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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238673, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153461

RESUMO

Abstract Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Resumo A coccidiose continua sendo um dos maiores problemas em aves de todo o mundo. Dados muito limitados sobre drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens estão disponíveis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo compreender a eficácia comparativa da sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho em pombos selvagens do distrito de Dir, no Paquistão, que sofrem de coccidiose. A matéria fecal dos pombos selvagens foi comprada no mercado local para infecção por coccídios. Os resultados revelaram que 88,8% (16/18) foram encontrados infectados com Eimeria spp. Três grupos positivos foram tratados com sulfadimidina (0,2mg / L), amprólio (25mg / L) e triquenho. A sulfadimidina foi mais eficaz (45%), seguida pelo amprólio (44,6%), enquanto o triquenho (24,0%) apresentou menor efetividade contra a coccidiose em pombos. O número de oocistos foram 79, 81 e 80 antes do tratamento e 60, 44 e 44 após o tratamento com sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho, respectivamente. Este estudo mostrou que sulphadimidine, amprolium e triquen não poderiam reduzir significativamente a coccidiose em pombos. Mais estudos são necessários para limpar o mecanismo de drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236499, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153462

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239219, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153471

RESUMO

Abstract Salmo trutta fario is the most important fish species of family Salmonidae inhibited in cool waters all over the world including the nortern parts of Pakistan. This study was aimed to find out the prey selection and feeding habits of the species. One hundred and eighty five Salmo trutta fario were captured from March 2016 to April 2017. Feeding intensity as represented by a fullness index (FI), changing with various length groups and season. Out of 185 Brown trout 24 fish stomaches were found empty. The most important and common food items of brown trout were Brachycentridae, Blepharocera, Hydropsychidae, ephemerella spp. Kruskal Wallis H-test were applied on feeding intensity groups consisting of three month group. The test statistic for K.W-H-test were (H=8.13 with df =3) had a p-value of 0.043 < (alpha=0.05 indicates favor of the alternative hypothesis of at least one difference among the feeding intensity groups. The linear relationship of N with index of relative importance and %IRI denoted by least square regression line (N = 35.2 + 22.1%IRI), shows that for 22 prey there is 1% change in IRI. The relationship between total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm) is expressed by Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.976), showed that total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm.) is highly correlated. Descriptive statistics are used for the stomach fullness, which shows that feeding intensity was recorded higher from March to May. A total of 2289 preys was recorded including the most common were; Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae, Brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, ephemerala, chironomida, honey bees, grass hopper, locust, trout egg, trochanter, plant tissue, stones were retrieved from the gut contents of brown trout. According to index of relative importance IRI% four preys represents major components of the diet. The highest IRI% was recorded in Brachycentridae (39.38%), followed by blepharocera (13.23%), Hydropsychidae (10.76%) and ephemerella spp (8.28%). The relationship between IRI and FO is (r =0.556) is moderately correlated with coefficient of determination (r2=0.31). This study will help in the development of an artificial diet for the species for better growth performance in captivity.


Resumo Salmo trutta fario é a espécie de peixe mais importante da família dos salmonídeos, inibida em águas frias em todo o mundo, incluindo as partes do noroeste do Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a seleção de presas e os hábitos alimentares da espécie. Cento e oitenta e cinco Salmo trutta fario foram capturados de março de 2016 a abril de 2017. Intensidade de alimentação representada por um índice de plenitude (FI), mudando com vários grupos de comprimento e estação. De 185 trutas, 24 estômagos de peixes foram encontrados vazios. Os itens alimentares mais importantes e comuns da truta marrom foram brachycentridae, blepharocera, hydropsychidae, ephemerellaspp. O teste H de Kruskal Wallis foi aplicado em grupos de intensidade de alimentação consistindo de um grupo de três meses. A estatística de teste para o teste KW-H foi (H = 8,13 com df = 3) teve um valor de p de 0,043 <(alfa = 0,05 indica favor da hipótese alternativa de pelo menos uma diferença entre os grupos de intensidade de alimentação. relação de N com o índice de importância relativa e% IRI denotado pela linha de regressão do mínimo quadrado (N = 35,2 + 22,1% IRI), mostra que para 22 presas há 1% de mudança no IRI. A relação entre comprimento total (mm) e peixes o peso corporal (gm) é expresso pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson (r = 0,976), mostrou que o comprimento total (mm) e o peso corporal dos peixes (gm.) são altamente correlacionados. Estatísticas descritivas são usadas para a plenitude do estômago, o que mostra que a intensidade da alimentação foi registrado mais alto de março a maio. Um total de 2.289 presas foi registrado, incluindo os mais comuns foram; trichoptera, hydropsychidae, brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, efemérala, chironomida, abelhas, funil de grama, gafanhoto, ovo de truta, trocânter, tecido vegetal, pedras foram retiradas do intestino conteúdo de truta marrom. De acordo com o índice de importância relativa IRI%, quatro presas representam os principais componentes da dieta. O maior IRI% foi registrado em brachycentridae (39,38%), seguido por blepharocera (13,23%), hydropsychidae (10,76%) e ephemerellaspp (8,28%). A relação entre IRI e FO é (r = 0,556) está moderadamente correlacionada com o coeficiente de determinação (r2 = 0,31). Este estudo auxiliará no desenvolvimento de uma dieta artificial para a espécie para melhor desempenho de crescimento em cativeiro.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238953, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153478

