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1.
Interv Neuroradiol ; : 15910199221093896, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is emerging as an important biomarker of acute physiologic stress in a myriad of medical conditions, and is a confirmed poor prognostic indicator in COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the role of NLR in predicting poor outcome in COVID-19 patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We analyzed NLR in COVID-19 patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) strokes enrolled into an international 12-center retrospective study of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, consecutively admitted between March 1, 2020 and May 1, 2020. Increased NLR was defined as ≥7.2. Logistic regression models were generated. RESULTS: Incidence of LVO stroke was 38/6698 (.57%). Mean age of patients was 62 years (range 27-87), and mortality rate was 30%. Age, sex, and ethnicity were not predictive of mortality. Elevated NLR and poor vessel recanalization (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score of 1 or 2a) synergistically predicted poor outcome (likelihood ratio 11.65, p = .003). Patients with NLR > 7.2 were 6.8 times more likely to die (OR 6.8, CI95% 1.2-38.6, p = .03) and almost 8 times more likely to require prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 7.8, CI95% 1.2-52.4, p = .03). In a multivariate analysis, NLR > 7.2 predicted poor outcome even when controlling for the effect of low TICI score on poor outcome (NLR p = .043, TICI p = .070). CONCLUSIONS: We show elevated NLR in LVO patients with COVID-19 portends significantly worse outcomes and increased mortality regardless of recanalization status. Severe neuro-inflammatory stress response related to COVID-19 may negate the potential benefits of successful thrombectomy.

2.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 93(4): 360-368, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35078916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyse the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) and identify factors predicting functional outcome. METHODS: Multicentre retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 patients with AIS who presented to 30 stroke centres in the USA and Canada between 14 March and 30 August 2020. The primary endpoint was poor functional outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 5 or 6 at discharge. Secondary endpoints include favourable outcome (mRS ≤2) and mortality at discharge, ordinal mRS (shift analysis), symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (sICH) and occurrence of in-hospital complications. RESULTS: A total of 216 COVID-19 patients with AIS were included. 68.1% (147/216) were older than 60 years, while 31.9% (69/216) were younger. Median [IQR] National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at presentation was 12.5 (15.8), and 44.2% (87/197) presented with large vessel occlusion (LVO). Approximately 51.3% (98/191) of the patients had poor outcomes with an observed mortality rate of 39.1% (81/207). Age >60 years (aOR: 5.11, 95% CI 2.08 to 12.56, p<0.001), diabetes mellitus (aOR: 2.66, 95% CI 1.16 to 6.09, p=0.021), higher NIHSS at admission (aOR: 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14, p=0.006), LVO (aOR: 2.45, 95% CI 1.04 to 5.78, p=0.042), and higher NLR level (aOR: 1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11, p=0.028) were significantly associated with poor functional outcome. CONCLUSION: There is relationship between COVID-19-associated AIS and severe disability or death. We identified several factors which predict worse outcomes, and these outcomes were more frequent compared to global averages. We found that elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, rather than D-Dimer, predicted both morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , COVID-19 , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/virologia , COVID-19/complicações , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , AVC Isquêmico/etiologia , AVC Isquêmico/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia , Trombectomia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(3): 106106, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonagenarians have been underrepresented in stroke trials that established endovascular treatment as the standard for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Evidence remains inconclusive regarding the efficacy of thrombectomy in this population. OBJECTIVES: To report our experience with thrombectomy in nonagenarians with stroke, and to identify predictors of mortality. We further investigated the effects of first-pass reperfusion and the addition of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) on achieving better outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was collected for consecutively treated patients at three affiliated comprehensive stroke centers from 2010 to 2021. We included patients ≥90 years-old with AIS secondary to large vessel occlusion. Bivariate analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables, and χ2 and Fisher's exact tests, respectively, for nominal and ordinal variables. RESULTS: Thirty-two nonagenarians underwent thrombectomy, of whom 25 (81%) had prestroke mRS ≤2. Thrombectomies were performed using stents (2, 6.7%), aspiration (8, 26.7%), or a combination of both (20, 66.7%). Successful recanalization was achieved in 97%. Procedural complications occurred in 2 (6.3%) and intracranial hemorrhage in 3 (9.4%). Sixteen patients (50%) were discharged home or to rehabilitation, 9 (28.2%) to nursing home or hospice, and 7 (21.9%) died during hospitalization. Only 2 (6%) patients had mRS ≤2 at discharge. No independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were identified, and neither first-pass reperfusion nor the addition of IVT correlated with improvement in clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Although thrombectomy is safe for nonagenarian stroke and can achieve excellent recanalization, high mortality and poor functional status remain high given the advanced age and frailty of this population.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Trombólise Mecânica , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/terapia , Trombólise Mecânica/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 14(1)2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unprecedented workflow shifts during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have contributed to delays in acute care delivery, but whether it adversely affected endovascular thrombectomy metrics in acute large vessel occlusion (LVO) is unknown. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of observational data from 14 comprehensive stroke centers in nine US states with acute LVO. EVT metrics were compared between March to July 2019 against March to July 2020 (primary analysis), and between state-specific pre-peak and peak COVID-19 months (secondary analysis), with multivariable adjustment. RESULTS: Of the 1364 patients included in the primary analysis (51% female, median NIHSS 14 [IQR 7-21], and 74% of whom underwent EVT), there was no difference in the primary outcome of door-to-puncture (DTP) time between the 2019 control period and the COVID-19 period (median 71 vs 67 min, P=0.10). After adjustment for variables associated with faster DTP, and clustering by site, there remained a trend toward shorter DTP during the pandemic (ßadj=-73.2, 95% CI -153.8-7.4, Pp=0.07). There was no difference in DTP times according to local COVID-19 peaks vs pre-peak months in unadjusted or adjusted multivariable regression (ßadj=-3.85, 95% CI -36.9-29.2, P=0.80). In this final multivariable model (secondary analysis), faster DTP times were significantly associated with transfer from an outside institution (ßadj=-46.44, 95% CI -62.8 to - -30.0, P<0.01) and higher NIHSS (ßadj=-2.15, 95% CI -4.2to - -0.1, P=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this multi-center study, there was no delay in EVT among patients treated for intracranial occlusion during the COVID-19 era compared with the pre-COVID era.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Neurologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Benchmarking , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Trombectomia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Neurol ; 269(2): 603-608, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333701

