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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256354, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364518

RESUMO

Termites are known as social insects worldwide. Presently in China 473 species, 44 genera and 4 families of termites have been reported. Of them, 111 Reticulitermes species are widely spread in different zones of China. The dispersion flight season of these Chinese Reticulitermes species are usually started from February to June, but in some regions different species are distributed, sharing their boundaries and having overlapping flight seasons. These reasons become important sources of hybridization between two different heterospecific populations of termites. It was confirmed that the fertilized eggs and unfertilized eggs of some Reticulitermes termites have the capacity of cleavage. While the unfertilized eggs of R. aculabialis, R. chinensis and R. labralis cleaved normally and the only R. aculabialis unfertilized eggs develop in embryos. While, the R. flaviceps and R. chinensis were observed with their abnormal embryonic development, and not hatching of eggs parthenogenetically. They were reported more threatening to Chinese resources as they propagate with parthenogenesis, hybridization and sexual reproduction. Eggshell and macrophiles of eggs play important roles in species identification and control. Although, they are severe pests and cause a wide range of damages to wooden structures and products in homes, buildings, building materials, trees, crops, and forests in China's Mainland.


Os cupins são conhecidos como insetos sociais em todo o mundo. Atualmente na China foram relatadas 473 espécies, 44 gêneros e 4 famílias de cupins. Destas, 111 espécies de Reticulitermes estão amplamente distribuídas em diferentes zonas da China. A temporada de voo de dispersão dessas espécies chinesas de Reticulitermes geralmente começa de fevereiro a junho, mas em algumas regiões diferentes espécies são distribuídas, compartilhando seus limites e tendo temporadas de voo sobrepostas. Essas razões tornam-se importantes fontes de hibridização entre duas populações heteroespecíficas de cupins. Foi confirmado que os ovos fertilizados e não fertilizados de alguns cupins Reticulitermes possuem capacidade de clivagem. Já os ovos não fertilizados de R. aculabialis, R. chinensis e R. labralis clivaram normalmente, e os únicos ovos não fertilizados de R. aculabialis se desenvolvem em embriões. R. flaviceps e R. chinensis foram observados com desenvolvimento embrionário anormal, e não eclosão de ovos por partenogênese. Eles foram relatados como mais ameaçadores para os recursos chineses à medida que se propagam com partenogênese, hibridização e reprodução sexual. Casca de ovo e macrófilos de ovos desempenham papéis importantes na identificação e controle de espécies, embora sejam pragas graves e causem uma ampla gama de danos a estruturas e produtos de madeira em residências, edifícios, materiais de construção, árvores, plantações e florestas na China continental.


Assuntos
Animais , Partenogênese , Reprodução , Isópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Hibridização Genética
2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 32(1): 90-95, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594307

RESUMO

Control of pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis is difficult because 30.0% to 50.0% of patients still experience persistence or recurrence of pain even after surgery. So a combined approach of surgery and coeliac plexus neurolysis was carried out in this study to see the relief of pain and reduce the requirement of analgesics in these patients. This prospective observational comparative study was carried out in the Department of Hepatobiliary, Pancreatic and Liver Transplant Surgery in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from November 2017 to October 2018. Forty one (41) study participants with the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis were included consecutively in this study. The participants were divided into two groups. Group I (n=18) underwent pancreatic surgery with coeliac plexus neurolysis by infiltration of 20ml of 100% alcohol in the loose areolar tissue 10ml each into right and left para-aortic space at the level of coeliac trunk and Group II (n=23) underwent pancreatic surgery only. Participants' preoperative data were collected from patient record file. Number, frequency and intensity of pain and requirement of amount of analgesics for the last 3 months were recorded from patients' history. The intensity of pain was categorized by visual analog scale (VAS) preoperatively. The participants of both groups were followed up at 1, 2 and 3 months interval and asked for disappearance or reduction of pain, frequency of attack and requirement of analgesics. Again visual analog scale was used for categorization of pain. Pain free period was recorded after the end of follow up period. Pain reduction occurred after surgery in both groups. But when pain relief was compared on the basis of VAS (Visual Analogue Scale), it was significantly better in Group I after 1 month of surgery than Group II (p=0.05). But 2 and 3 months after surgery this difference became insignificant (p=0.246 and 0.264). No statistical difference was found in terms of analgesic usage, severe acute attack or hospital admission (p=0.511, 0.439 and 0.495) at the end of 3 months follow up. Participants in Group I had significantly longer pain free period than Group II (p=0.025). Regarding complications, postural hypotension developed in 5.6% (1) patients. Diarrhea developed in 11.1% (2) patients in Group I and wound infection developed in 2 patients in each groups respectively. No patients developed any major complications like anastomotic leakage, deep or organ or space infection. Intraoperative coeliac plexus neurolysis reduces pain immediately after surgery and provides longer pain free period in patients with chronic pancreatitis after surgery.