RESUMO

Abstract Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo-helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw vegetable has a high risk of acquiring geo-helminth infections. The authors believe that preventing the human to enter to the vegetable farmland for defecation, avoiding the irrigation of agricultural fields via night soil, and educating the people on proper washing and cooking of vegetables may be useful in reducing parasitic infections.


Resumo As infecções causadas por parasitas geo-helmínticos são chamados de geohelmintíases e são um dos problemas de saúde globais. Os vegetais comidos crus são a principal fonte de transmissão dos parasitas geo-helmínticos. O povo paquistanês acredita que comer vegetais crus é uma fonte significativa para obter vitaminas e minerais importantes. Com base na alta incidência de parasitas patogênicos e no cultivo de diferentes tipos de vegetais nas áreas de estudo, conduzimos este estudo para avaliar a contaminação por geo-helmintos de vegetais crus no noroeste de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo composto por 1942 amostras de 25 tipos diversos de vegetais. As amostras foram examinadas em solução salina fisiológica utilizando métodos de sedimentação e centrifugação. Os achados foram analisados ​​pelo Graph-Pad versão 5. O valor de P menor que 0,05 (IC 95%) foi considerado significativo. Os resultados mostraram que 16,5% (n = 322) de todas as hortaliças estavam contaminadas com um ou mais tipos de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O alho foi a amostra mais contaminada (35%) e a couve-flor a menos (4%), respectivamente. Ascaris lumbricoides foi o geo-helmíntico mais comum encontrado, seguido por espécies de verme-anzol, enquanto Trichuris trichura foi o menos encontrado em todas as amostras de vegetais. Os vegetais folhosos foram altamente contaminados 25,3% do que os vegetais com partes de raiz 21,2% e frutados 9,09%. Mais da metade dos vegetais contaminados estavam contaminados com uma única espécie de geo-helmintos (P <0,05), enquanto menos da metade com vários tipos de contaminação com geo-helmintos. Noventa e duas amostras de vegetais estavam contaminadas com 2 espécies de parasitas (P <0,05) e 45 com 3 (P> 0,05) espécies de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O nível de escolaridade dos vendedores e os meios de exibição não foram significativamente associados, enquanto os tipos de vegetais usados ​​foram significativamente associados à prevalência de parasitas. Os resultados deste estudo fornecem evidências de que o consumo de vegetais crus tem um alto risco de adquirir infecções por geo-helmintos. Os autores acreditam que impedir que o ser humano entre na terra de hortaliças para defecação, evitar a irrigação de campos agrícolas via solo noturno e educar as pessoas sobre a lavagem e cozimento adequados de vegetais pode ser útil na redução de infecções parasitárias.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 934-939, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153427