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We have demonstrated in a multicenter cohort that the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a delay in intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) among stroke patients. Whether this delay contributes to meaningful short-term outcome differences in these patients warranted further exploration. METHODS: We conducted a nested observational cohort study of adult acute ischemic stroke patients receiving IVT from 9 comprehensive stroke centers across 7 U.S states. Patients admitted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (1/1/2019-02/29/2020) were compared to patients admitted during the early pandemic (3/1/2020-7/31/2020). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of IVT delay on discharge to hospice or death, with treatment delay on admission during COVID-19 included as an interaction term. RESULTS: Of the 676 thrombolysed patients, the median age was 70 (IQR 58-81) years, 313 were female (46.3%), and the median NIHSS was 8 (IQR 4-16). Longer treatment delays were observed during COVID-19 (median 46 vs 38 min, p = 0.01) and were associated with higher in-hospital death/hospice discharge irrespective of admission period (OR per hour 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.17, p = 0.03). This effect was strengthened after multivariable adjustment (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.24, p < 0.001). There was no interaction of treatment delay on admission during COVID-19 (pinteraction = 0.65). Every one-hour delay in IVT was also associated with 7% lower odds of being discharged to home or acute inpatient rehabilitation facility (aOR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.97, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Treatment delays observed during the COVID-19 pandemic led to greater early mortality and hospice care, with a lower probability of discharge to home/rehabilitation facility. There was no effect modification of treatment delay on admission during the pandemic, indicating that treatment delay at any time contributes similarly to these short-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , COVID-19 , Neurologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Terapia Trombolítica , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 211: 107028, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826754