Assuntos
Plexo Celíaco , Pancreatite Crônica , Humanos , Plexo Celíaco/cirurgia , Bangladesh , Pancreatite Crônica/complicações , Pancreatite Crônica/cirurgia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245865, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339368

RESUMO

Abstract Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a tremendous threat to vegetables across the globe, including in Pakistan. The present work was conducted to investigate the genetic variability of CMV isolates infecting pea and spinach vegetables in the Pothwar region of Pakistan. Serological-based surveys during 2016-2017 revealed 31.70% overall CMV disease incidence from pea and spinach crops. Triple-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) revealed that all the positive isolates belong to CMV subgroup II. Two selected cDNA from ELISA-positive samples representing each pea and spinach crops were PCR-amplified (ca.1100 bp) and sequenced corresponding to the CMV CP gene which shared 93.7% nucleotide identity with each other. Both the sequences of CMV pea (AAHAP) and spinach (AARS) isolates from Pakistan were submitted to GenBank as accession nos. MH119071 and MH119073, respectively. BLAST analysis revealed 93.4% sequence identity of AAHAP isolate with SpK (KC763473) from Iran while AARS isolate shared maximum identity (94.5%) with the strain 241 (AJ585519) from Australia and clustered with some reference isolates of CMV subgroup II from UK (Z12818) and USA (AF127976) in a Neighbour-joining phylogenetic reconstruction. A total of 59 polymorphic (segregating) sites (S) with nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.06218 was evident while no INDEL event was observed in Pakistani isolates. The evolutionary distance of Pakistani CMV isolates was recorded as 0.0657 with each other and 0.0574-0.2964 with other CMV isolates reported elsewhere in the world. A frequent gene flow (Fst = 0.30478 <0.33) was observed between Pakistani and earlier reported CMV isolates. In genetic differentiation analysis, the value of three permutation-based statistical tests viz; Z (84.3011), Snn (0.82456), and Ks* (4.04042) were non-significant. The statistical analysis revealed the values 2.02535, 0.01468, and 0.71862 of Tajima's D, Fu, & Li's F* and D* respectively, demonstrating that the CMV population is under balancing selection.


Resumo Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) é uma tremenda ameaça aos vegetais em todo o mundo, inclusive no Paquistão. O presente trabalho foi conduzido para investigar a variabilidade genética de isolados de CMV infectando vegetais de ervilha e espinafre na região de Pothwar, Paquistão. Pesquisas com base em sorologia durante 2016-2017 revelaram 31,70% da incidência geral da doença por CMV em safras de ervilha e espinafre. O ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática em sanduíche de anticorpo triplo (TAS-ELISA) revelou que todos os isolados positivos pertencem ao subgrupo II do CMV. Dois cDNA selecionados de amostras positivas para ELISA representando cada safra de ervilha e espinafre foram amplificados por PCR (ca.1100 pb) e sequenciados correspondendo ao gene CMV CP que compartilhou 93,7% de identidade de nucleotídeo um com o outro. Ambas as sequências de isolados de ervilha CMV (AAHAP) e espinafre (AARS) do Paquistão foram submetidas ao GenBank como nos de acesso. MH119071 e MH119073, respectivamente. A análise BLAST revelou 93,4% de identidade de sequência do isolado AAHAP com SpK (KC763473) do Irã, enquanto o isolado AARS compartilhou a identidade máxima (94,5%) com a cepa 241 (AJ585519) da Austrália e agrupada com alguns isolados de referência do subgrupo II de CMV do Reino Unido (Z12818) e EUA (AF127976) em uma reconstrução filogenética vizinha. Um total de 59 sítios polimórficos (segregantes) (S) com diversidade de nucleotídeos (π) de 0,06218 foi evidente, enquanto nenhum evento INDEL foi observado em isolados do Paquistão. A distância evolutiva de isolados de CMV do Paquistão foi registrada como 0,0657 entre si e 0,0574-0,2964 com outros isolados de CMV relatados em outras partes do mundo. Um fluxo gênico frequente (Fst = 0,30478 < 0,33) foi observado entre os isolados de CMV do Paquistão e relatados anteriormente. Na análise de diferenciação genética, os valores de três testes estatísticos baseados em permutação viz, Z (84,3011), Snn (0,82456) e Ks * (4,04042) não foram significativos. A análise estatística revelou os valores 2,02535, 0,01468 e 0,71862 de Tajima's D, Fu, & Li's F * e D * respectivamente, demonstrando que a população de CMV está sob seleção de balanceamento.


