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1.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed ; : 1-29, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976729

RESUMO

Curcumin has been reported to be used widely against many types of pathological conditions in clinics. However due to its limitations such as poor solubility, poor oral absorption and low stability has limited its applications. In current study, a series of novel chemically cross-linkable depot gel formulations were developed based on thermoresponsive micellar polymer (Pluronic®127) with polyelectrolyte hydrophilic monomer i.e. 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid by cold and insitu grafting polymerization method. The formulations were aimed to deliver curcumin at controlled rate from insitu formed depot after administration through subcutaneous route invivo. The sol-gel phase transitions of formulations were observed by rheological analysis, tube titling and optical transmittance measurements. Maximum swelling of gel formulations was observed at pH 7.4 and below CGT i.e. 25 °C. The invitro release profile exhibit maximum drug release at pH 7.4 and 25 °C owing to relaxed gel state. Invitro degradation profile of gel formulations showed controlled degradation rate. Cells growth inhibition study confirmed the biocompatibility and safe nature of bare gel formulations against L929 cell lines. Invitro cytotoxic study showed that curcumin loaded in gel formulation has controlled pharmacological activity against HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cells as compared to free drug solution. The IC50 values calculated for pure curcumin solution (30 ± 0.77 µg/ml for HeLa and 27 ± 0.39 µg/ml for MCF-7) were found higher in comparison to curcumin loaded thermogels; against HeLa (19 ± 0.28 µg/ml and 23 ± 0.81 µg/ml) and MCF-7 (22 ± 0.54 µg/ml and 21 ± 0.49 µg/ml). Histopathological and Haematological analysis showed the biocompatible nature of hydrogels. Structural confirmation was done by Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the thermal stability of the gel formulation. The porous structure of gel formulations was assessed by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. Results concluded that newly developed gel formulations has thermoresponsive behavior with phase transition at body temperature and can be used as insitu controlled drug depot.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960293

RESUMO

Temporal regulation of global gene expression in the caeca of chickens infected with Salmonella Typhimurium has not been investigated previously. In this study, we performed the transcriptome analysis of the caeca of Salmonella Typhimurium challenged chicks to understand the regulation of the mucosal immune system in a temporal manner. The Salmonella infection resulted in the activation of the caecal immune system by the upregulation of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs; false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05; log2 fold change > 1) involved in biological pathways such as Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, Salmonella infection, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, phagosome, apoptosis and intestinal immune network for IgA production. The activation of biological pathways such as RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway and cellular senescence showed a time-dependent response of the host immune system. A 49% increase in the DEGs on day 7 compared with day 3 post-infection (p.i.) suggested a time-dependent role of multiple genes such as AvBD1, AvBD2, AvBD7, IL2, IL10, IL21, SIVA1, CD5, CD14 and GPR142 in the regulation of the immune system. Nested network analysis of the individual biological pathways showed that IL6 played a significant role in the immune system regulation by activating the pathways, including Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, Salmonella infection, intestinal immune network for IgA production and C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway. The downregulated DEGs (FDR < 0.05; log2 fold change < -1) showed that Salmonella challenge affected the functions of pathways, such as tryptophan metabolism, retinol metabolism, folate biosynthesis and pentose and glucoronate interconversions, suggesting the disruption of cellular mechanisms involved in nutrient synthesis, absorption and metabolism. Overall, the immune response was temporally regulated through the activation of Toll-like signaling receptor pathway, cytokine-cytokine interactions and Salmonella infection, where IL6 played a significant role in the modulation of caecal immune system against Salmonella Typhimurium. KEY POINTS: • The immune response to Salmonella Typhimurium challenge was temporally regulated in the caeca of chickens. • Many newly identified genes have been shown to be involved in the activation of the immune system. • Toll-like receptors and interleukins played a key role in immune system regulation.