RESUMO

Abstract During the present study thirteen Megaderma lyra bats were observed roosting in dark, domed shaped room of Rohtas Fort, district Jhelum. Out of these, six specimens were captured from the roosting site, using hand net. All captured specimens were male. These bats were identified through their unique facial features, an erect and elongated nose-leaf, large oval ears that joined above the forehead and no tail. Mean head and body length of captured specimens was 80 mm, forearm length was 67 mm while average lengths of 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpals were 51.73 mm, 55.17 mm and 60.42 mm, respectively. Mean skull length was 29.84 mm, breadth of braincase was 12.77 mm. Average Penis length of two specimens was 6.6 mm and total bacular length was 3.08 mm respectively. This is the first record of Megaderma lyra from district Jhelum.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, 13 morcegos Megadermalyra foram observados empoleirados em uma sala escura em forma de cúpula no Forte Rohtas, distrito de Jhelum, dos quais 6 espécimes foram capturados no local usando rede manual. Todos os espécimes capturados eram machos. Esses morcegos foram identificados por suas características faciais únicas, uma folha nasal ereta e alongada, grandes orelhas ovais que se juntam acima da testa e sem cauda. O comprimento médio da cabeça e do corpo dos espécimes capturados foi de 80 mm, o comprimento do antebraço foi de 67 mm, enquanto os comprimentos médios do 3º, 4º e 5º metacarpos foram de 51,73 mm, 55,17 mm e 60,42 mm, respectivamente. O comprimento médio do crânio foi de 29,84 mm, e a largura da caixa craniana, de 12,77 mm. O comprimento médio do pênis de duas amostras foi de 6,6 mm, e o comprimento total do báculo foi de 3,08 mm. Este é o primeiro registro de Megadermalyra no distrito de Jhelum.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 785-791, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153392

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was conducted to study seasonal abundance and distribution of dragonflies in upper Siran valley district Mansehra Pakistan. To collect data, eleven localities were visited for three consecutive years (2016-2018). Results come up with a sum of 300 specimens identified under three families, eight genera and twenty species. Highest seasonal abundance recorded during summer and spring were 80.67% and 13.33% respectively while minimum 6.00% was recorded during early autumn. Dominant species observed were, Orthetrum chrysis (14.00%), followed by O. gluacum (12.00%), Palpoleura sexmaculata sexmaculata (11.33%) and O. cancellatum cancellatum (8.00%). However the highest population of dragonflies was found in Munda Gucha with a percentage of 11.33 followed by Jabbar (11.00%) and Sachan (9.67%). The lowest populations were recorded in Suham (6.00%), Dadar (7.67%) and Jabori (7.67%). The surveyed valley showed diverse Anisopterous fauna and thus further extensive surveys are recommended that can come up with more important species from the area.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para verificar a abundância sazonal e a distribuição de libélulas no vale superior de Siran, distrito de Mansehra, Paquistão. Para a coleta de dados, 11 localidades foram visitadas por três anos consecutivos (2016-2018). Os resultados apresentaram uma soma de 300 espécimes identificados em três famílias, 8 gêneros e 20 espécies. A maior abundância sazonal registrada durante o verão e a primavera foi de 80,67% e 13,33%, respectivamente, enquanto o mínimo de 6% foi registrado no início do outono. As espécies dominantes observadas foram Orthetrum chrysis (14%), seguido por O. gluacum (12%), Palpoleura sexmaculata sexmaculata (11,33%) e O. cancellatum cancellatum (8%). No entanto, a maior população de libélulas foi encontrada em Munda Gucha (11,33%), seguida por Jabbar (11%) e Sachan (9,67%). As populações mais baixas foram registradas em Suham (6%), Dadar (7,67%) e Jabori (7,67%). O vale pesquisado mostrou fauna Anisopterous diversificada, e, portanto, recomenda-se a realização de mais pesquisas que possam apresentar mais espécies importantes da área.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 776-784, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153399

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was conducted to record ecotoparasitic prevalence in bat fauna of the northwestern parts of Pakistan. A total of 204 bat specimens representing 14 species were captured during a two year survey, extending from June 2015 through May 2016. A species of soft ticks Argas vespertilionis was identified from 23 bat specimens. Similarly, members of the family Dermanyssoidae (dermanyssoid mites) were isolated from 10 bat specimens, that of Spinturnicidae (spinturnicid mites) from 3 and Streblidae (bat flies) from 2 bat specimens. These parasites were collected using entomological tweezers and were identified on morphological basis. Further studies on parasitic prevalence, molecular characterization of bat parasites and their control measures are recommended.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para registrar a prevalência de ectoparasitas na fauna de morcegos em partes do noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 204 espécimes de morcegos, representando 14 espécies, foi capturado durante uma pesquisa de dois anos, de junho de 2015 a maio de 2016. A espécie de carrapato Argas vespertilionis foi identificada em 23 espécimes de morcegos. Da mesma forma, os membros da família Dermanyssidae (ácaros dermanyssoid) foram isolados de 10 espécimes de morcego, os da Spinturnicidae (ácaros spinturnicid), de 3, e os da Streblidae (mosca de morcego), de 2 espécimes de morcego. Esses parasitas foram coletados com pinça entomológica e identificados com base morfológica. Estudos adicionais sobre prevalência parasitária, caracterização molecular de parasitas de morcego e suas medidas de controle devem ser realizados.