Assuntos
Cucumovirus/genética , Cucumis sativus , Paquistão , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Variação Genética , Spinacia oleracea , Ervilhas
4.
J Maxillofac Oral Surg ; 21(3): 972-978, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274879

RESUMO

Introduction: The National Institute of Clinical Excellence in the UK (NICE) recommended the use of "one-stop" clinics for the assessment and management of head and neck lumps like those established for breast lumps. "One-stop" clinics should follow a triple assessment protocol involving physical examination, radiological imaging and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Methods: A retrospective analysis of 144 patients with suspected parotid tumours from 2005 to 2011 was done. Patients were assessed for individual modalities and compared against the final histological diagnosis. Statistical analysis was used for sensitivity and specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive values. All calculations were performed using SPSS version 16 (Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences, Chicago, IL). A p value of < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: A total of 105 patients underwent all the three modalities. Out of them, 93 had imaging that was considered radiologically benign and 12 were reported to have a malignant lesion. Cytologically, 75 were found to have a benign tumour, 13 were malignant, and 17 were considered to be indeterminate. The most common benign neoplasm was pleomorphic adenoma followed by Warthin's tumour. The sensitivity and specificity of triple assessment were 96% (p value 0.878-0.984) and 73% (p value 0.42-0.904), respectively. The positive predictive value was 96% (p value 0.878-0.984) and negative predictive value came out to be 93% (p value 0.42-0.904). Conclusions: The overall accuracy of triple assessment was found to be 92%. This study concludes that triple assessment is a useful assessment tool to evaluate a patient with parotid lump. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12663-021-01590-5.

5.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(4): 1142-1147, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189564

