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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5775, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599169

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) are tumors expressing markers of neuronal differentiation that can arise at different anatomic sites but have strong histological and clinical similarities. Here we report the chromatin landscapes of a range of human NECs and show convergence to the activation of a common epigenetic program. With a particular focus on treatment emergent neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC), we analyze cell lines, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models and human clinical samples to show the existence of two distinct NEPC subtypes based on the expression of the neuronal transcription factors ASCL1 and NEUROD1. While in cell lines and PDX models these subtypes are mutually exclusive, single-cell analysis of human clinical samples exhibits a more complex tumor structure with subtypes coexisting as separate sub-populations within the same tumor. These tumor sub-populations differ genetically and epigenetically contributing to intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity in human metastases. Overall, our results provide a deeper understanding of the shared clinicopathological characteristics shown by NECs. Furthermore, the intratumoral heterogeneity of human NEPCs suggests the requirement of simultaneous targeting of coexisting tumor populations as a therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
2.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504308

RESUMO

The 8th Edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual designates discontinuous involvement of spermatic cord soft tissue by testicular germ cell tumors as a metastatic deposit. We conducted a retrospective international multi-institutional study to validate the current recommendations. Thirty-three (72%) nonseminomatous and 13 (28%) seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors were collected from 15 institutions in America, Europe, and Asia. Testicular tumor size ranged from 1.3 to 18.0 cm (mean: 6.1). Cases were classified as discontinuous involvement of spermatic cord soft tissue (n = 26), continuous cord involvement (n = 17), or cord lymphovascular invasion (n = 3). The mean follow-up was 39 months. Clinical stage for discontinuous involvement of spermatic cord soft-tissue patients was I (local disease) in 2/24 (8%), II (regional disease) in 6/24 (25%), and III (distant disease) in 16/24 (67%) cases; 16 (67%) patients presented with distant metastasis. Clinical stage for continuous cord involvement patients was I in 9/17 (53%), II in 4/17 (23%), and III in 4/17 (23%); 4 (23%) patients presented with distant metastasis. Disease progression was seen in 4 patients with discontinuous involvement of spermatic cord soft tissue and 5 with continuous cord-involvement (p = 0.699). When comparing discontinuous and continuous cord involvement, a significant difference was found in cord margin status (p = 0.044), spermatic cord tumor size (p = 0.016), lymph-node involvement (p = 0.037), distant metastasis (p = 0.010), individual clinical stage (p = 0.003), and nonadvanced vs. advanced disease (p = 0.003) at presentation. In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, histology, testicular tumor size, percent of embryonal carcinoma, lymphovascular invasion, and cord margin status, discontinuous involvement of spermatic cord soft tissue was significantly associated (p = 0.011) with advanced clinical stage at presentation. Our findings support the designation of metastatic disease for discontinuous involvement of spermatic cord soft tissue, as introduced by the 8th edition of the AJCC staging.

3.
Cell Rep ; 36(10): 109625, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496233

RESUMO

The normal androgen receptor (AR) cistrome and transcriptional program are fundamentally altered in prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we profile the chromatin landscape and AR-directed transcriptional program in normal prostate cells and show the impact of SPOP mutations, an early event in prostate tumorigenesis. In genetically normal mouse prostate organoids, SPOP mutation results in accessibility and AR binding patterns similar to that of human PCa. Consistent with dependence on AR signaling, castration of SPOP mutant mouse models results in the loss of neoplastic phenotypes, and human SPOP mutant PCa shows a favorable response to AR-targeted therapies. Together, these data validate mouse prostate organoids as a robust model for studying epigenomic and transcriptional alterations in normal prostate, provide valuable datasets for further studies, and show that a single genomic alteration may be sufficient to reprogram the chromatin of normal prostate cells toward oncogenic phenotypes, with potential therapeutic implications for AR-targeting therapies.