10.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 387-391, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153349

RESUMO

Abstract Poor storage conditions provide favorable environment to stored grain pests for their growth. The bio-pesticides are the best alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Present study was conducted to compare toxicity of Rubus fruticosus and Valeriana jatamansi against granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius and subsequent changes in enzyme activity responsible for grain damage. In current research 5 g of R. fruticosus fruit and V. jatamansi rhizome powders were tested separately against S. granarius, in 50 g wheat whole grains for seven days in comparison with the control. The enzymatic activity of malate dehydrogenase and α-amylase was observed in the cellular extracts of S. granarius. The insects were crushed and homogenized in phosphate-buffer solution and centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 5 minutes. For the enzymatic measurement supernatant was tested; the spectrophotometer was adjusted at 340 nm. The reagents were mixed and incubated at 25 °C for five minutes. The cuvettes were placed in the experimental and reference sites of spectrophotometer and recorded the change in absorbance for 3-4 minutes. There was 5.60% and 14.92% reduction in the activity of malate dehydrogenase in R. fruticosus and V. jatamansi, treated insects, respectively. The alpha amylase enzyme activity was 6.82% reduced and 63.63% increase in R. fruticosus and V. jatamansi, treated insects, respectively. Present study addresses that both plant powders are effective against granary weevil by altering enzyme activities so both the plant powders can be used as bio-pesticides against the stored grains pests.


Resumo As más condições de armazenamento proporcionam um ambiente favorável às pragas armazenadas para o crescimento. Os biopesticidas são as melhores alternativas aos pesticidas sintéticos. O presente estudo foi conduzido para comparar a toxicidade de Rubus fruticosus e Valeriana jatamansi contra gorgulhos, Sitophilus granarius e subsequentes alterações na atividade enzimática responsáveis ​​por danos aos grãos. Na pesquisa atual, 5 g de frutos de R. fruticosus e pós de rizoma de V. jatamansi foram testados separadamente contra S. granarius, em 50 g de grãos integrais de trigo por sete dias, em comparação com o controle. A atividade enzimática da malato desidrogenase e α-amilase foi observada nos extratos celulares de S. granarius. Os insetos foram esmagados e homogeneizados em solução tampão fosfato e centrifugados a 10000 rpm por 5 minutos. Para a medição enzimática, o sobrenadante foi testado; o espectrofotômetro foi ajustado a 340 nm. Os reagentes foram misturados e incubados a 25 °C por cinco minutos. As cubetas foram colocadas nos locais experimentais e de referência do espectrofotômetro e registradas as alterações na absorbância por 3-4 minutos. Houve redução de 5,60% e 14,92% na atividade da malato desidrogenase em R. fruticosus e V. jatamansi, insetos tratados, respectivamente. A atividade da enzima alfa amilase foi reduzida em 6,82% e aumento de 63,63% em R. fruticosus e V. jatamansi, insetos tratados, respectivamente. O presente estudo aborda que ambos os pós de plantas são eficazes contra o gorgulho do celeiro, alterando as atividades enzimáticas, de modo que ambos os pós de plantas possam ser usados ​​como biopesticidas contra pragas de grãos armazenados.

11.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825759

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
12.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e236499, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729383

RESUMO

Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Assuntos
Chuva , Roedores , Agricultura , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Paquistão , Ratos , Simbiose
13.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238673, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729384

RESUMO

Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Assuntos
Amprólio , Coccidiose , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Columbidae , Paquistão , Sulfametazina
14.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238953, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729385

RESUMO

Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo-helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw vegetable has a high risk of acquiring geo-helminth infections. The authors believe that preventing the human to enter to the vegetable farmland for defecation, avoiding the irrigation of agricultural fields via night soil, and educating the people on proper washing and cooking of vegetables may be useful in reducing parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Verduras , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Paquistão , Solo
15.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787717

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
16.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238735, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787718

RESUMO

Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Roedores , Roedores , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Paquistão , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Simbiose
17.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e239219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787749