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anemia at presentation is associated with worse outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We aim to investigate the association of anemia parameters with functional dependence and mortality in patients who undergo mechanical thrombectomy (MT). METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent MT for an anterior circulation large vessel occlusion at a comprehensive stroke center from 1/2015-6/2020. Anemia was considered as a dichotomous categorical variable with a cutoff point of hemoglobin (Hb) < 12.0 g/dL in women and < 13.0 g/dL in men, as per the definition of the World Health Organization. Mean values of Hb and hematocrit (HCT) were obtained over the first five days of admission. Hemoglobin and HCT variability were measured using standard deviation (SD), and coefficient variability (CV) over the first five days of admission. Values of variance and difference (the difference between peak and trough of Hemoglobin or HCT) were also recorded. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, including the predictor variables which were contributing significantly to the model (P < 0.05) in the univariate analysis, with 30-day functional dependence (mRS 3-6) (primary outcome) and 30-day mortality (secondary outcome) as the dependent variables. RESULTS: 188 patients met our inclusion criteria. Anemia on presentation, lower mean and minimum values of five-day Hb and HCT, and higher variability in five-day Hb and HCT parameters were associated with higher 3-month mortality. Men with lower mean and minimum values of five-day Hb and HCT had a significantly higher likelihood of functional dependence at 3-months. This finding was not replicated amongst women in our cohort. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated higher 3-mortality in patients with anemia and Hb variability. Our study also demonstrated a higher likelihood of functional dependence in patients amongst men with anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia/complicações , Trombose Intracraniana/cirurgia , AVC Isquêmico/etiologia , AVC Isquêmico/cirurgia , Trombectomia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Trombose Intracraniana/complicações , Trombose Intracraniana/mortalidade , AVC Isquêmico/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 211: 107031, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), often used to evaluate degree of heart failure, has been implicated in fluid dysregulation and inflammation in critically-ill patients. Twenty to 30% of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) will develop some degree of neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy (NSC) and in turn elevation of BNP levels. We sought to explore the association between BNP levels and development of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in patients with aSAH. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the records of 149 patients admitted to the Neurological Intensive Care Unit between 2006 and 2015 and enrolled in an existing prospectively maintained aSAH database. Demographic data, treatment and outcomes, and BNP levels at admission and throughout the hospital admission were noted. RESULTS: Of the 149 patients included in the analysis, 79 developed DCI during their hospital course. We found a statistically significant association between DCI and the highest recorded BNP (OR 1.001, 95% CI-1.001-1.002, p = 0.002). The ROC curve analysis for DCI based on BNP showed that the highest BNP level during hospital admission (AUC 0.78) was the strongest predictor of DCI compared to the change in BNP over time (AUC 0.776) or the admission BNP (AUC 0.632). CONCLUSION: Our study shows that DCI is associated not only with higher baseline BNP values (admission BNP), but also with the highest BNP level attained during the hospital course and the rapidity of change or increase in BNP over time. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate whether routine measurement of BNP may help identify SAH patients at high risk of DCI.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/sangue , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 210: 107008, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775364