4.
Korean J Radiol ; 22(10): 1650-1657, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402242

RESUMO

Metastatic mature teratoma is a common radiologic and histopathologic finding after chemotherapy for metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumors. The leading theory for these residual tumors is the selective chemotherapy resistance of teratomas versus the high chemotherapy sensitivity of the embryonal components. Growing teratoma syndrome is a relatively rare phenomenon defined as an enlarging residual mass histologically proven to be a mature teratoma in the setting of normal serum tumor markers. Metastatic mature teratomas should be resected because of their malignant potential and occasional progression to growing teratoma syndrome with the invasion of the surrounding structures. CT is the preferred imaging modality for post-chemotherapy surveillance and should cover all sites of potential metastatic disease. This article reviews the clinical, pathologic, and multimodality imaging features of metastatic mature teratomas in patients with primary testicular non-seminomatous germ cell tumors.

5.
N Engl J Med ; 385(8): 707-719, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: P-element-induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are short (21 to 35 nucleotides in length) and noncoding and are found almost exclusively in germ cells, where they regulate aberrant expression of transposable elements and postmeiotic gene expression. Critical to the processing of piRNAs is the protein poly(A)-specific RNase-like domain containing 1 (PNLDC1), which trims their 3' ends and, when disrupted in mice, causes azoospermia and male infertility. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing on DNA samples from 924 men who had received a diagnosis of nonobstructive azoospermia. Testicular-biopsy samples were analyzed by means of histologic and immunohistochemical tests, in situ hybridization, reverse-transcriptase-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction assay, and small-RNA sequencing. RESULTS: Four unrelated men of Middle Eastern descent who had nonobstructive azoospermia were found to carry mutations in PNLDC1: the first patient had a biallelic stop-gain mutation, p.R452Ter (rs200629089; minor allele frequency, 0.00004); the second, a novel biallelic missense variant, p.P84S; the third, two compound heterozygous mutations consisting of p.M259T (rs141903829; minor allele frequency, 0.0007) and p.L35PfsTer3 (rs754159168; minor allele frequency, 0.00004); and the fourth, a novel biallelic canonical splice acceptor site variant, c.607-2A→T. Testicular histologic findings consistently showed error-prone meiosis and spermatogenic arrest with round spermatids of type Sa as the most advanced population of germ cells. Gene and protein expression of PNLDC1, as well as the piRNA-processing proteins PIWIL1, PIWIL4, MYBL1, and TDRKH, were greatly diminished in cells of the testes. Furthermore, the length distribution of piRNAs and the number of pachytene piRNAs was significantly altered in men carrying PNLDC1 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a direct mechanistic effect of faulty piRNA processing on meiosis and spermatogenesis in men, ultimately leading to male infertility. (Funded by Innovation Fund Denmark and others.).


Assuntos
Azoospermia/genética , Exorribonucleases/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Meiose/fisiologia , Mutação , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Adulto , Azoospermia/fisiopatologia , Biópsia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Interferente Pequeno/ultraestrutura , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Testículo/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
6.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of surgical clips for athermal dissection of the lateral prostatic pedicles and ligation during pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) while performing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) has been the gold standard. Clips are used to prevent thermal injury of the unmyelinated nerve fibers and lymphceles, respectively. OBJECTIVE: To compare oncological and functional outcomes of a new technique of clipless, lateral pedicle control and PLND with RARP with bipolar energy (RARP-bi) versus the standard RARP technique with clips (RARP-c). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective study was conducted among 338 men who underwent RARP between July 2018 and March 2020. SURGICAL PROCEDURE: RARP-c versus RARP-bi. MEASUREMENTS: We prospectively collected data and retrospectively compared demographic, clinicopathological, and functional outcome data. Urinary as well as sexual function was assessed using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index for Clinical Practice, and complications were assessed using Clavien-Dindo grading. Multivariable regression modeling was used to examine whether the technical approach of RARP-bi versus RARP-c was associated with positive surgical margins (PSMs) or sexual and urinary function scores. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 144 (43%) and 194 (57%) men underwent RARP-bi and RARP-c, respectively. Overall, there were no differences in functional and oncological outcomes between the two approaches. On multivariable regression analysis, the RARP-bi technique was not associated with significant differences in PSMs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6-1.8; p = 0.9), sexual function (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.1-1.5; p = 0.8), or urinary function (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-1.4; p = 0.2). The overall 30-d complication rates (12% vs 16%, p = 0.5) and bladder neck contracture rates (2.1% vs 3.6%, p = 0.5) were similar between the two groups. There was no difference in lymphocele complications (1.4% vs 0.52%, p = 0.58). All complications were of Clavien-Dindo grade I-II. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the concerns for an increased risk of nerve injury secondary to the use of bipolar energy for prostatic pedicle dissection, we demonstrate that this technique is oncologically and functionally similar to the standard approach with surgical clips. There was no difference in complications or lymphocele formation for techniques with versus without clips. PATIENT SUMMARY: We describe a modified technique for prostatic pedicle dissection during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy, which utilizes bipolar energy and is associated with shorter operative time, without compromising functional or oncological outcomes.

