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1.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2021: 5212953, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888264

RESUMO

Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for approximately 90% of primary liver malignancies and is currently the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Due to varying underlying etiologies, the prognosis of HCC differs greatly among patients. It is important to develop ways to help stratify patients upon initial diagnosis to provide optimal treatment modalities and follow-up plans. The current study uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) to create a gene signature score that can help predict survival in patients with HCC. Methods: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA-LIHC) was analyzed for differentially expressed genes. Clinicopathological data were obtained from cBioPortal. ANN analysis of the 75 most significant genes predicting disease-free survival (DFS) was performed. Next, CTA results were used for creation of the scoring system. Cox regression was performed to identify the prognostic value of the scoring system. Results: 363 patients diagnosed with HCC were analyzed in this study. ANN provided 15 genes with normalized importance >50%. CTA resulted in a set of three genes (NRM, STAG3, and SNHG20). Patients were then divided in to 4 groups based on the CTA tree cutoff values. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly reduced DFS in groups 1, 2, and 3 (median DFS: 29.7 months, 16.1 months, and 11.7 months, p < 0.01) compared to group 0 (median not reached). Similar results were observed when overall survival (OS) was analyzed. On multivariate Cox regression, higher scores were associated with significantly shorter DFS (1 point: HR 2.57 (1.38-4.80), 2 points: 3.91 (2.11-7.24), and 3 points: 5.09 (2.70-9.58), p < 0.01). Conclusion: Long-term outcomes of patients with HCC can be predicted using a simplified scoring system based on tumor mRNA gene expression levels. This tool could assist clinicians and researchers in identifying patients at increased risks for recurrence to tailor specific treatment and follow-up strategies for individual patients.

2.
Cureus ; 13(9): e18148, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703686

RESUMO

Background and objective Celiac disease is an autoimmune multisystem disorder that is triggered by dietary gluten sensitivity in genetically susceptible individuals. It presents with extraintestinal cutaneous manifestations including dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, urticaria, and alopecia areata. Due to the insufficient availability of data, this study aimed to estimate the frequency of cutaneous manifestation in a Pakistani population with celiac disease. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2020 to July 2021, and 300 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of celiac disease were enrolled in the study from the internal medicine department of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Celiac disease was confirmed by the presence of immunoglobulin A (IgA) endomysial antibody and IgA tissue transglutaminase antibody. The presence of cutaneous manifestations was assessed with the assistance of a qualified dermatologist and noted in a self-structured questionnaire. Results Overall, the most common cutaneous manifestation was DH (16.0%), whereas the second most common cutaneous manifestation was psoriasis (13.8%). DH was most commonly found among males (18.9%), while psoriasis was more common among females (14.12%). Conclusion Among the various cutaneous presentations in patients with celiac disease, the most common dermatological manifestation was DH. Therefore, patients with cutaneous manifestations should undergo screening for celiac disease.

3.
Cureus ; 13(9): e17925, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660117

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is reported to be the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in cases of upper gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. There is paucity of research between the possible association of H. pylori and iron stores and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). In this study, we will determine if there is an association between serum total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), serum iron and ferritin levels, and H. pylori infection. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted in the gastroenterology ward of a major hospital in Pakistan from December 2020 to April 2021. Three hundred patients diagnosed with H. pylori were enrolled along with 300 participants in the control group. H. pylori was confirmed or excluded with the help of Giemsa stained gastric biopsy specimens. Blood was sent to the laboratory to test for ferritin, serum iron, and TIBC. Each sample was drawn in the morning to avoid any fluctuations. RESULTS: The mean serum iron level was significantly lower in participants with H. pylori infection compared to those who did not have H. pylori infection (110.72 ± 28.38 ug/dL vs. 162.5 ± 21.18 ug/dL; p-value: <0.0001). Serum ferritin level was significantly higher in participants with H. pylori infection (536.82 ± 117.0 ng/dL vs. 391.31 ± 101.54 ng/dL; p-value: <0.0001). CONCLUSION:  In comparison with the control group, TIBC and serum iron levels were found to be lower in the case group.