RESUMO

Terson's Syndrome describes intraocular hemorrhage secondary to an acutely raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Although Terson's Syndrome is common amongst patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), it is underdiagnosed and often overlooked. This review discusses the current understanding of the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, and management of Terson's Syndrome and highlights the visual and prognostic implications to stress the importance of timely diagnosis and management. The origin of intraocular hemorrhage in Terson's Syndrome has been debated. A recognized theory suggests that an acutely raised ICP induces effusion of cerebrospinal fluid into the optic nerve sheath which dilates the retrobulbar aspect of the sheath in the orbit. Dilatation mechanically compresses the central retinal vein and retinochoroidal veins resulting in venous hypertension and rupture of thin retinal vessels. A commonly reported clinical feature is decreased visual acuity and blurred vision. These may be accompanied by symptoms of increased ICP including loss of consciousness and headache. Diagnosis is established using evidence from the clinical presentation, ophthalmoscopy, and, when required, imaging including B-mode ultrasound, CT, MRI, and fluorescein angiography. Terson's Syndrome is managed conservatively by observation for mild cases and with vitrectomy for bilateral cases and for patients whose hemorrhage has not spontaneously resolved after an observational period. Terson's Syndrome can be used as a prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality in underlying pathology like SAH. Fundoscopy of patients with SAH, acutely raised ICP or visual disturbance with unknown etiology can help establish a timely Terson's Syndrome diagnosis. This may avoid the risk of permanent visual impairment.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Pressão Intracraniana/fisiologia , Hemorragia Vítrea/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Vítrea/terapia , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Humanos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Oftalmoscopia , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Visão/terapia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Hemorragia Vítrea/fisiopatologia
9.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 211: 107022, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is limited evidence on the use of antiplatelet therapy (APT) to reduce the risk and morbidity of cerebral aneurysmal rupture. This analysis retrospectively assessed APT use in patients presenting to our institution with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). METHODS: We evaluated the records of 186 patients over 7 years of retrospective data from our tertiary care center and an existing database of patients with aSAH. A total of 18 cases with patients on APT and 168 patients not on APT (controls) were identified. Primary outcomes measured were clinical grade (Hunt and Hess score), radiographic grade (Fisher score), and presence of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Secondary outcomes were modified Rankin score at discharge and at 3 months. DCI from cerebral vasospasm was defined as the occurrence of focal neurological impairment or a decrease in at least 2 points on the Glasgow Coma Scale. Logistic regression models were generated. RESULTS: We found that APT use did not appear to lead to statistically significant differences in initial presentation, including Hunt-Hess score and Fisher grade (2.91 vs 3.06, p = 0.66, and 3.23 vs 3.22, p = 0.96 respectively). In addition, APT use was not associated with increased rates of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) (OR 0.27 p = 0.12). Our analysis showed that increased Hunt Hess score and the presence of DCI are both associated with increased mRS at 90 days (OR 2.32 p < 0.001; OR 2.91 p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The patients in this retrospective observational study did not demonstrate worse outcomes from their aSAH despite APT therapy. Larger prospective studies should be performed to see if this relationship holds and if decreased rates of DCI can be observed.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/tratamento farmacológico , Aneurisma Intracraniano/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Aneurisma Roto/complicações , Aneurisma Roto/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/complicações , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Interv Neuroradiol ; : 15910199211039924, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital aortic arch anomalies are commonly encountered during neurointerventional procedures. While some anomalies are identified at an early age, many are incidentally discovered later in adulthood during endovascular evaluations or interventions. Proper understanding of the normal arch anatomy and its variants is pivotal to safely navigate normal aortic arch branches and to negotiate the catheter through anomalies during neurointerventional procedures. This is particularly relevant in the increasingly "transradial first" culture of neurointerventional surgery. Moreover, some of these anomalies have a peculiar predilection for complications including aneurysm formation, dissection, and rupture during the procedure. Therefore, an understanding of these anomalies, their underlying embryological basis and associations, and pattern of circulation will help endovascular neurosurgeons and interventional radiologists navigate with confidence and consider relevant pathologic associations that may inform risk of cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: Here, we present a brief review of the basic embryology of the common anomalies of the aortic arch along with their neurological significances and discuss, through illustrative cases, the association of aortic arch anomalies with cerebral vascular pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the aortic arch anomalies and its embryological basis is essential to safely navigate the cerebral vascular system during neurointerventional surgeries.