7.
J Urol ; 206(5): 1268-1275, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to determine if testicular histopathological heterogeneity is associated with sperm retrieval rates (SRRs) in men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) who are undergoing microdissection testicular sperm extraction (mTESE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients undergoing mTESE by a single, high-volume surgeon at a tertiary infertility referral center between 2010 and 2020 were evaluated. Pathology reports from testis biopsy at the time of mTESE reported by fellowship-trained genitourinary pathologists were reviewed. Testicular heterogeneity was correlated to absolute SRRs. Logistic regression was used to determine if heterogeneity was associated with sperm retrieval. RESULTS: A total of 918 men with mTESE were included. Of these, 391 men (43%) had 1 pathology, 388 men (42%) had 2, 108 (12%) had 3, and 31 (3.4%) had 4. Overall, the most common histopathology was Sertoli-cell only, followed by maturation arrest. The overall SRR was 42% with a clinical intrauterine gestation rate of 30%. Increasing histopathological variety was associated with higher SRRs (p <0.01); a SRR of 33% was observed when one histopathological subtype was present vs 94% with 4 subtypes. Furthermore, men with any foci of spermatogenesis had higher SRRs. CONCLUSIONS: In men with NOA, increasing testicular histopathological heterogeneity is correlated with higher SRRs driven by the identification of focal areas of spermatogenesis. This is an important, although predictable, observation. While diagnostic biopsy is not routinely required, these findings emphasize the value of having histology to perhaps predict the chance of sperm retrieval for future mTESE procedures.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3372, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099734

RESUMO

Despite advances in the development of highly effective androgen receptor (AR)-directed therapies for the treatment of men with advanced prostate cancer, acquired resistance to such therapies frequently ensues. A significant subset of patients with resistant disease develop AR-negative tumors that lose their luminal identity and display neuroendocrine features (neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC)). The cellular heterogeneity and the molecular evolution during the progression from AR-positive adenocarcinoma to AR-negative NEPC has yet to be characterized. Utilizing a new genetically engineered mouse model, we have characterized the synergy between Rb1 loss and MYCN (encodes N-Myc) overexpression which results in the formation of AR-negative, poorly differentiated tumors with high metastatic potential. Single-cell-based approaches revealed striking temporal changes to the transcriptome and chromatin accessibility which have identified the emergence of distinct cell populations, marked by differential expression of Ascl1 and Pou2f3, during the transition to NEPC. Moreover, global DNA methylation and the N-Myc cistrome are redirected following Rb1 loss. Altogether, our data provide insight into the progression of prostate adenocarcinoma to NEPC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Prognóstico , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/metabolismo
9.
NPJ Precis Oncol ; 5(1): 35, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941830