RESUMO

Salmo trutta fario is the most important fish species of family Salmonidae inhibited in cool waters all over the world including the nortern parts of Pakistan. This study was aimed to find out the prey selection and feeding habits of the species. One hundred and eighty five Salmo trutta fario were captured from March 2016 to April 2017. Feeding intensity as represented by a fullness index (FI), changing with various length groups and season. Out of 185 Brown trout 24 fish stomaches were found empty. The most important and common food items of brown trout were Brachycentridae, Blepharocera, Hydropsychidae, ephemerella spp. Kruskal Wallis H-test were applied on feeding intensity groups consisting of three month group. The test statistic for K.W-H-test were (H=8.13 with df =3) had a p-value of 0.043 < (alpha=0.05 indicates favor of the alternative hypothesis of at least one difference among the feeding intensity groups. The linear relationship of N with index of relative importance and %IRI denoted by least square regression line (N = 35.2 + 22.1%IRI), shows that for 22 prey there is 1% change in IRI. The relationship between total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm) is expressed by Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.976), showed that total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm.) is highly correlated. Descriptive statistics are used for the stomach fullness, which shows that feeding intensity was recorded higher from March to May. A total of 2289 preys was recorded including the most common were; Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae, Brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, ephemerala, chironomida, honey bees, grass hopper, locust, trout egg, trochanter, plant tissue, stones were retrieved from the gut contents of brown trout. According to index of relative importance IRI% four preys represents major components of the diet. The highest IRI% was recorded in Brachycentridae (39.38%), followed by blepharocera (13.23%), Hydropsychidae (10.76%) and ephemerella spp (8.28%). The relationship between IRI and FO is (r =0.556) is moderately correlated with coefficient of determination (r2=0.31). This study will help in the development of an artificial diet for the species for better growth performance in captivity.


Assuntos
Rios , Truta , Animais , Abelhas , Dieta , Hábitos , Paquistão
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 92-97, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153312

RESUMO

Abstract Fish provides main source of high quality protein to more than one billion people in the world. Fish parasites directly affect the productivity of fish and indirectly on human health. This research was aimed to assess the helminth parasites in Schizothorax plagiostomus (the snow trout) from river Panjkora, KP, Pakistan. A total of 88 fish samples (n= 88) were collected from the upper, middle and lower regions of the river through cast nets, hand nets and hooks. All the collected fish samples were examined in the Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Malakand for helminth parasites during July 2018 to February 2019.Among these fishes nematodes, trematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalan were isolated and identified. Overall prevalence of the fish parasites was 60.22% (53/88). The intensity of the parasite was observed from 1.7% to 4.61%. Highest prevalence was reported in summer season 86.36% while lowest in the winter season 36.36%. This study shows that summer season affects the fish business and result in poor quality fish meat with risk of zoonotic diseases. Adults were highly infected 82.25% while no infection was found in juvenile specimens. Female fish samples had higher prevalence 68.22% than males 48.22%. Fishes of the lower reaches had highest prevalence 60.22% than the upper reaches 40.0%. Fish samples with maximum length and weight were highly 76.92% infected than small sized fish with low body weight. Present study addresses that Rhabdochona schizothoracis in the intestine and Diplozoon paradoxum in gills of snow trout fish has a long term relationship and call as a natural infection in cyprinids and it is zoonotic threat to human.


Resumo O peixe é a principal fonte de proteína de alta qualidade para mais de um bilhão de pessoas no mundo. Contudo, parasitas afetam diretamente a produtividade de peixes e, indiretamente, a saúde humana. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar os parasitas helmintos em Schizothorax plagiostomus (truta da neve) do rio Panjkora, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Foram coletadas 88 amostras de peixes (n = 88) dos trechos alto, médio e baixo do rio por meio de redes de arrasto, redes de mão e varas de pesca. Todas as amostras de peixes coletadas foram examinadas no Laboratório de Parasitologia do Departamento de Zoologia, da Universidade de Malakand, quanto a parasitas helmintos durante o período de julho de 2018 a fevereiro de 2019. Entre esses peixes, nematódeos, trematódeos, cestóideos e acantocéfalos foram isolados e identificados. A prevalência geral de parasitas de peixes foi de 60,22% (53/88). A intensidade do parasita foi observada de 1,7 a 4,61%. A maior prevalência (86,36%) foi relatada no verão, enquanto a menor (36,36%), no inverno. Este estudo mostra que a temporada de verão afeta o ramo da pesca e resulta em carne de baixa qualidade, com risco de doenças zoonóticas. Os adultos foram altamente infectados (82,25%), enquanto nenhuma infecção foi encontrada em jovens. As amostras de peixes do sexo feminino apresentaram maior prevalência (68,22%) do que as do sexo masculino (48,22%). Os peixes coletados no trecho baixo do rio tiveram maior prevalência (60,22%) do que os do trecho alto (40%). Amostras de peixes com comprimento e peso máximos foram altamente infectadas (76,92%) do que peixes de pequeno porte e baixo peso corporal. O presente estudo aborda que Rhabdochona schizothoracis no intestino e Diplozoon paradoxum em brânquias de peixes de truta da neve possuem uma estreita relação que causa uma infecção natural em ciprinídeos, sendo uma ameaça zoonótica ao ser humano.