13.
Stroke ; 52(8): 2562-2570, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078107

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: IV tPA (intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase) and mechanical thrombectomy (MT) utilization increased in acute ischemic stroke hospitalizations in the United States over the last decade. It is uncertain whether this increase occurred equally across all age, sex, and racial groups. Methods: Adult acute ischemic stroke hospitalizations (weighted n=4 442 657) contained in the 2008 to 2017 National Inpatient Sample were identified using International Classification of Diseases codes. Proportions of hospitalizations with IV tPA and MT were computed according to age, sex, and race. Joinpoint and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate trends over time. Results: Across this period, 32.4% of all hospitalizations were in patients ≥80 years, and 64.7% of these were women. IV tPA and MT use differed by age with highest proportion of utilization of both treatments in patients aged 18 to 39 years (IV tPA, 12.3%) and lowest percentage in patients aged ≥90 years (IV tPA, 7.9%). Utilization of both procedures increased over time in all age groups, but the pace of increase was faster in patients ≥90 years compared with patients aged 18 to 39 years (MT: odds ratio, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.20­1.35] per unit increase in year, P interaction <0.001). Frequency of utilization of IV tPA and MT was lower in Black patients compared with White patients in most age groups. Usage of both procedures increased over time in all races and after 2015, IV tPA utilization was >10% in all demographic subgroups except in Black patients 60 to 79 years and Black patients ≥80 years. Analysis of race-by-time interaction revealed the Black-vs-White treatment gaps for IV tPA (odds ratio, 1.02 [95% CI, 1.01­1.03]) and MT (odds ratio, 1.08 [95% CI,1.05­1.12]) declined over time (both P interaction <0.01). Sex-related differences in IV tPA use were noted, but this gap also declined over time. Conclusions: Age- and sex-related treatment gaps in IV tPA and MT reduced over the last decade. Racial disparity in IV tPA and MT utilization persists with particularly lower frequency of usage of both acute stroke treatments in Black patients compared with White patients, but race-associated treatment gaps also declined over time.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Racismo/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia/tendências , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Brain Circ ; 7(2): 65-70, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transfemoral approach (TFA) has been the traditional approach for neurointerventional cases. While the TFA allows for triaxial support in flow diverting stent cases, it is associated with access site complications. Recently, the transradial approach (TRA) has emerged as a safer alternative to the TFA. To the best of our knowledge, there have only been single-center studies comparing outcomes in flow diverter cases for these approaches. We demonstrate the safety and feasibility of the TRA for placement of flow diverting stents in the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms at two high-volume centers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected institutional databases at two high-volume neuroendovascular centers. Cases from 2016 to 2018 of unruptured intracranial aneurysms treated by flow diverting stenting accessed through either the TRA or the TFA were compared. Patient demographics, procedural and radiographic metrics including location and size of the aneurysm, size, and length of the flow diverter implant, and fluoroscopic time were recorded. Puncture site complications and length of hospital stay were also included in the data analysis. RESULTS: There were three out of 29 TRA cases which were converted to the TFA. None of the TRA patients experienced site complications, whereas three TFA patients experienced site complications. While TRA and TFA patients did not differ significantly in their exposure to radiation, TRA patients experienced shorter hospital stays. CONCLUSIONS: While long-term studies are still lacking regarding this approach, we demonstrate that the TRA is a safe and feasible approach for flow diverter stent placement.

15.
Brain Circ ; 7(2): 135-138, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189359

RESUMO

Patients with COVID-19 may suffer from hemorrhagic complications. Our article highlights two cases of COVID-19-infected patients, who suffered severe epistaxis after initiation of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV-rtPA) for acute ischemic stroke, followed by a sudden decline in their clinical status and ultimately leading to death within days. Given the global impact and mortality of COVID-19, it is essential to be aware of its unusual presentation and improve therapeutic strategies. We present two cases of individuals who suffered from a large vessel occlusion of and were candidates for both IV-rtPA and mechanical thrombectomy. They received IV-rtPA but had epistaxis so severe that they were not able to receive MT and died within the next few days. There are many potential mechanisms by which epistaxis can happen in an individual with COVID-19 who received IV-rtPA including invasion of the nasal mucosa and endothelium through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors by the virus. We also hypothesize that the coagulation abnormality seen in COVID-19 patients can be potentiated by the use of treatments such as IV-rtPA. We review these issues with a diagram illustrating the possible mechanisms.