RESUMO

Existing tools for post-radical prostatectomy (RP) prostate cancer biochemical recurrence (BCR) prognosis rely on human pathologist-derived parameters such as tumor grade, with the resulting inter-reviewer variability. Genomic companion diagnostic tests such as Decipher tend to be tissue destructive, expensive, and not routinely available in most centers. We present a tissue non-destructive method for automated BCR prognosis, termed "Histotyping", that employs computational image analysis of morphologic patterns of prostate tissue from a single, routinely acquired hematoxylin and eosin slide. Patients from two institutions (n = 214) were used to train Histotyping for identifying high-risk patients based on six features of glandular morphology extracted from RP specimens. Histotyping was validated for post-RP BCR prognosis on a separate set of n = 675 patients from five institutions and compared against Decipher on n = 167 patients. Histotyping was prognostic of BCR in the validation set (p < 0.001, univariable hazard ratio [HR] = 2.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.03-3.93, concordance index [c-index] = 0.68, median years-to-BCR: 1.7). Histotyping was also prognostic in clinically stratified subsets, such as patients with Gleason grade group 3 (HR = 4.09) and negative surgical margins (HR = 3.26). Histotyping was prognostic independent of grade group, margin status, pathological stage, and preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (multivariable p < 0.001, HR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.40-3.10, n = 648). The combination of Histotyping, grade group, and preoperative PSA outperformed Decipher (c-index = 0.75 vs. 0.70, n = 167). These results suggest that a prognostic classifier for prostate cancer based on digital images could serve as an alternative or complement to molecular-based companion diagnostic tests.

10.
Eur Urol Focus ; 7(4): 722-732, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of invasive cribriform adenocarcinoma (ICC), an expanse of cells containing punched-out lumina uninterrupted by stroma, in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens has been associated with biochemical recurrence (BCR). However, ICC identification has only moderate inter-reviewer agreement. OBJECTIVE: To investigate quantitative machine-based assessment of the extent and prognostic utility of ICC, especially within individual Gleason grade groups. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A machine learning approach was developed for ICC segmentation using 70 RP patients and validated in a cohort of 749 patients from four sites whose median year of surgery was 2007 and with median follow-up of 28 mo. ICC was segmented on one representative hematoxylin and eosin RP slide per patient and the fraction of tumor area composed of ICC, the cribriform area index (CAI), was measured. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The association between CAI and BCR was measured in terms of the concordance index (c index) and hazard ratio (HR). RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: CAI was correlated with BCR (c index 0.62) in the validation set of 411 patients with ICC morphology, especially those with Gleason grade group 2 cancer (n = 192; c index 0.66), and was less prognostic when patients without ICC were included (c index 0.54). A doubling of CAI in the group with ICC morphology was prognostic after controlling for Gleason grade, surgical margin positivity, preoperative prostate-specific antigen level, pathological T stage, and age (HR 1.19, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.38; p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Automated image analysis and machine learning could provide an objective, quantitative, reproducible, and high-throughput method of quantifying ICC area. The performance of CAI for grade group 2 cancer suggests that for patients with little Gleason 4 pattern, the ICC fraction has a strong prognostic role. PATIENT SUMMARY: Machine-based measurement of a specific cell pattern (cribriform; sieve-like, with lots of spaces) in images of prostate specimens could improve risk stratification for patients with prostate cancer. In the future, this could help in expanding the criteria for active surveillance.

11.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor sample quality and quantity determine the success of somatic mutation analysis. Thus, a rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) tumor cytology adequacy assessment was incorporated into the workflow of precision oncology at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York City. Optimal samples were obtained from 68 patients with metastatic cancer. METHODS: Cytopathologists performed ROSE on fine-needle aspirate samples via telepathology, and subsequently core-needle biopsies were obtained. In a retrospective manner, the concordance between adequacy assessment and the success rate of the procedure was evaluated to obtain sufficient tumor tissue for next-generation sequencing (NGS). RESULTS: Out of the 68 procedures, 43 were documented as adequate and 25 were documented as inadequate. The diagnostic yield of adequate procedures was 100%. Adequacy evaluation predicted the success rate of molecular profiling in 40 of 43 procedures (93%; 95% CI, 80.9-98.5 procedures). The success rate of molecular testing was significantly higher in the adequate group: 93% compared with 32% in the inadequate group (P < .0005). Seven procedures that failed to provide quality material for mutational analysis and pathological diagnosis were evaluated as inadequate. Cell block provided sufficient DNA for NGS in 6 cases. In 2 cases, a core biopsy could not be performed; hence, the fine-needle aspirate material confirmed the diagnosis and was used for NGS testing. CONCLUSION: These results support the incorporation of ROSE into the workflow of precision oncology to obtain high-quality tissue samples from metastatic lesions. In addition, NGS testing of concurrent cytology specimens with adequate cellularity can be a surrogate for NGS testing of biopsy specimens.