20.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 98-104, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153320

RESUMO

Abstract Fish is consumed as a rich and cheaper source of white meat and proteins all over the world. Fish farming is the leading source of income generation throughout the world. The present research study was conducted with aims to investigate the ecto and endo parasitic fauna of S. plagiostomus (snow trout) in River Swat. A total of 96 fish samples were collected on monthly basis from July-2018 to February-2019, from upper, middle and lower reaches. Fish samples were collected with the help of cast net, hand net and fishing rods. Local fishermen and experts help were also sought out for fish collection. 61 out of 96 fishes were found infected by helminth parasites. The total prevalence and intensity of 63.54% and 2.90 was observed respectively during data analysis. Highest monthly prevalence of 83.33% was recorded during July and August, while lowest prevalence of 33.33% was noted during February. Five species of helminths parasites were detected from S. plagiostomus, of which two were trematodes (Rhabdochona shizothoracis and Rhabdochona species), one species of Monogenia (Diplozoon paraddoxum), one species of Cestodes (Nippotaenia species), and one species of Acanthocephalan (Neoechynorhynchus devdevi). Highest parasite wise prevalence, intensity and relative density of 21.87%, 4.09 and 0.895 was noted for R. schizothoracis while the lowest prevalence, intensity and relative density of 4.16%, 1.25 and 0.052 was noted for N. devdevi. Highest infection of 76.08% was observed in adults host while lowest, 40% infestation rate was observed in young fish samples. 73.68% prevalence was observed in female hosts while only 56.90% prevalence was observed in male individuals. Higher infection (83.33%) was noticed during summer season, while lowest infection (44.44%) was observed during winter season. Similarly 71.79% fishes were found infected that were collected from lower reaches of the River Swat than the fish samples collected from upper reaches (52%).


Resumo O peixe é consumido mundialmente por ser uma fonte rica e barata de carne branca e proteínas. A piscicultura é a principal fonte de geração de renda em todo o mundo. O presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de investigar a fauna ecto e endoparasitária de S. plagiostomus (truta da neve) no rio Swat. Foram coletadas mensalmente 96 amostras de peixes, no período de julho de 2018 a fevereiro de 2019, nos trechos alto, médio e baixo com auxílio de redes de arrasto, redes de mão e varas de pesca. Pescadores locais e especialistas também ajudaram na coleta de peixes. Dos 96 peixes encontrados, 61 estavam infectados por parasitas helmintos. A prevalência de 63,54% e a intensidade total de 2,90 foram observadas durante a análise dos dados. A maior prevalência mensal de 83,33% foi registrada nos meses de julho e agosto, enquanto a menor, de 33,33%, em fevereiro. Cinco espécies de parasitas helmintos foram detectadas de S. plagiostomus, dos quais dois eram trematódeos (espécies Rhabdochona shizothoracis e Rhabdochona), uma espécie de monogenia (Diplozoon paradoxum), uma espécie de cestóideos (espécie Nippotaenia) e uma espécie de acantocéfalo (Neoechynorhynchus devdevi). As maiores prevalências de parasitas (21,87%), intensidade (4,09) e densidade relativa (0,895) foram observadas em R. schizothoracis, enquanto as menores prevalências de parasitas (4,16%), intensidade (1,25) e densidade relativa (0,052), em N. devdevi. A infecção mais alta (76,08%) foi constatada em adultos hospedeiros, ao passo que a taxa de infestação mais baixa (40%) foi encontrada em amostras de peixes jovens. A prevalência de 73,68% foi verificada em hospedeiros do sexo feminino, enquanto a de 56,90%, em indivíduos do sexo masculino. Maior infecção (83,33%) foi observada durante a temporada de verão, e a menor infecção (44,44%), durante o inverno. Da mesma forma, 71,79% dos peixes encontrados infectados foram coletados no trecho baixo do rio Swat, enquanto 52%, no trecho alto.

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