16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105775, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Embolic stroke is a frequent complication of infective endocarditis yet lacks acute treatment as intravenous thrombolysis should be avoided due to high risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Mechanical thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion may be a promising treatment but there is limited data on safety outcomes in infective endocarditis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this multi-center retrospective case series, we reviewed data from patients with infective endocarditis-related large vessel occlusion who underwent mechanical thrombectomy in 9 US hospitals. RESULTS: We identified 15 patients at 9 hospitals. A minority presented with signs suggesting infection (2 patients (14%) had fever, 7 (47%) were tachycardic, 2 (13%) were hypotensive, and 8 (53%) had leukocytosis). The median National Institute of Health Stroke Score decreased from 19 (range 9-25) at presentation to 7 post-thrombectomy (range 0-22, median best score post-thrombectomy), and the median modified Rankin Scale on or after discharge for survivors was 3 (range 0-6). Approximately 57% of patients had a modified Rankin Scale between 0 and 3 on or after discharge. Hemorrhagic transformation was observed in 7/15 (47%). The mechanical thrombectomy group had 2/9 petechial hemorrhagic transformation (22%), compared to 4/6 parenchymal hematomas (67%) in the tissue plasminogen activator + mechanical thrombectomy group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that patients with large vessel occlusion due to infective endocarditis may not present with overt signs of infection. Mechanical thrombectomy may be an effective treatment in this patient population for whom intravenous thrombolysis should be avoided.


Assuntos
AVC Embólico/terapia , Endocardite/complicações , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Trombectomia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Avaliação da Deficiência , AVC Embólico/diagnóstico , AVC Embólico/etiologia , AVC Embólico/fisiopatologia , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Estado Funcional , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
17.
J Neuroimaging ; 31(4): 743-750, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The first pass effect has been reported as a mechanical thrombectomy (MT) success metric in patients with large vessel occlusive stroke. We aimed to compare the clinical and neuroimagign outcomes of patients who had favorable recanalization (mTICI 2c or mTICI 3) achieved in one pass versus those requiring multiple passes. METHODS: In this "real-world" multicenter study, patients with mTICI 2c or 3 recanalization were identified from three prospectively collected stroke databases from January 2016 to December 2019. Clinical outcomes were a favorable functional outcome at 90 days (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2), and the rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) any ICH, and 90-day mortality. RESULTS: Favorable recanalization was achieved in 390/664 (59%) of consecutive patients who underwent MT (age 71.2 ± 13.2 years, 188 [48.2%] women). This was achieved after a single thrombectomy pass (n = 290) or multiple thrombectomy passes (n = 100). The rate of favorable clinical outcome was higher (41% vs. 28 %, p = .02) in the first pass group with a continued trend on multivariate analysis that did not reaching statistical significance (OR 1.68 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-2.95, p = .07). Similarly, the odds of any ICH were significantly lower (OR 0.56 CI 0.32-0.97, p = .03). A similar trend of favorable clinical outcomes was noticed on subgroup analysis of patients with M1 occlusion (OR 1.81 CI 1.01-3.61, p = .08). CONCLUSION: The first-pass reperfusion was associated with a trend toward favorable clinical outcome and lower rates of ICH. These data suggest that the first-pass effect should be the mechanical thrombectomy procedure goal.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Trombectomia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
World Neurosurg ; 150: 121-126, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812065

RESUMO

A concurrent arterial and venous access is routinely obtained for diagnosis and treatment of various neurovascular diseases. Traditionally, venous access is obtained by accessing the femoral vein or through direct internal jugular puncture. Although complication rates are low, life-threatening severe complications have been reported. Moreover, venous access can be challenging in large body habitus patients through these traditional routes. There is a growing trend of utilizing radial artery access for neuroendovascular procedures. Nevertheless, the use of upper limb veins in neurointerventional procedures is rare. We present 3 cases of the concurrent arterial and venous approach through the radial artery and cephalic or basilic vein of the forearm for diagnostic cerebral arteriography and venography. Radial access was obtained by using the standard technique, and venous access was obtained by cannulating cephalic or basilic vein using ultrasound guidance, and a 5F or 6F short sheath was placed. Venous angiography and catheterization of right and left internal jugular veins were then performed using a Simmons (SIM) 2 catheter alone or using 6F Envoy guide catheter coaxially over the SIM 2 catheter if an additional support for microcatheter was needed. Procedures were successfully completed with no adverse effects, and patients were discharged home the same day. We also describe the technique for the reformation of the SIM 2 catheter in the venous system for catheterization of right and left internal jugular veins through the arm access.