3.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; : 108543, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798459

RESUMO

Genomic selection has an essential role in the livestock economy by increasing selection productivity. Genomics provides a mechanism to increase the rate of genetic gain using marker-assisted selection. Various quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with body, carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle have been found. It is widely accepted that QTL traits in livestock species are regulated by several genes and factors from the environment. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a powerful approach in identifying QTL and to establish genomic regions harboring the genes and polymorphisms associated with specific characteristics in beef cattle. Due to their impact on economic returns, growth, carcass and meat quality traits of cattle are frequently used as essential criteria in selection in breeding programs., GWAS has been used in beef cattle breeding and genetic program and some progress has been made. Furthermore, numerous genes and markers related to productivity traits in beef cattle have been found. This review summarizes the advances in the use of GWAS in beef cattle production and outlines the associations with growth, carcass, and meat quality.

4.
Digestion ; : 1-15, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an immune-mediated clinicopathological condition characterized by esophageal infiltration with eosinophils resulting in chronic inflammation and stricture. SUMMARY: The recent increase in the incidence of EoE and the characteristic presentation of symptoms with difficulty swallowing and food bolus impaction has raised key concerns of clinicians as well as researchers. EoE often presents with dysphagia, food impaction, nausea, regurgitation or vomiting, and decreased appetite. It is more common in males, affecting both adults and children. The causative manner of this condition is complex and multifactorial. Throughout recent years, researchers have made a significant contribution to understanding the pathogenesis of EoE, genetic background, natural history, work on allergy, and standardization in the evaluation of disease activity. There is relatively high prevalence of EoE among the population, emphasizing the importance of this disease. Key messages: Esophageal involvement with eosinophils may be manifested as isolated or with coexisting conditions and should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis. This study aimed to provide gastroenterologists with novel insights into the evaluation of esophageal involvement with eosinophils and to pay special attention to the etiological factors, coexisting clinical diseases, and complications.

6.
J Basic Microbiol ; 60(7): 600-612, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363591

RESUMO

Industrial applications require enzymes to be highly stable and economically viable in terms of reusability. Enzyme immobilization is an exciting alternative to improve the stability of enzymatic processes. Immobilization of ß-1,4-xylanase produced by Bacillus licheniformis S3 is performed by using two polymer supports (agar-agar and calcium alginate). The maximum enzyme immobilization yield was achieved at a concentration of 3% agar, whereas a combination of sodium alginate, 4%, and calcium chloride, 0.3 M, was used for the formation of immobilized beads. The immobilization process increased the optimum reaction time from 10 min to 35 and 40 min for agar and calcium alginate, respectively, and the incubation temperature increased from 55°C to 60°C for agar, but it remained unchanged for calcium alginate. The pH profile of free and immobilized xylanase was quite similar in both cases. Both the techniques altered the kinetic parameters of immobilized ß-1,4-xylanase as compared with the free enzyme. The diffusion limit of high molecular weight xylan caused a decline in Vmax of the immobilized enzyme, whereas there was an increase in the Km value. However, calcium alginate-immobilized enzyme displayed broad thermal stability as compared with agar-agar-immobilized enzyme and retained 57.1% of its initial activity at 80°C up to 150 min. Biotechnological characterization showed that the reusability of enzymes was the most striking finding, particularly of immobilized xylanase using agar-agar as immobilization carrier, which after six cycles retained 23% activity.

8.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(13)2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332137

RESUMO

The microbiota plays a vital role in maintaining gut health and influences the overall performance of chickens. Most gut microbiota-related studies have been performed in broilers, which have different microbial communities compared to those of layers. The normal gut microbiota of laying chickens is dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria at the phylum level. The composition of the gut microbiota changes with chicken age, genotype, and production system. The metabolites of gut microbiota, such as short-chain fatty acids, indole, tryptamine, vitamins, and bacteriocins, are involved in host-microbiota cross talk, maintenance of barrier function, and immune homeostasis. Resident gut microbiota members also limit and control the colonization of foodborne pathogens. In-feed supplementations of prebiotics and probiotics strengthen the gut microbiota for improved host performance and colonization resistance to gut pathogens, such as Salmonella and Campylobacter The mechanisms of action of prebiotics and probiotics come through the production of organic acids, activation of the host immune system, and production of antimicrobial agents. Probiotic candidates, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacillus, Saccharomyces, and Faecalibacterium isolates, have shown promising results toward enhancing food safety and gut health. Additionally, a range of complex carbohydrates, including mannose oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides, and galacto-oligosaccharides, and inulin are promising candidates for improving gut health. Here, we review the potential roles of prebiotics and probiotics in the reshaping of the gut microbiota of layer chickens to enhance gut health and food safety.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3687, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111942