4.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4442-4451, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308762

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 activity may result in variations in the therapeutic response to drugs metabolized by this enzyme. Differences at gene level may translate into protein level with consequent impairment of the enzyme activity. As a result patients with such genetic differences might experience undesirable effects or no effect at all. The aim of the present study was to find out the prevalence of allelic and genotype frequencies of low activity variants of CYP2C19 genes in healthy individuals from six distinct ethnicities of Pakistan. Blood sample was taken from healthy volunteers following informed consent. Isolation of the DNA was followed by the PCR amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Selected samples were sequenced by Sanger sequencing. The frequency of major alleles was 84.93% for CYP2C19*2 and 91.85% for CYP2C19*3, while minor allele was present at 15.06% for CYP2C19*2 and 8.14% for CYP2C19*3. For CYP2C19*2, the frequency of *1*1 genotype was 75.80%, *1*2 was 18.27%, and *2*2 was 5.92% whereas for CYP2C19*3, The frequency of *1*1 genotype was 84.19%, *1*3 was 15.30%, and *3*3 was 0.49% in the Pakistani population. A substantial variation in genotype and allelic frequencies was observed in various ethnicities. Our study demonstrates that a significant Pakistani population has at least one minor allele, which indicates a large number of patients potentially being affected by these variations. Especially, a significant genotype frequency of PM suggests implication for the treatment response and severity/frequency of adverse effects in patients receiving drugs metabolized by CYP2C19.

5.
Neurochem Int ; 149: 105135, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271080

RESUMO

After Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) has taken second place in becoming one of the most commonly occurring neurological diseases being responsible for a number of disabling motor symptoms ranging from bradykinesia, akinesia, tremors to rigidity, that mostly targets the elderly population and severely disrupts their quality of life. The true underlying pathology of PD yet remains a mystery, however, recent advances in the field have pointed towards the production of α-synuclein aggregates, oxidative stress, and an imbalance between levels of acetylcholine and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain that have been shown to result in loss of coordinated movement. Current treatments of PD include the gold standard dopamine precursor L-dopa, dopamine agonists pergolide and bromocriptine, catechol-o-methyl transferases inhibitors, entacapone and tolcapone and monoamine oxidase inhibitors such as Selegine and Rasagiline amongst several other drugs. While these drugs are successful in treating motor symptoms of the disease, they do so with a plethora of side effects that are especially debilitating to the elderly. In the recent years, a considerable amount of attention has been shifted towards phytocompounds such as flavonoids and green tea catechins due to promising experimental results. In this review, we have compiled phytocompounds that have shown potent activity against some of the most important targets for antiparkinsonian therapy. These compounds have exhibited activities that transcend the limits of simply attenuating mitochondrial oxidative stress and have opened doors to the discovery of novel lead compounds for newer, efficacious antiparkinsonian therapies with wider therapeutic windows.

6.
Cureus ; 13(5): e14867, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113504

RESUMO

Introduction Alternative medicine during treatment is often used to make the quality of life (QoL) better. Women with early-stage breast cancer, particularly the ones who possess lower QoL, are more prone to opt for complementary medicine. This study aims to explore the effects exerted by intravenous vitamin C (IVC) on symptoms and adverse events associated with breast cancer treatment. Methods This single-center, parallel-group, single-blind interventional study was conducted in the oncology ward of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. For this study, after informed consent was taken, breast cancer patients with Union for International Cancer Control stages IIA to IIIb were included in the study. Three hundred and fifty (n = 350) patients were randomized into two groups at a ratio of 1:1. Study group was randomized to receive 25 grams per week of IVC at a rate of 15 grams per hour for four weeks in addition to their current standard treatment, and the control group received placebo (normal saline drip with label removed) in addition to their current standard treatment. Results In patients who had received IVC, there was a significant decrease in the mean severity score after 28 days for the following symptoms: nausea (2.65 ± 0.62 vs. 2.59 ± 0.68; p-value: 0.0003), loss of appetite (2.26 ± 0.51 vs. 2.11 ± 0.52; p-value: 0.007), tumor pain (2.22 ± 0.45 vs. 1.99 ± 0.40, p-value: <0.0001), fatigue (3.11 ± 0.32 vs. 2.87 ± 0.29; p-value: <0.0001), and insomnia (2.59 ± 0.35 vs. 2.32 ± 0.36, p-value: <0.0001). Conclusion Our study showed improvement in the mean severity score of nausea, fatigue, tumor pain, loss of appetite, and fatigue. More studies are also needed to assess the long-term effects of IVC in the cancer management. This shall help incorporate the use of IVC in standard practice to make the journey of cancer management comfortable for the patients.

