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2.
Anesth Analg ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative hypotension (POH) is associated with major adverse events. However, little is known about the association of blood pressure thresholds and outcomes in postoperative patients without intraoperative hypotension (IOH) on the general-care ward. We evaluated the association of POH with major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in patients without IOH. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included 67,968 noncardiac patient-procedures (2008-2017) for patients discharged to the ward with postoperative mean arterial pressure (MAP) readings, managed for ≥48 hours postsurgery, with no evidence of IOH. The primary outcome was 30-day MACCE evaluated by postoperative MAP thresholds: ≤75, ≤65, and ≤55 mm Hg (POH defined as a single measurement below threshold). Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality (30-/90-day), 30-day acute myocardial infarction, 30-day acute ischemic stroke, 30-day readmission, 7-day acute kidney injury, and 30-day readmission. Associations between POH and adverse events were also evaluated in a cohort (#2) of 16,034 patient-procedures with IOH (intraoperative MAP ≤65 mm Hg). RESULTS: In patients without IOH, exposure to POH was not associated with MACCE at any investigated MAP threshold (P < .016 was considered significant: ≤75 mm Hg, hazard ratio [HR] 1.18 [98.4% confidence interval {CI} 0.99-1.39], P = .023; ≤65 mm Hg, HR 1.18 [0.99-1.41], P = .028; ≤55 mm Hg, HR 1.23 [0.90-1.71], P = .121); however, associations were observed at all MAP thresholds for secondary outcomes of acute kidney injury and 30-day readmission, for 30-/90-day mortality for MAP ≤65 mm Hg, and 90-day mortality for MAP ≤55 mm Hg, compared to those without POH. No associations were detected between POH and secondary outcomes of acute ischemic stroke or acute myocardial infarction at any MAP threshold. No interaction between POH and IOH was found when we evaluated the association of POH on outcomes in the data set including all patients, regardless of IOH status (P values for interaction terms nonsignificant). When the interaction term was utilized, the association between POH without IOH and MACCE was significant for MAP ≤75 mm Hg (HR 1.20 [1.01-1.41]) and MAP ≤65 mm Hg (HR 1.21 [1.02-1.45]), but not MAP ≤55 mm Hg. Cohort #2 (POH with IOH) showed largely similar results for MACCE: not significant for MAP ≤75 and ≤65 mm Hg, but significant for MAP ≤55 mm Hg (HR 1.53 [1.05-2.22], P = .006). CONCLUSIONS: POH in patients without IOH was not associated with MACCE at any MAP investigated. No interaction was identified between POH and IOH. Large prospective randomized trials are necessary to develop better evidence and inform clinicians the value of postoperative blood pressure management.

3.
Anesth Analg ; 132(3): e45-e46, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591103
4.
J Clin Anesth ; 70: 110167, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493688

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Opioid administration for pain in general care floor patients remains common, and can lead to adverse outcomes, including respiratory compromise. The PRODIGY trial found that among ward patients receiving parenteral opioids, 46% experienced ≥1 respiratory depression episode. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the geographic differences of opioid administration and examine the association between opioid administration characteristics and the occurrence of respiratory depression. DESIGN: Prospective observational trial. SETTING: 16 general care medical and surgical wards in Asia, Europe, and the United States. PATIENTS: 1335 patients receiving parenteral opioids. INTERVENTIONS: Blinded, alarm-silenced continuous capnography and pulse oximetry monitoring. MEASUREMENTS: Opioid-induced respiratory depression, defined as respiratory rate ≤ 5 bpm, SpO2 ≤ 85%, or ETCO2 ≤ 15 or ≥ 60 mmHg for ≥3 min; apnea episode lasting >30 s; or any respiratory opioid-related adverse event. RESULTS: Across all patients, 58% received only long-acting opioids, 16% received only short-acting (<3 h) opioids, and 21% received a combination of short- and long-acting (≥3 h) opioids. The type and median total morphine milligram equivalent (MME) of opioid administered varied significantly by region, with 31.5 (12.5-76.7) MME, 31.0 (6.2-99.0) MME, and 7.2 (1.7-18.7) MME in the United States, Europe, and Asia, respectively (p < 0.001). Considering only postoperative opioids, 54% (N = 119/220) and 45% (N = 347/779) of patients receiving only short-acting opioids or only long-acting opioids experienced ≥1 episode of opioid-induced respiratory depression, respectively. Multivariable analysis identified post-procedure tramadol (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.424-0.905, p = 0.0133) and post-procedure epidural opioids (OR 0.485, 95% CI 0.322-0.731, p = 0.0005) being associated with a significant reduction in opioid-induced respiratory depression. CONCLUSIONS: Despite varying opioid administration characteristics between Asia, Europe, and the United States, opioid-induced respiratory depression remains a common global problem on general care medical and surgical wards. While the use of post-procedure tramadol or post-procedure epidural opioids may reduce the incidence of respiratory depression, continuous monitoring is also necessary to ensure patient safety when receiving postoperative opioids. REGISTRATION NUMBER: www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT02811302.

