parâmetros observados para o 'Bioensaio de Pó de Folha de Planta' e o 'Método de Extração Aquoso'. A maior inibição do crescimento foi observada em mudas de A. fatua no método de papel de filtro. O comprimento radicular de A. fatua foi reduzido com os extratos aquosos de C. papaya (80%) e pó de folhas (89%). O comprimento das plúmulas foi reduzido sob a influência do extrato aquoso (57-73%) e material em pó (59-77%). Os efeitos inibitórios em outras espécies-teste foram na sequência de H. annuus seguido por Z. mays e R. dentatus. O extrato aquoso apresentou efeito não significativo na germinação das sementes de trigo, nos crescimentos radiculares e das plúmulas. Sugere-se que o extrato aquoso de C. papaya pode ser utilizado como fonte de manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do trigo.

12.
Braz J Biol ; 80(3): 565-573, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644650

RESUMO

Due to increased number of herbicide resistant weeds, it is needed to explore the allelopathic potential of plants as an alternative. The research was conducted to investigate allelopathic effects of Carica papaya L. leaf powder and aqueous extract on seeds as well as pre-germinated seeds of Avena fatua L., Helianthus annuus L., Rumex dentatus L., Zea mays L. and Triticum aestivum L. on filter paper and soil in Weed Management Program Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Protection at PARC Institute of Advanced Studies in Agriculture, National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. Germination percentage (%), radicle length (cm) and plumule length (cm) were parameters observed for 'Plant leaf powder bioassay' and 'Aqueous extract method'. Most significant growth inhibition was observed in A. fatua seedlings in filter paper method. A. fatua radicle length was reduced by C. papaya aqueous extract (80%) and leaf powder (89%) bioassays. Plumule length was reduced under the influence of aqueous extract (57-73%) and powdered material (59-77%). The inhibitory effects on other test species were in sequence of H. annuus followed by Z. mays and R. dentatus. The aqueous extract showed non-significant effect on wheat seed germination, radicle and plumule growth. It is suggested that C. papaya aqueous extract can be used as source of weed management in wheat crop.


Assuntos
Carica , Germinação , Paquistão , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Sementes
13.
Nature ; 576(7787): 423-428, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853081

RESUMO

Magnetically doped topological insulators enable the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE), which provides quantized edge states for lossless charge-transport applications1-8. The edge states are hosted by a magnetic energy gap at the Dirac point2, but hitherto all attempts to observe this gap directly have been unsuccessful. Observing the gap is considered to be essential to overcoming the limitations of the QAHE, which so far occurs only at temperatures that are one to two orders of magnitude below the ferromagnetic Curie temperature, TC (ref. 8). Here we use low-temperature photoelectron spectroscopy to unambiguously reveal the magnetic gap of Mn-doped Bi2Te3, which displays ferromagnetic out-of-plane spin texture and opens up only below TC. Surprisingly, our analysis reveals large gap sizes at 1 kelvin of up to 90 millielectronvolts, which is five times larger than theoretically predicted9. Using multiscale analysis we show that this enhancement is due to a remarkable structure modification induced by Mn doping: instead of a disordered impurity system, a self-organized alternating sequence of MnBi2Te4 septuple and Bi2Te3 quintuple layers is formed. This enhances the wavefunction overlap and size of the magnetic gap10. Mn-doped Bi2Se3 (ref. 11) and Mn-doped Sb2Te3 form similar heterostructures, but for Bi2Se3 only a nonmagnetic gap is formed and the magnetization is in the surface plane. This is explained by the smaller spin-orbit interaction by comparison with Mn-doped Bi2Te3. Our findings provide insights that will be crucial in pushing lossless transport in topological insulators towards room-temperature applications.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(30): 16634-16646, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317146

RESUMO

The thermal spike model (TSM), a widely accepted mechanism of swift heavy ion (SHI)-matter interactions, provides explanation for various SHI induced effects, including mixing across interfaces. We assess the validity of the model via tuning the electron-phonon coupling strength (G) by taking a series Pd1-xNix of a completely solid soluble binary, and then observing Pd1-xNix/Si interface mixing induced by a combination of 100 MeV Au ion irradiation and 4 keV Ar ion sputtering. If the TSM truly describes the SHI-matter interaction mechanism, any non-linearity in x-variation of G must also result in a similar non-linearity in the x-dependence of mixing. Experimentally, the extent of mixing has been parametrized by the irradiation induced change Δσ2 in variances of Pd and Ni depth profiles derived from XPS. Computationally, G determined using density functional theory has been used to solve the equations appropriate to the TSM, and then an equivalent quantity L2, proportional to Δσ2, has been calculated. Both Δσ2(x) and L2(x) show non-linearities, albeit in slightly dissimilar ways, leading to a conjecture that the present work at least does not invalidate the TSM.