Assuntos
Doenças Arteriais Cerebrais/diagnóstico , Doenças Arteriais Cerebrais/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Antebraço/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Artéria Radial/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
19.
Neurosurgery ; 89(1): E35-E41, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While there are reports of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the overall incidence of AIS and clinical characteristics of large vessel occlusion (LVO) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To attempt to establish incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients in an international cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective, multicenter study of consecutive patients admitted with AIS and COVID-19 was undertaken from March 1 to May 1, 2020 at 12 stroke centers from 4 countries. Out of those 12 centers, 9 centers admitted all types of strokes and data from those were used to calculate the incidence rate of AIS. Three centers exclusively transferred LVO stroke (LVOs) patients and were excluded only for the purposes of calculating the incidence of AIS. Detailed data were collected on consecutive LVOs in hospitalized patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy (MT) across all 12 centers. RESULTS: Out of 6698 COVID-19 patients admitted to 9 stroke centers, the incidence of stroke was found to be 1.3% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.75%-1.7%). The median age of LVOs patients was 51 yr (IQR 50-75 yr), and in the US centers, African Americans comprised 28% of patients. Out of 66 LVOs, 10 patients (16%) were less than 50 yr of age. Among the LVOs eligible for MT, the average time from symptom onset to presentation was 558 min (IQR 82-695 min). A total of 21 (50%) patients were either discharged to home or discharged to acute rehabilitation facilities. CONCLUSION: LVO was predominant in patients with AIS and COVID-19 across 2 continents, occurring at a significantly younger age and affecting African Americans disproportionately in the USA.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , COVID-19/terapia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Internacionalidade , AVC Isquêmico/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Neurol ; 268(2): 632-639, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by recurrent thunderclap headaches associated with segmental vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries, which may result in intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). There is a lack of contemporary data available regarding the ICH burden in RCVS cohort. Our aim of the study is to assess the ICH burden, associated risk factors, and discharge outcome of ICH in patients with RCVS. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with RCVS in the 2016 Nationwide Readmission Database were identified using ICD-10 code after excluding patients with the concurrent diagnosis of primary angiitis. ICH was defined as both intraparenchymal (IPH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and subdural hematoma (SDH). Categorical and continuous variables were assessed by the Rao-Scott Chi-square test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test respectively. We used a multivariable survey-weighted logistic model to determine the association between ICH and RCVS patient-level characteristics. FINDINGS: A total of 799 patients were identified with RCVS. Total hospitalization of ICH was 43.4% [(95% CI 36.4-50.4%); (n = 346)] including SAH 35.9% [(95% CI 29.7-42.1%); (n = 287)], IPH 13.1% [(95% CI 9.5-16.7%); (n = 105)] and SDH 3.6% [(95% CI 1.5-5.6%); (n = 28)]. Patients with hemorrhagic RCVS (H-RCVS) had a mean age (years ± SE) of 47.4 ± 1.1 vs. 45.5 ± 1.2 years in R-RCVS (p = 0.247); and were predominantly female (84.0% vs. 68.8%; p = 0.001); with longer inpatient stays (10.9 vs. 6.8 days; p = 0.016); and a higher inpatient cost ($44,300 vs. $21,350; p < 0.001). On multivariable analyses, higher odds of ICH were female sex 2.57 (95% CI 1.45-4.55; p = 0.001), middle age-group (45-64 years) 1.87 (CI: 1.11-3.15; p = 0.018) and older age group (> 64 years) 3.72 (CI: 1.15-12.03; p = 0.029). About 67.0% of all H-RCVS patients were discharged home, with no observed inpatient mortality. INTERPRETATION: Intracerebral hemorrhage is the most common vascular complication in hospitalized RCVS patients, resulting in longer hospitalizations with more invasive procedures and higher healthcare expenditure. However, overall outcomes are excellent regardless of types of ICH, with no inpatient mortality observed in patients with hemorrhagic RCVS. Female sex and middle to older age-group are associated with higher odds of ICH.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares , Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Vasoconstrição , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem
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