RESUMO

Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. is an important grain legume grown in the dry agro-ecologies of the tropics with considerably low yield due to lack of improved varieties, aggravated by prevalent narrow genetic base. Thus, induced mutagenesis was employed using sodium azide and gamma rays to increase genetic variability in cowpea genotypes that resulted in isolation of eleven high yielding mutant lines at the M4 generation from the genetic background of cowpea varieties Gomati VU-89 and Pusa-578. In order to analyze the induced genetic divergence among the mutant lines and parent genotypes, biochemical and molecular characterization was carried out with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), simple sequence repeat (SSR) and CAAT box derived polymorphism (CBDP) markers. Activity of nitrate reductase (NR) and content of chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and mineral were found to be significantly high in the selected mutant lines compared to their respective parent genotypes. SDS-PAGE profile of seed proteins generated 54 and 28 polymorphic bands and a total polymorphism of 62.06 and 41.17% in Gomati VU-89 and Pusa-578, respectively. SSR primers amplified a total of 16 and 24 polymorphic bands with an average polymorphism of 20.69 and 50.74% in Gomati VU-89 and Pusa-578, respectively. CBDP markers, used for the first time in mutagenized population, generated 175 bands with 77 bands being polymorphic in Gomati VU-89 and 121 bands with 59 bands being polymorphic in Pusa-578. Physiological, biochemical and molecular profiling of the selected promising mutants lines showed that Gomati VU-89-G and Pusa-578-C are genetically most diverged high yielding genotypes with significant increase in protein and micronutrient content, therefore, could be recommended for further research considerations. Thus, the favorable combination of genes induced in the novel cowpea mutants selected through the present study are valuable to correspond farmers requirements for new improved cultivars (direct or hybrids).

10.
Genomics ; 112(4): 2804-2812, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220486

RESUMO

Myogenic factor 5 plays actively roles in the regulation of myogenesis. The aims of this study are to identify the evolution information of MYF5 protein among 10 domestic and mammalian animals, to uncover the expression patterns of MYF5 gene in calves and adults of Qinchuan cattle, and to expose the genetic variants of the MYF5 gene and explore its effect on cattle growth traits and beef quality traits in Qinchuan cattle. The bioinformatics results showed that the MYF5 proteins highly conserved in different mammalian or domestic animals apart from chicken. The expression level of MYF5 gene in the heart, muscle, lung, large intestine and liver was greater than that of other tissues. PCR amplicons sequencing identified four novel SNPs at g.5738A>G, g.5785C>T and g.5816A>G in the 3rd exon region and g.6535A>G in the 3' UTR. Genotypic frequencies of g.5785C>T was harshly deviated from the HWE (P < .05). Genetic diversity was low or intermediate for the four SNPs and those SNPs were in the weak linkage disequilibrium. Association analysis results indicated g.5785C>T, g.5816A>G and g.6535A>G significant effect on growth performance and beef quality traits of Qinchuan cattle. H1H3 diplotype had greater body size and better beef quality. All the results implicate that the MYF5 gene might be applied as a promising candidate gene in Qinchuan cattle breeding.