12.
Urol Oncol ; 39(7): 434.e17-434.e22, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563537

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Unlike many other cancers, measurement of primary prostate tumor size has no defined role in the management of localized prostate cancer. Here, we assess whether prostate tumor size is associated with aggressive tumor biology using biomarkers of genomic risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We abstracted or imputed tumor size from the primary pathology reports of prostate cancers incorporated in The Cancer Genome Atlas. We used transcriptomic data to estimate the Cell Cycle Progression Score (CCPS, Prolaris), the Genomic Classifier Score (GCS, Decipher) and the Genomic Prostate Score (GPS, OncotypeDx), SChLaP1 expression, and copy number alteration percentage (%CNA) as well as hallmark gene set enrichment analysis. RESULTS: Tumor size and gene expression data was available for 267 men. On multivariable regression adjusted for Gleason Grade Group and tumor purity, tumor size was independently associated with the calculated (c)GCS, cGPS, SChLaP1 expression, and %CNA (P< 0.05), but not cCCPS. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that tumors <5 cc, when adjusting for Gleason grade group, were enriched for androgen response genes, while tumors >5 cc were enriched for MYC targets and genes associated with epithelial mesenchymal transition. CONCLUSIONS: Prostate tumor size is independently associated with established markers of genomic risk. This study nominates the size of a primary prostate cancer as candidate for inclusion in future novel risk scores seeking to quantify cancer aggressiveness.

13.
J Clin Pathol ; 74(5): 291-299, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514585

RESUMO

Transcription factor E3-rearranged renal cell carcinoma (TFE3-RCC) has heterogenous morphologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) features.131 pathologists with genitourinary expertise were invited in an online survey containing 23 questions assessing their experience on TFE3-RCC diagnostic work-up.Fifty (38%) participants completed the survey. 46 of 50 participants reported multiple patterns, most commonly papillary pattern (almost always 9/46, 19.5%; frequently 29/46, 63%). Large epithelioid cells with abundant cytoplasm were the most encountered cytologic feature, with either clear (almost always 10/50, 20%; frequently 34/50, 68%) or eosinophilic (almost always 4/49, 8%; frequently 28/49, 57%) cytology. Strong (3+) or diffuse (>75% of tumour cells) nuclear TFE3 IHC expression was considered diagnostic by 13/46 (28%) and 12/47 (26%) participants, respectively. Main TFE3 IHC issues were the low specificity (16/42, 38%), unreliable staining performance (15/42, 36%) and background staining (12/42, 29%). Most preferred IHC assays other than TFE3, cathepsin K and pancytokeratin were melan A (44/50, 88%), HMB45 (43/50, 86%), carbonic anhydrase IX (41/50, 82%) and CK7 (32/50, 64%). Cut-off for positive TFE3 fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) was preferably 10% (9/50, 18%), although significant variation in cut-off values was present. 23/48 (48%) participants required TFE3 FISH testing to confirm TFE3-RCC regardless of the histomorphologic and IHC assessment. 28/50 (56%) participants would request additional molecular studies other than FISH assay in selected cases, whereas 3/50 participants use additional molecular cases in all cases when TFE3-RCC is in the differential.Optimal diagnostic approach on TFE3-RCC is impacted by IHC and/or FISH assay preferences as well as their conflicting interpretation methods.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Rearranjo Gênico , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/química , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias Renais/química , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Patologistas , Fenótipo , Padrões de Prática Médica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
14.
Transl Oncol ; 14(1): 100944, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frequency of clinically relevant mutations in solid tumors by targeted and whole-exome sequencing is ∼30%. Transcriptome analysis complements detection of actionable gene fusions in advanced cancer patients. Goal of this study was to determine the added value of anchored multiplex PCR (AMP)-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay to identify further potential drug targets, when coupled with whole-exome sequencing (WES). METHODS: Selected series of fifty-six samples from 55 patients enrolled in our precision medicine study were interrogated by WES and AMP-based NGS. RNA-seq was performed in 19 cases. Clinically relevant and actionable alterations detected by three methods were integrated and analyzed. RESULTS: AMP-based NGS detected 48 fusions in 31 samples (55.4%); 31.25% (15/48) were classified as targetable based on published literature. WES revealed 29 samples (51.8%) harbored targetable alterations. TMB-high and MSI-high status were observed in 12.7% and 1.8% of cases. RNA-seq from 19 samples identified 8 targetable fusions (42.1%), also captured by AMP-based NGS. When number of actionable fusions detected by AMP-based NGS were added to WES targetable alterations, 66.1% of samples had potential drug targets. When both WES and RNA-seq were analyzed, 57.8% of samples had targetable alterations. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights importance of an integrative genomic approach for precision oncology, including use of different NGS platforms with complementary features. Integrating RNA data (whole transcriptome or AMP-based NGS) significantly enhances detection of potential targets in cancer patients. In absence of fresh frozen tissue, AMP-based NGS is a robust method to detect actionable fusions using low-input RNA from archival tissue.