RESUMO

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most frequently injured ligament of the knee. It can be repaired and reconstructed by open and endoscopic method, the gold standard is, however, endoscopic reconstruction. It is usually reconstructed using bone patellar tendon bone (BPTB) or Hamstring autograft. The graft is supported using endobutton at the femoral end while bioabsorbable interference screw at the tibial end. This study aimed to determine how a certain fixation procedure for quadrupled hamstring autografts worked out. This prospective observational study duration period was 1 year in which 40 patients with ACL injury were treated with arthroscopic reconstruction using hamstring autograft from January 2020 to December 2020 with 6 months follow up after surgery. On the femoral side, an endobutton was used to secure the graft, while the tibial end was secured using a bioabsorbable screw. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scoring system was used for prospective evaluation. According to subjective IKDC scoring, 20(50.0%) results were very good, 14(35.0%) were good, 4(10.0%) were satisfactory and 2(5.0%) were bad. In 95.0% patients the state of knee joint is very good compared to preoperative state. Of all the 40 patients underwent ACL reconstruction, 38(95.0%) patients are satisfied with the results of the operation.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/métodos , Autoenxertos/cirurgia , Parafusos Ósseos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Tendões/transplante , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Public Health ; 207: 73-81, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Given the growing interest worldwide in applying public policies to improve human health, we undertook a systematic review of studies investigating whether public policies targeting unhealthy products could reduce cardiovascular diseases. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a systematic review of the literature. METHODS: We searched research studies published in 2000-2020 from major databases, including MEDLINE and Embase. We followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and narratively synthesized the studies based on vote counting and direction of the intervention effect. RESULTS: Ninety-eight studies, mostly from high-income countries, met the inclusion criteria. Most studies were on public policies targeting sugar-sweetened beverages and tobacco, followed by alcohol, sugar, salt, and junk foods. Overall, many reported that several fiscal, regulatory, and educational policies generated beneficial effects of reducing the diseases. Those studies that reported no or limited effects highlighted several sociodemographic and health risk characteristics and design and implementation aspects of the policy interventions as factors limiting the policy effects; most of these are modifiable with appropriate policy interventions. For instance, low magnitude of tax, substitution with other unhealthy products, firms' competitive response strategies, pre-existence of smoking bans, incremental enactment of smoking regulations, degree of enforcement, and various sociocultural factors minimized the effects of the policies. CONCLUSION: The literature supports a growing consensus on the beneficial effects of public policy for improving human health. The design and implementation of public policies must address various impeding factors and incorporate appropriate remedial measures. Further research is needed from low- and middle-income countries and on whether and how multiple policy instruments work in tandem.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Política Antifumo , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Política Pública , Fumar
7.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e259217, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544791

RESUMO

The maize crop is used as food for humans, livestock and poultries forms, it is also used in bread making, corn flakes, corn syrup, corn starch and corn oils. The field study consisted of one experimental trial, about the incidence of that insect pest complex on maize cultivar Azam during the Kharif season 2020 at the Agricultural, Research Station, Baffa, Mansehra. The trial was laid out in the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), and then it was divided into three replications. The result obtained from the trial showed that a number of the pest species were recorded during the experimental period; however, the population was noticed at a low level. The obtained insect species were corn leaf aphid (6.90 ± 5.5) per square inch, corn leafhopper (1.32 ± 0.63), maize stem borer (0.63 ± 0.29), corn flea beetle (0.43 ± 0.28), Thrips (0.38 ± 0.22), Hairy caterpillar (0.21 ± 0.22), Grasshopper (0.17 ± 0.11) and shoot fly (0.11 ± 0.08) throughout the season.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Zea mays , Animais , Insetos , Paquistão , Prevalência
8.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 24(9): 1344-1354, 2022 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The implementation of smokeless tobacco control policies lags behind those for smoking. This scoping review summarizes the studies that evaluated public policies on smokeless tobacco regulation (SLT) and provides an overview of the jurisdictional level, target groups, and policy instruments. METHODS: Seven databases were systematically searched for studies reporting on public policies regulating SLT. Two reviewers independently screened all studies. Data extraction was performed using a predefined extraction form. Extraction was replicated for 10% of the identified studies for quality assurance. A narrative synthesis of the included studies was used to analyze and interpret the data. The protocol was published beforehand with the Open Science Foundation (OSF). RESULTS: Fourty articles comprising 41 studies were included. Most of the studies reported in the articles were conducted in the United States (n = 17) or India (n = 14). Most studies reported outcomes for students (n = 8), retailers/sellers (n = 8), and users/former users (n = 5). The impact of public policies on smokeless tobacco use, in general, was most frequently assessed (n = 9), followed by the impact of taxes (n = 7), product bans (n = 6), sales/advertising bans near educational institutions (n = 4), and health warnings (n = 3) on consumer behavior. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant gaps in the evaluation of smokeless tobacco regulation studies that need to be filled by further research to understand the observed outcomes. WHO reporting on Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation should be linked to studies evaluating smokeless tobacco control measures at all levels of jurisdictions and in countries not members of the WHO FCTC or do not provide data. IMPLICATION: Large gaps in the evaluation of SLT control policies exist. For some countries, WHO FCTC evaluations are available for different levels of jurisdictions. In countries with a strong federal structure, there is a lack of data beyond the national level to provide a more detailed look at compliance, indirect effects, or implementation gaps. More research is needed at all levels of jurisdictions, which add to the work of the WHO to understand what works for which target group, how the different levels of jurisdiction interact, how the real-world context can be incorporated, and what indirect effects may occur.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Humanos , Políticas , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(2): 564-568, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383782