16.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0212779, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cystic fibrosis associated liver disease (CFLD) is the third largest cause of mortality in CF. Our aim was to define the burden of CFLD in the UK using national registry data and identify risk factors for progressive disease. METHODS: A longitudinal population-based cohort study was conducted. Cases were defined as all patients with CFLD identified from the UK CF Registry, 2008-2013 (n = 3417). Denominator data were derived from the entire UK CF Registry. The burden of CFLD was characterised. Regression analysis was undertaken to identify risk factors for cirrhosis and progression. RESULTS: Prevalence of CFLD increased from 203.4 to 228.3 per 1000 patients during 2008-2013. Mortality in CF patients with CFLD was more than double those without; cirrhotic patients had higher all-cause mortality (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.18, p = 0.015). Median recorded age of cirrhosis diagnosis was 19 (range 5-53) years. Male sex, Pseudomonas airway infection and CF related diabetes were independent risk factors for cirrhosis. Ursodeoxycholic acid use was associated with prolonged survival in patients without cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights an important changing disease burden of CFLD. The prevalence is slowly increasing and, importantly, the disease is not just being diagnosed in childhood. Although the role of ursodeoxycholic acid remains controversial, this study identified a positive association with survival.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Cistos/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Fibrose Cística/patologia , Cistos/complicações , Cistos/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Hepatopatias/complicações , Hepatopatias/patologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Hosp Infect ; 101(3): 354-360, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection occurs in 2-4% of arthroplasty cases, and identifying potential sources of infection can help to reduce infection rates. The aim of this study was to identify the impact and potential for the contamination of hands and gowns whilst scrubbing using sterile surgical helmet systems (SSHSs). METHODS: A colony-forming unit (cfu) is a pathogenic particle of 0.5-5 µm. Standard arthroplasty hoods and SSHSs, with and without the fan switched on, were tested for a 3-min exposure (to represent scrubbing time) on three subjects and a mannequin with concurrent particle counts and culture plates. RESULTS: All SSHSs were positive for Gram-positive cocci, with a mean colony count of 410 cfu/m2. Background counts were lower for laminar flow areas [mean 0.7 particles/m3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0-1.4] than scrub areas (mean 131.5 particles/m3; 95% CI 123.5-137.9; P=0.0003). However, neither grew any bacteria with a 2-min exposure. The background count increased 3.7 times with the fan switched on (total P=0.004, cfu P=0.047), and all helmets had positive cultures (mean 36 cfu/m2). There were no positive cultures with the standard arthroplasty hood or the SSHS with the fan switched off. In laminar flow areas, all cultures were negative and particle counts were low. CONCLUSIONS: Sterile gloves and gowns can be contaminated when scrubbing with the SSHS fan switched on. It is recommended that the fan should remain switched off when scrubbing until the hood and gown are in place, ideally in a laminar flow environment.


Assuntos
Luvas Cirúrgicas/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça/microbiologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/microbiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Vestimenta Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia Ambiental , Humanos
18.
Balkan J Med Genet ; 21(1): 69-72, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425913

RESUMO

Human hereditary leukonychia is a rare nail disorder characterized by nail plates whitening on all finger and toe nails. Inheritance pattern is both autosomal dominant and recessive. To date, the only gene, phospholipase C, δ1 (PLCD1), on chromosome 3p22.2 has been reported to be involved in hereditary leukonychia. In the present study, a family of Pakhtun ethnicity, carrying leukonychia phenotype was investigated. The family inherited the phenotype in an autosomal dominant fashion. Affected individuals exhibited characteristic features of hereditary leukonychia with involvement of nails on both the hands and feet. Sequence analysis of DNA detected a p.Cys209Arg mutation, reported for the first time in a Pakistani Pashtun family.

19.
Ind Psychiatry J ; 27(1): 141-146, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416305

RESUMO

Introduction: Medical postgraduate student experience considerable stress during their training, which may cause agony to the individual or affect care rendered to the patient. Significant burnout and psychopathology has not been uncommon. Materials and Methods: A study was done to assess the relation between perceived stress, coping pattern, burnout, and general psychopathology among the postgraduate medical students. Results: Perceived stress was associated with higher scores on general psychopathology and burnout. Postgraduate students who displayed positive coping strategies had lesser perceived stress. Females had higher scores on perceived stress and psychopathology. Conclusion: Stress is one of the major growing mental problems among highly educated health professional, and it should not be ignored as it can cause many other health issues.

20.
Mymensingh Med J ; 27(3): 513-519, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141440

RESUMO

Enterocutaneous fistulae are a major catastrophe to the patients and surgeons and it still has high incidence of morbidity and mortality and their management remains a big challenge. Enterocutaneous fistula presents the surgeon with challenges of metabolic disorders and extensive sepsis. Total management of an intestinal fistula requires skill in nutritional support, stoma therapy, elimination of sepsis, well timed and well carried out surgery. Postoperative enterocutaneous fistulae account for approximately 80% of enterocutaneous fistulae. The majority of the intestinal fistula (75-85%) is iatrogenic occurring in the postoperative period following anastomotic dehiscence. They arise following emergency abdominal surgery for intestinal obstruction, inflammatory bowel disease or cancers. Protein calorie malnutrition alters the patients immune response, inflammatory reactions and tissue regenerations, all of which are essential for wound repair. The present study is an effort to highlight the incidence of enterocutaneous fistula after emergency and elective resection and anastomosis of gut with discussion over recent trends and developments in its management and compare with other studies. Objectives of the study are to determine the various clinicopathological features and management protocol of enterocutaneous fistula. There are recent advances in nutritional support. This descriptive type of cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Surgery, Mymensingh Medical College and Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from October 2010 to September 2011. Total 42 cases of enterocutaneous fistulae were selected purposively. Enterocutaneous fistulae are more common in patients of low economic condition. Enterocutaneous fistulae are more common after emergency abdominal surgery. Spontaneous closure occurred in 17(40.48%) cases and surgery needed in 25(59.52%) cases. Of them 20(80.00%) were healed and 5(20.00%) were expired. In spite of improvement in the management protocol of enterocutaneous fistula, there is still high unacceptable morbidity and mortality rate. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is not available and very costly, and health care facilities are also limited in our country. Patients with enterocutaneous fistula require fluid, electrolytes and nutritional support. Anaemia, dehydration, electrolytes imbalance should be corrected prior to abdominal surgery if possible. Surgical treatment for enterocutaneous fistula should be performed only after failure of conservative treatment of more than 12 weeks.


Assuntos
Fístula Intestinal , Nutrição Parenteral Total , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fístula Intestinal/diagnóstico , Fístula Intestinal/terapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias
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