7.
Cureus ; 13(5): e15062, 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34141506

RESUMO

Introduction Male and female sexual dysfunction is frequently found in patients with hypertension. Many studies indicate that this is found more frequently in patients treated with beta-blockers rather than due to hypertension itself; however, almost all studies have been done on male population. This study aims to study the effect of two commonly used beta-blockers on sexual function of a hypertensive female patient. Methods This two-arm open-label randomized prospective study was conducted from April 1, 2019 to March 30, 2020 in a tertiary care hospital at Pakistan. One hundred and fifty participants randomized to group A were given nebivolol 5 mg once daily in addition to their current hypertensive treatment. Another 150 participants randomized to group B were given bisoprolol 5 mg once daily in addition to their hypertensive therapy. Sexual function was assessed on day 0 and day 90 using female sexual function index (FSFI). Results The mean sexual score in the nebivolol group significantly improved after day 90 in comparison to day 0 (24.16 ± 2.1 vs. 26.91 ± 2.6; p-value < 0.0001), while no difference in sexual score in bisoprolol group after day 90 was observed (24.14 ± 2.1 vs. 24.12 ± 2.0; p-value = 0.91). Conclusion In this study, nebivolol group was associated with a significant improvement in sexual function. This can be due to additional vasodilation properties and a low risk of sexual side effects associated with nebivolol.

8.
J Surg Oncol ; 124(3): 324-333, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act has improved access to screening and treatment for certain cancers. It is unclear how this policy has affected the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Using a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences (DID) approach, we analyzed Medicaid and uninsured patients in the National Cancer Data Base during two time periods: pre-expansion (2011-2012) and postexpansion (2015-2016). We investigated changes in cancer staging, treatment decisions, and surgical outcomes. RESULTS: In this national cohort, pancreatic cancer patients in expansion states had increased Medicaid coverage relative to those in nonexpansion states (DID = 17.49, p < 0.01). Medicaid expansion also led to an increase in early-stage diagnoses (Stage I/II, DID = 4.71, p = 0.03), higher comorbidity scores among surgical patients (Charlson/Deyo score 0: DID = -13.69, p = 0.02), a trend toward more neoadjuvant radiation (DID = 6.15, p = 0.06), and more positive margins (DID = 11.69, p = 0.02). There were no differences in rates of surgery, postoperative outcomes, or overall survival. CONCLUSION: Medicaid expansion was associated with improved insurance coverage and earlier stage diagnoses for Medicaid and uninsured pancreatic cancer patients, but similar surgical outcomes and overall survival. These findings highlight both the benefits of Medicaid expansion and the potential limitations of policy change to improve outcomes for such an aggressive malignancy.


Assuntos
Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/economia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
J Surg Res ; 264: 279-286, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safety-net hospitals serve a vital role in society by providing care for vulnerable populations. Existing data regarding oncologic outcomes of patients with colon cancer treated at safety-net hospitals are limited and variable. The objective of this study was to delineate disparities in treatment and outcomes for patients with colon cancer treated at safety-net hospitals. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study identified 802,304 adult patients with colon adenocarcinoma from the National Cancer Database between 2004-2016. Patients were stratified according to safety-net burden of the treating hospital as previously described. Patient, tumor, facility, and treatment characteristics were compared between groups as were operative and short-term outcomes. Cox proportional hazards regression was utilized to compare overall survival between patients treated at high, medium, and low burden hospitals. RESULTS: Patients treated at safety-net hospitals were demographically distinct and presented with more advanced disease. They were also less likely to receive surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy, negative resection margins, adequate lymphadenectomy, or a minimally invasive operative approach. On multivariate analysis adjusting for patient and tumor characteristics, survival was inferior for patients at safety-net hospitals, even for those with stage 0 (in situ) disease. CONCLUSION: This analysis revealed inferior survival for patients with colon cancer treated at safety-net hospitals, including those without invasive cancer. These findings suggest that unmeasured population differences may confound analyses and affect survival more than provider or treatment disparities.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/economia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/economia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Colectomia/economia , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Colo/patologia , Colo/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo/economia , Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/economia , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111609, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915501