15.
Urol Oncol ; 39(5): 295.e1-295.e8, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948433

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To survey urologic clinicians regarding interpretation of and practice patterns in relation to emerging aspects of prostate cancer grading, including quantification of high-grade disease, cribriform/intraductal carcinoma, and impact of magnetic resonance imaging-targeted needle biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Genitourinary Pathology Society distributed a survey to urology and urologic oncology-focused societies and hospital departments. Eight hundred and thirty four responses were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Eighty percent of survey participants use quantity of Gleason pattern 4 on needle biopsy for clinical decisions, less frequently with higher Grade Groups. Fifty percent interpret "tertiary" grade as a minor/<5% component. Seventy percent of respondents would prefer per core grading as well as a global/overall score per set of biopsies, but 70% would consider highest Gleason score in any single core as the grade for management. Seventy five percent utilize Grade Group terminology in patient discussions. For 45%, cribriform pattern would affect management, while for 70% the presence of intraductal carcinoma would preclude active surveillance. CONCLUSION: This survey of practice patterns in relationship to prostate cancer grading highlights similarities and differences between contemporary pathology reporting and its clinical application. As utilization of Gleason pattern 4 quantification, minor tertiary pattern, cribriform/intraductal carcinoma, and the incorporation of magnetic resonance imaging-based strategies evolve, these findings may serve as a basis for more nuanced communication and guide research efforts involving pathologists and clinicians.

16.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 155(4): 588-596, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The nested variant of urothelial carcinoma (NVUC) is a rare bladder tumor that may possess a luminal molecular phenotype. We sought to determine whether a small immunohistochemical (IHC) panel using common surrogates for molecular phenotypes would reliably classify a cohort of pure NVUC cases. METHODS: IHC staining with a panel composed of markers for basal subtypes (CK5/6, CK14) and luminal subtypes (FOXA1, GATA3) was performed on pure small NVUC cases (n = 23) and 5 large NVUC cases (n = 5). Scoring of IHC stains was performed semiquantitatively. Individual cases were analyzed using previously reported IHC-based surrogates for molecular subtype. RESULTS: The phenotype of NVUC was classified as luminal from 60.1% (FOXA1+/CK5/6-) to 100% (GATA3+/CK14-) of cases using composite phenotypes. No cases possessed a basal or squamous cell carcinoma-like phenotype. The majority of small NVUC cases (69.5%) showed subset CK5/6 expression distinctly localized to the basal layers of tumor cell nests. Intratumoral heterogeneity was also noted in CK5/6 (21.7% of small NVUC cases) but no other markers. CONCLUSIONS: NVUC appears to express markers of both basal and luminal bladder tumors. Definitive gene expression profiling may be valuable to further characterize this unique histologic variant.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Queratina-5/biossíntese , Queratina-6/biossíntese , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/classificação , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/classificação
17.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(4): 461-493, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589068