11.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(7): 1245-1253, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125445

RESUMO

A radio-resistant bacterium labeled as strain TMC-6 was isolated from Thal desert, Pakistan and identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Bacillus indicus strain TMC-6 (MN721293). The isolate was found to be resistant to UV radiation dose of 6.780 × 103 J/m2 and showed 50% survivability to mitomycin C (6 µg/ml) and H2O2 (30 mM). The bacterium showed yellowish orange coloration when grown on tryptone yeast glucose (TGY) medium. The cellular metabolite was extracted in methanol and purified through solid phase extraction with C18 column cartridge. The compound was characterized through UV/Visible spectrophotometry, Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The LC-MS analysis of the compound revealed a molar mass of 769 [m/z]- that matched the chemical formula C34H42O20 and identified as a glycosylated flavonoid xanthorhamnin. The compound showed significant antioxidant (77.05%) and metal chelation (79.80%) activities. Xanthorhamnin showed promising oxidative damage inhibitory actions in bovine serum albumin (65.32%) and mice liver lipids (71.61%) and prevented DNA strand breaks from oxidative stress. Cytotoxicity in brine shrimp larvae was observed when compared with mitomycin C indicating its effect toward cancerous cells. These findings concluded that xanthorhamnin from radio-resistant Bacillus indicus strain TMC-6 has high antioxidant, radioprotective, and antitumor properties against UV-mediated oxidative damages.

12.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 974-980, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036989

RESUMO

The effect of orally administered hawthorn flavonoid extract (HFE) on growth, electrocardiographic waves, and cardiac parameters of pulmonary hypertensive chickens reared at high altitude (2,100 m above sea level) was examined. A total of 225 one-day-old, mixed broiler chicks (3 treatments with 5 replicates and 15 chicks per each, totally 75 birds/treatment) were assigned to 3 experimental groups: 0, 0.1, and 0.2 ml of HFE per 1 L of drinking water. Birds were administered the drinking water HFE treatments for 42 D. At an age of 28 and 42 D, electrocardiograms were undertaken and cardiac parameters such as the RV:TV, RV:BW, and TV:BW, and indicators of PHS on selected birds were measured. The final BW of chickens receiving the HFE at 0.2 ml/L was greater (2,579 ± 64 g) than that of birds receiving 0.1 ml/L (2,497 ± 62 g) and 0 ml/L (2,323 ± 57 g). Therefore, no supplemented group had a lower final BW than others (P < 0.05). Amplitudes of S and T waves in 0.1- and 0.2-ml/L HFE consumed groups at 28 and 42 D of age decreased compared with that in the control group (P < 0.05). The HFE reduced the heart weight and RV:TV, RV:BW, and TV:BW ratios when supplemented in drinking water at 0.1 and 0.2 mL/L compared with 0 mL/L (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of HFE in drinking water can reduce the PHS and incidence of cardiac disorders. Owing to the positive effect of HFE on cardiac parameters that mediated through flavonoids bioactive compounds, this product can be used to prevent complications of pulmonary hypertension and disarray of electrocardiographic waves in broiler chickens reared at high altitude.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Crataegus/química , Eletrocardiografia/veterinária , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
Orthop Surg ; 12(1): 321-332, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and present the effectiveness of this innovatively designed, elastic locking intramedullary nail (ELIN) in fixation of clavicle fractures. METHODS: The study included 38 patients from July 2014 to July 2017. All of them received intramedullary fixation treated with ELIN, 22 were males and 16 females. The mean age of the patients was 54 years. There were twenty right-side and 18 left-side clavicular fractures. Radiographs were taken to assess the fracture type: 21 were type A, 16 type B, and one type C. General anesthesia or cervical block was given to all patients. A small incision of 3-5 cm was given only to those who needed mini-open reduction. The administration of ELIN and reduction of the fracture was made sure with a C arm machine. After a follow-up of 8 to 33 months, the clinical outcomes were assessed and evaluated. The constant scores and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (DASH) were used to determine the outcomes and functional status of the patients. The study was done accordingly to the guidelines provided by the ethics committee. RESULTS: Mean operation time was 25.63 min. Mean follow-up time was 16.5 months. The rate of closed reduction and open reduction was 84% and 16% respectively. There was no shortening of the clavicle. There was no breakage of the nail, though bending of the nail occurred in one patient. Superficial skin infection occurred in three patients at insertion points or the nail tip which was embedded subcutaneously. Skin erosion with nail exposure occurred in a patient with no significant infection. All the other patients had excellent shoulder function. A mini scar was observed in seven patients all the other patients had no scar. Asymmetry was observed in three patients. The mean Constant score was 98.47 and the mean DASH score was 1.55 at the last follow-up. The implant was removed in all the patients. CONCLUSION: Clavicular fractures treated with ELIN is minimally invasive, which presents a safe and novel surgical technique with less complications and a high success rate, excellent aesthetic and quick recovery after surgery. ELIN restores the micro-dynamic stress at the fracture ends and promotes fracture healing, keeps intact the fracture hematoma and maintains the blood supply, accelerates healing and thus leads to faster osseous healing and better restoration of clavicle length.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos , Clavícula/lesões , Clavícula/cirurgia , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/instrumentação , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Módulo de Elasticidade , Feminino , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Duração da Cirurgia
14.
Viral Immunol ; 33(5): 413-420, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985363