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD), is the most common type of dementia primarily affecting the later years of life. Its prevalence is likely to increase in any aging population and will be a major burden on healthcare system by the mid of the century. Despite scientific and technological breakthroughs in the last 50 years, that have expanded our understanding of the disease on a system, cellular and molecular level, therapies that could stop or slow the progression of the disease are still unavailable. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has approved acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, tacrine and rivastigmine) and glutamate receptor antagonist (memantine) for the treatment of AD. In this review we summarize the studies reporting phytocompounds and extracts from medicinal plants that show AChE inhibitory activities and could be of potential benefit in AD. Future research directions are suggested and recommendations made to expand the use of medicinal plants and their formulations to prevent, mitigate and treat AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Humanos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Pancreas ; 50(3): 386-392, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to create a composite measure, optimal oncologic surgery (OOS), for patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma and identify factors associated with OOS. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy were identified from the National Cancer Database between 2010 and 2016. Patients were stratified based on receipt of OOS. Criteria for OOS included 90-day survival, no 30-day readmission, length of stay ≤7 days, negative resection margins, ≥12 lymph nodes harvested, and receipt of chemotherapy. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of OOS. Survival curves and a Cox proportional hazards model were created to compare survival and identify risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: Three thousand five hundred forty-six patients were identified. The rate of OOS was 22.3%. Diagnosis after 2012, treatment at an academic medical center, and a minimally invasive surgical approach (MIS) were associated with OOS. Survival was superior for patients undergoing OOS. Decreasing age at diagnosis, fewer comorbidities, surgery at an academic medical center, MIS, and lower pathologic stage were also associated with improved survival on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of OOS for distal pancreatectomy are low. Time trends show increasing rates of OOS that may be related to increasing MIS, adjuvant chemotherapy, and referrals to academic medical centers.

12.
Am Surg ; : 3134820988810, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal adenocarcinoma is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, often requiring patients to undergo anatomy-altering surgical interventions leading to increased postoperative readmission. Hospital readmission rates have been correlated with increased mortality. Therefore, it is important to understand the association between 30-day readmission rates and mortality as well as the factors associated with increased readmission rates. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective review utilizing data from the National Cancer Database. Our primary outcomes of interest were 30- and 90-day mortality rates. Our primary independent variable of interest was 30-day readmission. RESULTS: Between 2010 and 2016, 207 299 patients underwent surgery for rectal cancer and 754 895 for colon cancer. The readmission rates within 30 days of discharge were 5.4% and 5.5% for patients after surgery for rectal or colon cancer, respectively. 30-day readmission was not associated with 30-day mortality, but it was independently associated with increased 90-day mortality and inferior long-term survival for both cohorts (P = .001). Independent risk factors significantly associated with increased readmission included race, non-private insurance, and low income. CONCLUSION: This study provides a large, up-to-date, and comprehensive analysis of readmission rates for colon and rectal cancers. We demonstrate that socioeconomic factors are associated with increased 30-day readmission. 30-day readmission is also independently associated with increased 90-day mortality as well as lower overall survival rates. Our study supports the need for implementation of programs that support patients of lower socioeconomic status undergoing surgery to further decrease readmission rates and mortality.