RESUMO

Retrieval of stone by endoscopic papillotomy, laparoscopic choledochotomy or open choledochotomy is the treatment of choice for choledocholithiasis. Published literature shows that the recurrence rate is 4% to 24% with existing method of treatment. We have treated 8 patients who admitted with recurrent choledocholithiasis in the department of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic and Liver Transplant Surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Bangladesh in the period of January 2016 to December 2019. None had intrahepatic duct abnormality or stones. All patients underwent either ERCP stenting, open choledocholithotomy or both 16 to 84 months back. Management policy is designed and outcome is observed on these patients. There were 3 males and 5 females; age ranges 18 to 60 years. The common bile duct (CBD) diameter of all patient ranges from 15 to 24mm. The shape of CBD is different from normal variant; S shaped, saculated, grossly dilated with terminal narrowing. Considering the anatomical abnormality and recurrence of disease we have removed the abnormal part of common bile duct along with stones and the operation was completed by Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. All patients were completely symptom free for 6 to 48 months after surgery. Removal of abnormal part of common bile duct with reconstruction in the form of Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy may be considered for treating choledocholithiasis with abnormal CBD (abnormally dilated, abnormally shaped, angulated or sacculated) however, long-term follow up is required for final comment.


Assuntos
Coledocolitíase , Laparoscopia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Coledocolitíase/diagnóstico , Coledocolitíase/cirurgia , Ducto Colédoco/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esfinterotomia Endoscópica , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e256354, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35319619

RESUMO

Termites are known as social insects worldwide. Presently in China 473 species, 44 genera and 4 families of termites have been reported. Of them, 111 Reticulitermes species are widely spread in different zones of China. The dispersion flight season of these Chinese Reticulitermes species are usually started from February to June, but in some regions different species are distributed, sharing their boundaries and having overlapping flight seasons. These reasons become important sources of hybridization between two different heterospecific populations of termites. It was confirmed that the fertilized eggs and unfertilized eggs of some Reticulitermes termites have the capacity of cleavage. While the unfertilized eggs of R. aculabialis, R. chinensis and R. labralis cleaved normally and the only R. aculabialis unfertilized eggs develop in embryos. While, the R. flaviceps and R. chinensis were observed with their abnormal embryonic development, and not hatching of eggs parthenogenetically. They were reported more threatening to Chinese resources as they propagate with parthenogenesis, hybridization and sexual reproduction. Eggshell and macrophiles of eggs play important roles in species identification and control. Although, they are severe pests and cause a wide range of damages to wooden structures and products in homes, buildings, building materials, trees, crops, and forests in China's Mainland.


Assuntos
Baratas , Isópteros , Animais , China , Reprodução
11.
Vacunas ; 23: S26-S32, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512220

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the attitude and hesitancy toward vaccine against COVID-19 in a Pakistani Population. Materials and methods: A mix-method, prospective study was conducted and adults (aged ≥18 years) residing in Pakistan were invited to participate. The questionnaire was prepared, hosted in Google Forms and circulated through electronic platforms and was also available to be done in in-person. Data was compiled from 15th September to 30th November 2020. Results: The response rate was 80%. A total of 1003 participants were included in the final analysis. Of them, 75% completed survey questionnaire online, while remaining 25% responded in-person. The mean age of the participants was 29.62 ± 10.47 years. The majority of participants were females; 60.9% (n = 611). 57.02% (n = 572) of the participants were employed at the time of survey. Overall, 70.68% (n = 709) of the participants had previous experience of vaccines such as the flu vaccine Only 4.9% (n = 49) participants thought that they will be seriously ill from COVID-19 within six months and 39% (n = 392) participants were confident that they will get COVID-19. A total of 71.29% of the participants reported they would consider getting vaccinated once available. There was statistical association between gender and getting vaccinated (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that majority of the participants showed positive attitude toward considering COVID-19 vaccine. However awareness with informed knowledge of efficacy, possible adverse effects and cost would be of added great value to increase the real response of Pakistani population toward COVID-19 vaccination.


Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actitud y la renuencia hacia la vacuna frente a la COVID-19 en una población paquistaní. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de método mixto, invitándose a participar a personas adultas (edad ≥18 años) residentes en Paquistán. Se preparó el cuestionario, que se alojó en Google Forms y se hizo circular a través de plataformas electrónicas, pudiendo realizarse también de manera personal. Los datos se recopilaron desde el 15 de septiembre al 30 de noviembre de 2020. Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue del 80%. El análisis final incluyó un total de 1.003 participantes, de los cuales el 75% completó el cuestionario-encuesta online, mientras que el 25% respondió en persona. La edad media de los participantes fue de 29,62 ± 10,47 años. La mayoría de los participantes eran mujeres: el 60,9% (n = 611). El 57,02% (n = 572) de los participantes tenía empleo en el momento de la encuesta. En general, el 70,68% (n = 709) de los participantes tenía experiencia previa sobre vacunas tales como la vacuna frente a la gripe. Solo el 4,9% (n = 49) de los participantes pensaba que padecerían la COVID-19 de forma grave en el plazo de seis meses, y el 39% (n = 392) de los participantes estaba seguro de que se contagiaría de dicha enfermedad. El 71,29% de los participantes reportó que consideraría recibir la vacuna una vez que se dispusiera de la misma. Existió una asociación estadística entre el sexo y el ser vacunado (P< 0,001). Conclusión: Este estudio demostró que la mayoría de los participantes mostró una actitud positiva hacia la consideración de la vacuna frente a la COVID-19. Sin embargo, la concienciación sobre el conocimiento informado de la vacuna, los posibles efectos adversos y el coste supondrían un gran valor añadido al incremento de la respuesta real de la población paquistaní hacia la vacuna frente a la COVID-19.

12.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243692, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278520

RESUMO

Abstract Vegetables are an important source of income and high-value crops for small farmers. Chilli (Capsicum spp.) is one of the most economically important vegetables of Pakistan and it is grown throughout the country. It is a rich source of nutrition especially vitamins A, B, C and E along with minerals as folic acid, manganese (Mn), potassium (K) and molybdenum (Mo). Chilli possesses seven times more amount of vitamin C than an orange. Vitamin A, C and beta-carotenoids are strong antioxidants to scavenge the free radicals. Chilli production is restricted due to various biotic factors. Among these viruses, Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) is one of the most destructive and menacing agents that inflicts heavy and colossal losses that accounted for 50% yield loss both in quality and quantity. Pathogen-Derived Resistance (PDR) approach is considered one of the effective approaches to manage plant viruses. In this study, ChiVMV was characterized on a molecular level, the coat protein (CP) gene of the virus was stably transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The transgenic plants were challenged with the virus to evaluate the level of resistance of plants against the virus. It was observed that the plants expressing CP gene have partial resistance against the virus in terms of symptoms' development and virus accumulation. Translation of this technique into elite chilli varieties will be resulted to mitigate the ChiVMV in the crop as well as an economic benefit to the farmers.


Resumo Vegetais são uma importante fonte de renda e culturas de alto valor para os pequenos agricultores. A pimenta-malagueta (Capsicum spp.) é uma das hortaliças mais importantes economicamente do Paquistão e é cultivada em todo o país. É uma rica fonte de nutrição, especialmente vitaminas A, B, C e E com minerais como ácido fólico, manganês (Mn), potássio (K) e molibdênio (Mo). O pimentão possui sete vezes mais vitamina C do que a laranja. Vitaminas A e C e betacarotenoides são antioxidantes fortes para eliminar os radicais livres. A produção de pimenta é restrita devido a vários fatores bióticos. Entre esses vírus, o ChiVMV é o agente mais destrutivo e ameaçador que inflige perdas pesadas e colossais que representam 50% da perda de rendimento, tanto em qualidade quanto em quantidade. A abordagem de resistência derivada de patógenos (PDR) é considerada uma das abordagens eficazes para gerenciar os vírus de plantas. Neste estudo, ChiVMV foi caracterizado em nível molecular e o gene CP do vírus foi transformado de forma estável em plantas Nicotiana benthamiana usando Agrobacterium tumefaciens. As plantas transgênicas foram desafiadas com o vírus para avaliar seu nível de resistência contra o vírus. Observou-se que as plantas que expressam o gene CP apresentam resistência parcial ao vírus em termos de desenvolvimento de sintomas e acúmulo de vírus. A tradução dessa técnica em variedades de pimenta de elite resultará na mitigação do ChiVMV na safra, bem como em benefícios econômicos para os agricultores em termos de melhor rendimento e baixo custo de produção.