5.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(1): 51-58, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated outcomes in patients with vasoplegia after cardiac surgery treated with angiotensin II plus standard-of-care vasopressors. Vasoplegia is a common complication in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Approximately 250,000 cardiac surgeries with cardiopulmonary bypass are performed in the United States annually, with vasoplegia occurring in 20%to-27% of patients. DESIGN: Post-hoc analysis of the Angiotensin II for the Treatment of High-Output Shock (ATHOS-3) study. SETTING: Multicenter, multinational study. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen patients with vasoplegia after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled. INTERVENTIONS: Angiotensin II plus standard-of-care vasopressors (n = 9) compared with placebo plus standard-of-care vasopressors (n = 7). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary endpoint was mean arterial pressure response (mean arterial pressure ≥75 mmHg or an increase from baseline of ≥10 mmHg at hour 3 without an increase in the dose of standard-of-care vasopressors). Vasopressor sparing and safety also were assessed. Mean arterial pressure response was achieved in 8 (88.9%) patients in the angiotensin II group compared with 0 (0%) patients in the placebo group (p = 0.0021). At hour 12, the median standard-of-care vasopressor dose had decreased from baseline by 76.5% in the angiotensin II group compared with an increase of 7.8% in the placebo group (p = 0.0013). No venous or arterial thrombotic events were reported. CONCLUSION: Patients with vasoplegia after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass rapidly responded to angiotensin II, permitting significant vasopressor sparing.

6.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(1): 7-12, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315644

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Perioperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is most often employed during cardiac surgery. This review will summarize some of the recent findings relevant to TEE utilization during thoracic surgical procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: Hemodynamic monitoring is a key component of goal-directed fluid therapy, which is also becoming more common for management of thoracic surgical procedures. Although usually not required for the anesthetic management of common thoracic surgeries, TEE is frequently used during lung transplantation and pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Few clinical studies support current practice patterns, and most recommendations are based on expert opinion. SUMMARY: Currently, routine use of TEE in thoracic surgery is often limited to specific high-risk patients and/or procedures. As in other perioperative settings, TEE may be utilized to elucidate the reasons for acute hemodynamic instability without apparent cause. Contraindications to TEE apply and have to be taken into consideration before performing a TEE on a thoracic surgical patient.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Endarterectomia , Transplante de Pulmão , Período Perioperatório , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos , Humanos , Monitorização Intraoperatória
7.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 682, 2020 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The postoperative period is critical for a patient's recovery, and postoperative hypotension, specifically, is associated with adverse clinical outcomes and significant harm to the patient. However, little is known about the association between postoperative hypotension in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) after non-cardiac surgery, and morbidity and mortality, specifically among patients who did not experience intraoperative hypotension. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of postoperative hypotension at various absolute hemodynamic thresholds (≤ 75, ≤ 65 and ≤ 55 mmHg), in the absence of intraoperative hypotension (≤ 65 mmHg), on outcomes among patients in the ICU following non-cardiac surgery. METHODS: This multi-center retrospective cohort study included specific patient procedures from Optum® healthcare database for patients without intraoperative hypotension (MAP ≤ 65 mmHg) discharged to the ICU for ≥ 48 h after non-cardiac surgery with valid mean arterial pressure (MAP) readings. A total of 3185 procedures were included in the final cohort, and the association between postoperative hypotension and the primary outcome, 30-day major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events, was assessed. Secondary outcomes examined included all-cause 30- and 90-day mortality, 30-day acute myocardial infarction, 30-day acute ischemic stroke, 7-day acute kidney injury stage II/III and 7-day continuous renal replacement therapy/dialysis. RESULTS: Postoperative hypotension in the ICU was associated with an increased risk of 30-day major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events at MAP ≤ 65 mmHg (hazard ratio [HR] 1.52; 98.4% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.96) and ≤ 55 mmHg (HR 2.02, 98.4% CI 1.50-2.72). Mean arterial pressures of ≤ 65 mmHg and ≤ 55 mmHg were also associated with higher 30-day mortality (MAP ≤ 65 mmHg, [HR 1.56, 98.4% CI 1.22-2.00]; MAP ≤ 55 mmHg, [HR 1.97, 98.4% CI 1.48-2.60]) and 90-day mortality (MAP ≤ 65 mmHg, [HR 1.49, 98.4% CI 1.20-1.87]; MAP ≤ 55 mmHg, [HR 1.78, 98.4% CI 1.38-2.31]). Furthermore, we found an association between postoperative hypotension with MAP ≤ 55 mmHg and acute kidney injury stage II/III (HR 1.68, 98.4% CI 1.02-2.77). No associations were seen between postoperative hypotension and 30-day readmissions, 30-day acute myocardial infarction, 30-day acute ischemic stroke and 7-day continuous renal replacement therapy/dialysis for any MAP threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative hypotension in critical care patients with MAP ≤ 65 mmHg is associated with adverse events even without experiencing intraoperative hypotension.