14.
Am Surg ; 87(7): 1145-1154, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342268

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With advances in multimodal therapy, survival rates in gastric cancer have significantly improved over the last two decades. Neoadjuvant therapy increases the likelihood of achieving negative margins and may even lead to pathologic complete response (pCR). However, the impact of pCR on survival in gastric cancer has been poorly described. We analyzed the rate and predictors of pCR in patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy as well as impact of pCR on survival. METHODS: We conducted a National Cancer Database (NCDB) analysis (2004-2016) of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection. RESULTS: The pCR rate was 2.2%. Following adjustment, only neoadjuvant chemoradiation, non-signet histology, and tumor grade remained as significant factors predicting pCR. pCR was a statistically significant predictor of survival. CONCLUSION: In this NCDB study, pCR was a predictor of survival. Though chemoradiation rather than chemotherapy alone was a predictor of pCR, it was not a predictor of survival. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of radiation in the neoadjuvant setting and to discern the impact of pCR on survival.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Gastrectomia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
15.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 25(9): 2307-2316, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269460

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the predictors and influence of resection margins and the role of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy on survival for a national cohort of patients with resected pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Data Base between 2004 and 2016, 56,532 patients were identified who underwent surgical resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Univariate and multivariate models were employed to identify factors predicting R0/R1 resection and assess the impact on survival. RESULTS: In total, 48,367 (85.6%) patients were found to have negative margins (R0) compared to 8165 (14.4%) who had microscopic residual tumor (R1). Factors predicting positive margin on univariate analysis included male gender, Medicare, advanced stage, moderately or poorly differentiated tumor, lymphovascular invasion, and tumors > 2 cm. Factors predicting R0 resection included receipt of neoadjuvant therapy and treatment at an Academic/Research Center. Following adjustment for other factors, margin status remained an independent predictor for overall survival (HR: 1.24; 95% CI 1.22-1.27, p < 0.001) (1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates (R0: 77%, 37%, and 25% vs R1: 62%, 19%, and 10%). CONCLUSIONS: A positive margin predicts a poorer survival than R0 resections regardless of stage and receipt of adjuvant therapy. Several modifiable factors significantly predict the likelihood of R0 resection including neoadjuvant treatment and treatment at Academic/Research Programs. Knowledge about these factors can help guide patient management by offering neoadjuvant treatment modalities at Academic as well as Community hospitals.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Medicare , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Am Surg ; : 3134820973739, 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Liver resections and transplantations have increasingly become feasible options for potential cure. These complex surgeries are inherently associated with increased rates of readmission. In the meanwhile, hospital readmission rates are rapidly becoming an important quality of care metric. Therefore, it is very important to understand the effect of 30-day readmission on mortality and the factors associated with increased 30- and 90-day mortality rates. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study utilizing data from the National Cancer Database. Patients included were 18 years or older who underwent liver resection or liver transplantation for HCC between 2003 and 2011. Our primary outcomes of interest were 30- and 90-day mortality rates. Our primary independent variable of interest was 30-day readmission. RESULTS: 16 658 patients underwent either a liver resection or transplantation for HCC between 2003 and 2011. For patients with liver transplantations, increased readmission rates were associated with lower risks of 30-day mortality (P = .012) but a trend toward higher 90-day mortality (P = .057). Patients who underwent liver resection for HCC also demonstrated increased readmission rates to be associated with lower risk of 30-day mortality (P = .014) but higher 90-day mortality (P ≤ .001). CONCLUSION: This is the only study to utilize a national database to investigate the association between readmission rates and mortality rates of both liver transplantations and resections for patients with HCC. We demonstrate 30-day readmission to show no increase in 30-day mortality, but rather higher 90-day mortality.