Assuntos
Tabaco/genética , Potyvirus/genética , Paquistão , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Resistência à Doença
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5947-5964, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661254

RESUMO

The recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has resulted in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide, affecting millions of lives. Although vaccines are presently made available, and vaccination drive is in progress to immunize a larger population; still the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and related mortality is persistent amid threats of the third wave of the ongoing pandemic. In the scenario of unavailability of robust and efficient treatment modalities, it becomes essential to understand the mechanism of action of the virus and deeply study the molecular mechanisms (both at the virus level and the host level) underlying the infection processes. Recent studies have shown that coronaviruses (CoVs) cause-specific epigenetic changes in the host cells to create a conducive microenvironment for replicating, assembling, and spreading. Epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to various aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 multiplication cycle, like expressing cytokine genes, viral receptor ACE2, and implicating different histone modifications. For SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral proteins are physically associated with various host proteins resulting in numerous interactions between epigenetic enzymes (i.e., histone deacetylases, bromodomain-containing proteins). The involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the virus life cycle and the host immune responses to control infection result in epigenetic factors recognized as emerging prognostic COVID-19 biomarkers and epigenetic modulators as robust therapeutic targets to curb COVID-19. Therefore, this narrative review aimed to summarize and discuss the various epigenetic mechanisms that control gene expression and how these mechanisms are altered in the host cells during coronavirus infection. We also discuss the opportunities to exploit these epigenetic changes as therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Epigenetic alterations and regulation play a pivotal role at various levels of coronavirus infection: entry, replication/transcription, and the process of maturation of viral proteins. Coronaviruses modulate the host epigenome to escape the host immune mechanisms. Therefore, host epigenetic alterations induced by CoVs can be considered to develop targeted therapies for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenoma , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos
15.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243692, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161429

RESUMO

Vegetables are an important source of income and high-value crops for small farmers. Chilli (Capsicum spp.) is one of the most economically important vegetables of Pakistan and it is grown throughout the country. It is a rich source of nutrition especially vitamins A, B, C and E along with minerals as folic acid, manganese (Mn), potassium (K) and molybdenum (Mo). Chilli possesses seven times more amount of vitamin C than an orange. Vitamin A, C and beta-carotenoids are strong antioxidants to scavenge the free radicals. Chilli production is restricted due to various biotic factors. Among these viruses, Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) is one of the most destructive and menacing agents that inflicts heavy and colossal losses that accounted for 50% yield loss both in quality and quantity. Pathogen-Derived Resistance (PDR) approach is considered one of the effective approaches to manage plant viruses. In this study, ChiVMV was characterized on a molecular level, the coat protein (CP) gene of the virus was stably transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The transgenic plants were challenged with the virus to evaluate the level of resistance of plants against the virus. It was observed that the plants expressing CP gene have partial resistance against the virus in terms of symptoms' development and virus accumulation. Translation of this technique into elite chilli varieties will be resulted to mitigate the ChiVMV in the crop as well as an economic benefit to the farmers.