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Controversies and uncertainty persist in prostate cancer grading. OBJECTIVE.­: To update grading recommendations. DATA SOURCES.­: Critical review of the literature along with pathology and clinician surveys. CONCLUSIONS.­: Percent Gleason pattern 4 (%GP4) is as follows: (1) report %GP4 in needle biopsy with Grade Groups (GrGp) 2 and 3, and in needle biopsy on other parts (jars) of lower grade in cases with at least 1 part showing Gleason score (GS) 4 + 4 = 8; and (2) report %GP4: less than 5% or less than 10% and 10% increments thereafter. Tertiary grade patterns are as follows: (1) replace "tertiary grade pattern" in radical prostatectomy (RP) with "minor tertiary pattern 5 (TP5)," and only use in RP with GrGp 2 or 3 with less than 5% Gleason pattern 5; and (2) minor TP5 is noted along with the GS, with the GrGp based on the GS. Global score and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted biopsies are as follows: (1) when multiple undesignated cores are taken from a single MRI-targeted lesion, an overall grade for that lesion is given as if all the involved cores were one long core; and (2) if providing a global score, when different scores are found in the standard and the MRI-targeted biopsy, give a single global score (factoring both the systematic standard and the MRI-targeted positive cores). Grade Groups are as follows: (1) Grade Groups (GrGp) is the terminology adopted by major world organizations; and (2) retain GS 3 + 5 = 8 in GrGp 4. Cribriform carcinoma is as follows: (1) report the presence or absence of cribriform glands in biopsy and RP with Gleason pattern 4 carcinoma. Intraductal carcinoma (IDC-P) is as follows: (1) report IDC-P in biopsy and RP; (2) use criteria based on dense cribriform glands (>50% of the gland is composed of epithelium relative to luminal spaces) and/or solid nests and/or marked pleomorphism/necrosis; (3) it is not necessary to perform basal cell immunostains on biopsy and RP to identify IDC-P if the results would not change the overall (highest) GS/GrGp part per case; (4) do not include IDC-P in determining the final GS/GrGp on biopsy and/or RP; and (5) "atypical intraductal proliferation (AIP)" is preferred for an intraductal proliferation of prostatic secretory cells which shows a greater degree of architectural complexity and/or cytological atypia than typical high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, yet falling short of the strict diagnostic threshold for IDC-P. Molecular testing is as follows: (1) Ki67 is not ready for routine clinical use; (2) additional studies of active surveillance cohorts are needed to establish the utility of PTEN in this setting; and (3) dedicated studies of RNA-based assays in active surveillance populations are needed to substantiate the utility of these expensive tests in this setting. Artificial intelligence and novel grading schema are as follows: (1) incorporating reactive stromal grade, percent GP4, minor tertiary GP5, and cribriform/intraductal carcinoma are not ready for adoption in current practice.


Assuntos
Gradação de Tumores/normas , Patologia/normas , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biópsia por Agulha/normas , Consenso , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/normas , Imuno-Histoquímica/normas , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Masculino , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Neoplasias da Próstata/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética
18.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 25: 100209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979705

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinical guidelines have recently included renal mass biopsy (RMB) in management algorithms, especially in the setting of small renal masses ≤ 4 cm (SRM) and ablative therapy. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic rates of RMB, factors associated with a non-diagnostic biopsy, its clinical utility, and its safety profile in the setting of ablative therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 174 RMB from 167 patients, performed in a tertiary academic center from 01/2015 to 01/2019, were included. Patient demographics, radiographic mass size, RMB diagnoses, subsequent clinical management, and complications were retrospectively reviewed. RMBs were classified as diagnostic or non-diagnostic based on set criteria. RESULTS: The mean mass size was 3.0 cm (range: 0.5-15.3 cm) and 140 biopsies (80%) were SRM. Among all RMB, 159 (91%) were diagnostic and 15 (9%) were non-diagnostic. Non-diagnostic biopsies were associated with small mass size, the presence of a cystic component (p < 0.00001) and fewer number of cores submitted (p = 0.0046). All non-diagnostic biopsies occurred in SRMs, where the mean mass size was significantly smaller than diagnostic biopsies (1.3 versus 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). RMB with concurrent ablation yielded non-diagnostic results more frequently than isolated RMBs (15% vs 2%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: RMB is useful for definitive diagnosis and clinical management in the setting of ablative therapy. Small mass size, cystic lesions, and fewer number of passes obtained are associated with non-diagnostic biopsies. When a renal mass diagnosis is particularly critical, a separate biopsy procedure prior to ablative therapy is recommended.