17.
J Surg Res ; 256: 390-396, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appendicitis is a common indication for urgent abdominal surgery in the pediatric population. The postoperative management varies significantly in time to discharge and cost of care. The objective of this study was to investigate whether implementation of an evidence-based protocol after an appendectomy would lead to decreased length of stay and cost of care. METHODS: In 2014 at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, an initiative to develop an evidenced-based protocol to treat appendicitis was undertaken. A work group was formed of pediatric surgeons and other important personnel to determine best practices. Treatment pathways were created. Pathways differed with recommendation on postoperative antibiotic choice and duration, diet initiation, and discharge criteria. Data were prospectively gathered from all patients (ages 0-18 y) with acute appendicitis from January 2015 to December 2016. Primary outcomes were length of stay and cost of care. Secondary outcomes were surgical site infection, readmission rate, and duration of postoperative antibiotics. RESULTS: Among the 1289 patients, 481 patients were in the preprotocol cohort and 808 patients were in the postprotocol cohort. 27% of patients had an intraoperative diagnosis of complicated appendicitis. There was a significantly shorter length of stay in the postprotocol cohort (P < 0.001). Median costs for the whole cohort decreased 0.6% and 24.6% for patients with complicated appendicitis after protocol initiation (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that introduction of an evidence-based clinical care protocol for pediatric patients with appendicitis leads to shorter hospital stay and decreased hospital costs.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/normas , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Apendicite/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/economia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Pediátricos/economia , Hospitais Pediátricos/organização & administração , Hospitais Pediátricos/normas , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/economia , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/economia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Pediatr Surg ; 55(11): 2471-2474, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partial splenectomy (PS) may allow preservation of splenic function in cases where splenectomy is indicated for hematologic diseases; however, the long-term outcomes are uncertain. We investigated the long-term outcomes of PS in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). METHODS: A single-institution retrospective chart review was performed for children with SCD who underwent PS from 1997 to 2017. For comparison, we reviewed outcomes for patients who underwent PS for hereditary spherocytosis (HS). The primary endpoint was viability of the splenic remnant as inferred by the presence of remnant perfusion on ultrasound and/or liver spleen scan. RESULTS: Nine patients with SCD and 26 patients with HS underwent PS at a median age of 11 (IQR, 9-14) and 7.5 (IQR, 6-13) years, respectively. All underwent laparoscopic PS with three (7.9%) conversions to open. Two SCD patients were lost to long-term follow-up. The remaining seven SCD patients had initial postoperative splenic remnant perfusion demonstrated by ultrasonography. By 42 months postoperatively, however, none had a functioning splenic remnant. The median time to loss of splenic remnant was 12.6 (IQR 9.2-28.5) months. In contrast, all HS patients demonstrated robust splenic remnant blood flow with a median follow-up of 46 (IQR 37-82) months. CONCLUSION: No patient with SCD who underwent PS had viable splenic tissue for more than 42 months, likely due to continued autoinfarction typical of patients with this disease. Therefore, we believe that PS to preserve splenic function is not indicated in patients with SCD. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Esferocitose Hereditária , Adolescente , Anemia Falciforme/cirurgia , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esferocitose Hereditária/cirurgia , Baço/cirurgia , Esplenectomia
20.
World J Surg ; 44(3): 887-895, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess long-term oncologic outcomes of robotic-assisted liver resection (RLR) for colorectal cancer (CRC) metastases as compared to a propensity-matched cohort of laparoscopic liver resections (LLR). Although safety and short-term outcomes of RLR have been described and previously compared to LLR, long-term and oncologic data are lacking. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed of all patients who underwent RLR and LLR for CRC metastases at six high-volume centers in the USA and Europe between 2002 and 2017. Propensity matching was used to match baseline characteristics between the two groups. Data were analyzed with a focus on postoperative and oncologic outcomes, as well as long-term recurrence and survival. RESULTS: RLR was performed in 115 patients, and 514 patients underwent LLR. Following propensity matching 115 patients in each cohort were compared. Perioperative outcomes including mortality, morbidity, reoperation, readmission, intensive care requirement, length-of-stay and margin status were not statistically different. Both prematching and postmatching analyses demonstrated similar overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) between RLR and LLR at 5 years (61 vs. 60% OS, p = 0.87, and 38 vs. 31% DFS, p = 0.25, prematching; 61 vs. 60% OS, p = 0.78, and 38 vs. 44% DFS, p = 0.62, postmatching). CONCLUSIONS: Propensity score matching with a large, multicenter database demonstrates that RLR for colorectal metastases is feasible and safe, with perioperative and long-term oncologic outcomes and survival that are largely comparable to LLR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Hepatectomia/métodos , Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Idoso , Cuidados Críticos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Internação , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Readmissão do Paciente , Pontuação de Propensão , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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