Assuntos
Potyvirus , Tabaco , Resistência à Doença , Paquistão , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Potyvirus/genética , Tabaco/genética
16.
BJOG ; 128(12): 1958-1965, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate patient perspective of telephone consultations (TCs) in gynaecology and identify which patients benefit most from a telemedicine system. DESIGN: Service evaluation. SETTING: Gynaecology outpatient services at a tertiary referral hospital. POPULATION: Patients who received a TC during May and June 2020. METHODS: Postal questionnaire combining three validated tools: QQ-10, Patient Enablement Index (PEI) and National Health Service Friends and Family Test (NHS-FFT). Quantitative data and free text responses were analysed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Responses to QQ-10, PEI and NHS-FFT. RESULTS: In total, 1307 patients were contacted and 504 patients responded (39%). Most (89%) described their experience as 'Very good' or 'Good' (NHS-FFT). Positive themes from responses included 'convenience', 'effectiveness' and 'equivalent care'. QQ-10 responses demonstrated a high Value score of 79 (0-100) and a low Burden score of 15. PEI scores suggested that most patients felt better or much better able to understand and cope with their condition following TC. The majority of patients (77%) would 'Strongly agree' or 'Mostly agree' to a repeat TC. Regarding patient outcomes, 21% were discharged and 71% required follow up. Menopause, fertility and endometriosis follow-up clinic patients benefited most from TC. Gynaecology-oncology patients found TC least acceptable. CONCLUSION: We report a large questionnaire survey of patient experience of TC in gynaecology. Telemedicine is convenient, acceptable and effective for conducting care in selected groups. TC can support patients in communicating intimate symptoms. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Telephone consultations are a convenient, acceptable and effective medium for conducting patient care in gynaecology.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/psicologia , Ginecologia/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Telefone , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nucl Med Commun ; 42(8): 899-906, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is an uncommon subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma. Data are limited regarding 18F-labelled fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET use in NLPHL. We are reporting our experience with FDG-PET utility in staging and response assessment NLPHL patients. METHODS: We retrospectively studied a population of all newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory patients who underwent both pre-treatment contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CeCT) and an FDG-PET and also at the end of planned treatment. RESULTS: We identified 68 patients found to have in total 312 scans, 78 paired pre-therapeutic and post-treatment CeCT and FDG-PET scans. Among them, 55 were male, with a median follow-up was 48 months. Median SUV-max was 8.3 (2.0-21.0). FDG-PET and CeCT were concordant in 80% (62/78) of staging scans. In 20% (16/78) of patients in whom a discordance was observed, FDG-PET resulted in upstaging in 13 scans and downstaging in 3 scans. The sensitivity of CeCT was 92% for nodal staging and 42% for extralymphatic staging when compared to FDG-PET. The specificity of CeCT was 98% as compared to FDG-PET. For response assessment, there was poor agreement between the CeCT and FDG-PET in assigning complete remission of disease scores as FDG-PET was able to identify the absence of disease despite the presence of a radiologically evident residual mass on CeCT. The sensitivity for CeCT compared to FDG-PET was 100% while the specificity was 43% for detection of post-treatment response. CONCLUSION: For NLPHL, pre-therapeutic FDG-PET scan is better than CeCT staging. FDG-PET has much better specificity for response assessment than CeCT.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Doença de Hodgkin , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Community Dent Health ; 38(1): 5-9, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507652

RESUMO

Dental public health in action: foundation dentists' delivery of an oral health promotion outreach project for people experiencing homelessness in London.Within a decade, the UK has seen a dramatic increase in homelessness. This is defined as being without an available home that could reasonably be occupied. The increase has been driven by increasing poverty, welfare reform, cuts to public services and lack of affordable housing (Bramley et al., 2015; Fitzpatrick et al., 2013; Fitzpatrick et al., 2018). Rough sleeping in England alone has increased by 2,909 people or 165% since 2010 (Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government, 2018). This increase has been particularly visible in London (National Audit Office, 2018), where approximately a quarter of the country's rough sleepers reside (Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government, 2018).


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Odontólogos , Inglaterra , Humanos , Londres , Saúde Bucal , Saúde Pública
19.
Indian J Radiol Imaging ; 31(4): 850-857, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35136496

RESUMO

Introduction Acromion is essential for stabilizing the shoulder complex. Tumors of the acromion are rare. We report the largest series of acromion tumor and tumor-like lesion. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of the oncology and radiology database within our tertiary center for orthopaedic oncology was performed to identify all tumors of the acromion over the past 30 years and imaging was reviewed. Results We identified a total of 31 lesions arising in the acromion and chondrosarcoma was the commonest. Conclusion One needs to be aware of tumor and tumor-like lesions of acromion.

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