19.
Mod Pathol ; 33(11): 2208-2220, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404959

RESUMO

The absence of a robust risk stratification tool for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) underlies imprecise and nonselective treatment of these patients with cytotoxic chemotherapy. This study aimed to interrogate transcriptomes of TNBC resected samples using next generation sequencing to identify novel biomarkers associated with disease outcomes. A subset of cases (n = 112) from a large, well-characterized cohort of primary TNBC (n = 333) were subjected to RNA-sequencing. Reads were aligned to the human reference genome (GRCH38.83) using the STAR aligner and gene expression quantified using HTSEQ. We identified genes associated with distant metastasis-free survival and breast cancer-specific survival by applying supervised artificial neural network analysis with gene selection to the RNA-sequencing data. The prognostic ability of these genes was validated using the Breast Cancer Gene-Expression Miner v4. 0 and Genotype 2 outcome datasets. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a prognostic gene signature that was independently associated with poor prognosis. Finally, we corroborated our results from the two-gene prognostic signature by their protein expression using immunohistochemistry. Artificial neural network identified two gene panels that strongly predicted distant metastasis-free survival and breast cancer-specific survival. Univariate Cox regression analysis of 21 genes common to both panels revealed that the expression level of eight genes was independently associated with poor prognosis (p < 0.05). Adjusting for clinicopathological factors including patient's age, grade, nodal stage, tumor size, and lymphovascular invasion using multivariate Cox regression analysis yielded a two-gene prognostic signature (ACSM4 and SPDYC), which was associated with poor prognosis (p < 0.05) independent of other prognostic variables. We validated the protein expression of these two genes, and it was significantly associated with patient outcome in both independent and combined manner (p < 0.05). Our study identifies a prognostic gene signature that can predict prognosis in TNBC patients and could potentially be used to guide the clinical management of TNBC patients.

20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(8): 1915-1923, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139401

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Between 30%-40% of patients with prostate cancer experience disease recurrence following radical prostatectomy. Existing clinical models for recurrence risk prediction do not account for population-based variation in the tumor phenotype, despite recent evidence suggesting the presence of a unique, more aggressive prostate cancer phenotype in African American (AA) patients. We investigated the capacity of digitally measured, population-specific phenotypes of the intratumoral stroma to create improved models for prediction of recurrence following radical prostatectomy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This study included 334 radical prostatectomy patients subdivided into training (VT, n = 127), validation 1 (V1, n = 62), and validation 2 (V2, n = 145). Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides from resected prostates were digitized, and 242 quantitative descriptors of the intratumoral stroma were calculated using a computational algorithm. Machine learning and elastic net Cox regression models were constructed using VT to predict biochemical recurrence-free survival based on these features. Performance of these models was assessed using V1 and V2, both overall and in population-specific cohorts. RESULTS: An AA-specific, automated stromal signature, AAstro, was prognostic of recurrence risk in both independent validation datasets [V1,AA: AUC = 0.87, HR = 4.71 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-13.4), P = 0.003; V2,AA: AUC = 0.77, HR = 5.7 (95% CI, 1.48-21.90), P = 0.01]. AAstro outperformed clinical standard Kattan and CAPRA-S nomograms, and the underlying stromal descriptors were strongly associated with IHC measurements of specific tumor biomarker expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that considering population-specific information and stromal morphology has the potential to substantially improve accuracy of prognosis and risk stratification in AA patients with prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Aprendizado de Máquina , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Células Estromais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Nomogramas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco/métodos , Taxa de Sobrevida
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