RESUMO

Understanding of host pathogen interactions is important in planning strategies for effective control of the pathogen. The present study investigated the regulation of genes involved in the activation of splenic immune system in mature laying chickens challenged with T strain of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Among all the genes studied, the relative expression levels of Fas cell surface death receptor (FAS), interleukin 7 (IL7), IL18, proteasome subunit alpha 3 (PSMA3), major histocompatibility complex, class II (MHCII), interferon alpha (IFNα), immunoglobulin A (IgA), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) were significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated, while Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR5 were significantly downregulated in the challenge compared with the control group. Genes such as vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), FK506-binding protein 1B (FKBP1B), transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGFB3), NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase (TYRO3), TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3), C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), macrophage inflammatory protein-3 (MIP3A), TLR2-1, TLR3, and TLR21 were not altered in mRNA expression levels between the challenge and control groups. In conclusion, the splenic immune response to IBV infection involved the regulation of cytokines, TLRs and NF-κB.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 146(7): 1780-1790, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291465

RESUMO

The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has markedly increased worldwide in the last decade. Alterations of bile acid metabolism and gut microbiota have been reported to play vital roles in intestinal carcinogenesis. About trillions of bacteria have inhabited in the human gut and maintained the balance of host metabolism. Bile acids are one of numerous metabolites that are synthesized in the liver and further metabolized by the gut microbiota, and are essential in maintaining the normal gut microbiota and lipid digestion. Multiple receptors such as FXR, GPBAR1, PXR, CAR and VDR act as sensors of bile acids have been reported. In this review, we mainly discussed interplay between bile acid metabolism and gut microbiota in intestinal carcinogenesis. We then summarized the critical role of bile acids receptors involving in CRC, and also addressed the rationale of multiple interventions for CRC management by regulating bile acids-microbiota axis such as probiotics, metformin, ursodeoxycholic acid and fecal microbiota transplantation. Thus, by targeting the bile acids-microbiota axis may provide novel therapeutic modalities in CRC prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Terapia Biológica , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo
16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(1): 319-334, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758235

RESUMO

Positive modulation of gut microbiota in laying chickens may offer a strategy for reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium shedding and production of safer poultry products. In the current study, the caecal luminal microbiota of laying chicks was studied using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing on DNA obtained from the chicks that were offered supplementation with commercial probiotics, synbiotics and/or Salmonella Typhimurium challenge. The load of Salmonella Typhimurium in various organs was quantified. Irrespective of the probiotics and synbiotics supplementation and Salmonella Typhimurium challenge, caecal microbiota was dominated by 22 distinct bacterial genera and 14 families that clustered into Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes at phylum level. Taken together, probiotics and synbiotics supplementation increased (false discovery rate; FDR < 0.05) the abundance of Ruminococcus, Trabulsiella, Bifidobacterium, Holdemania and Oscillospira, indicating their role in maintaining gut health through lowering luminal pH and digestion of complex polysaccharides. Salmonella Typhimurium challenge decreased the abundance of Trabulsiella, Oscillospira, Holdemania, Coprococcus, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and increased Klebsiella and Escherichia, indicating its role in caecal dysbiosis. Although probiotics and synbiotics supplementation positively modulated the caecal microbiota, they were not effective in significantly (P > 0.05) reducing Salmonella Typhimurium load in caecal tissue and invasion into vital organs such as liver and spleen. The early colonisation of laying chick caeca by probiotics and synbiotics had the potential to positively influence luminal microbiota; however, the microbial abundance and diversity were not sufficient to significantly reduce the shedding of Salmonella Typhimurium in faeces or invasion into internal organs during this study.

17.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(1): 186-195, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657058

RESUMO

The present study was carried out to explore the impacts of dietary supplementation of enzyme mixture with sodium butyrate on the growth performance, carcass traits, blood profile and economic benefit in two breeds of weanling rabbits adapted to survive in Egypt (New Zealand White and Rex). One-hundred and twenty weaned male rabbits (New Zealand White and Rex) of 6 weeks of age and 770.5 ± 20 g body weight were allotted randomly into four groups in a factorial arrangement. The obtained results indicated that there were non-significant differences in all growth performance traits, blood profile and economic parameters due to the breed effect. However, there were significant differences in most of carcass traits due to the breed effect except total giblets and New Zealand White breed showed the highest value of these parameters including dressing % (p < .01), forequarter and loin % (p < .001) and hindquarter % (p < .003) compared with Rex breed counterparts. The effect of the treatment and its interaction with the breed significantly (p < .05) improved body weight gain, feed consumption and carcass traits (percentage of dressing, forequarter, hind quarter and lion). However, final body weight and feed conversion ratio were not significantly influenced. Supplementing a diet with treatment significantly decreased blood triglycerides, cholesterol and the ratio between albumin and globulin (A/G ratio), while increased blood total protein and globulin. Although higher feed cost and total costs in treated groups than control ones in each breed, they showed higher total return and net return. Rex non-treated rabbit breed showed the lowest profitability measures compared with other groups. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of multi-enzyme with sodium butyrate is highly recommended in growing rabbits due to their beneficial effects on the growth performance and profitability.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795463

RESUMO

Chicken meat can potentially become contaminated with bacteria at the processing plant. In Australia, there is currently a lack of knowledge on the parameters and indications of use of non-chlorine based treatments in the chicken meat processing plants. Chlorine is widely used as a sanitizer in Australian chicken meat processing plants but due to occupational health and safety concerns and consumer perception, there is a need to identify alternative sanitizers. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of four different sanitizers in reducing the microbial load from naturally contaminated chicken meat carcasses collected from the processing plants in South Australia. There was a significant variation in a load of Campylobacter and total viable count (TVC) between samples collected from two different processing plants and within carcass batches collected from the same plant that was tested during the study. All sanitizers generally reduced the load of Campylobacter on chicken meat carcasses. Treatment with acidified sodium chlorite significantly reduced the level of Salmonella enterica serovars at all temperatures tested during this study. These findings are helpful to the industry for selection of the appropriate sanitizers. Findings are also useful for the regulatory authorities in Australia for providing approval for the use of sanitizers.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Animais , Austrália , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Cloro/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Austrália do Sul
19.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(10): 1543-1546, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622313

RESUMO

In the current study the occurrence and severity of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was recorded from September, 2014 to April, 2015 in children of school age in District Tank. Random sampling of blood and questionnaires were planned to record general information while blood was analyzed through automatic haematological analyzer model Sysmex Kx- 21 Stromatolyser- WH, Cell Pack (Merck). Total prevalence of anaemia in school age children was 37.1% with 63.8% in boys and 64.3% in girls.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Debilidade Muscular/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Classe Social
20.
Gastroenterol Res Pract ; 2019: 5698532, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396274

RESUMO

A gastric bezoar is a compact mass of indigestible foreign materials that accumulate and consolidate in the stomach; however, it can be found in other sites of the gastrointestinal tract. The causative manner of this condition is complex and multifactorial. The main purpose of the review was to raise awareness among clinicians, particularly gastroenterologists, that patients with certain risk factors or comorbid conditions are predisposed to gastric bezoar formation. Early diagnosis and prompt intervention are crucial to avoid bezoar-induced complications. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the standard diagnostic and therapeutic method for gastric bezoars. However, for large size bezoars, surgical intervention is needed.

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