8.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypotension (IOH) occurs frequently during surgery and may be associated with organ ischemia; however, few multicenter studies report data regarding its associations with adverse postoperative outcomes across varying hemodynamic thresholds. Additionally, no study has evaluated the association between IOH exposure and adverse outcomes among patients by various age groups. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2008 and 2017 using intraoperative blood pressure data from the US electronic health records database to examine postoperative outcomes. IOH was assessed in 368,222 noncardiac surgical procedures using 5 methods: (a) absolute maximum decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during surgery, (b) time under each absolute threshold, (c) total area under each threshold, (d) time-weighted average MAP under each threshold, and (e) cumulative time under the prespecified relative MAP thresholds. MAP thresholds were defined by absolute limits (≤75, ≤65, ≤55 mm Hg) and by relative limits (20% and 40% lower than baseline). The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events; secondary outcomes were all-cause 30- and 90-day mortality, 30-day acute myocardial injury, and 30-day acute ischemic stroke. Residual confounding was minimized by controlling for observable patient and surgical factors. In addition, we stratified patients into age subgroups (18-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-80, >80) to investigate how the association between hypotension and the likelihood of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events and acute kidney injury differs in these age subgroups. RESULTS: IOH was common with at least 1 reading of MAP ≤75 mm Hg occurring in 39.5% (145,743) of cases; ≤65 mm Hg in 19.3% (70,938) of cases, and ≤55 mm Hg in 7.5% (27,473) of cases. IOH was significantly associated with the primary outcome for all age groups. For an absolute maximum decrease, the estimated odds of a major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events in the 30-day postsurgery was increased by 12% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11-14) for ≤75 mm Hg; 17.0% (95% CI, 15-19) for ≤65 mm Hg; and by 26.0% (95% CI, 22-29) for ≤55 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: IOH during noncardiac surgery is common and associated with increased 30-day major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events. This observation is magnified with increasing hypotension severity. The potentially avoidable nature of the hazard, and the extent of the exposed population, makes hypotension in the operating room a serious public health issue that should not be ignored for any age group.

10.
Anesth Analg ; 131(5): 1540-1550, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous blood pressure monitoring may facilitate early detection and prompt treatment of hypotension. We tested the hypothesis that area under the curve (AUC) mean arterial pressure (MAP) <65 mm Hg is reduced by continuous invasive arterial pressure monitoring. METHODS: Adults having noncardiac surgery were randomly assigned to continuous invasive arterial pressure or intermittent oscillometric blood pressure monitoring. Arterial catheter pressures were recorded at 1-minute intervals; oscillometric pressures were typically recorded at 5-minute intervals. We estimated the arterial catheter effect on AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg using a multivariable proportional odds model adjusting for imbalanced baseline variables and duration of surgery. Pressures <65 mm Hg were categorized as 0, 1-17, 18-91, and >91 mm Hg × minutes of AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg (ie, no hypotension and 3 equally sized groups of increasing hypotension). RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two patients were randomly assigned to arterial catheter use and 154 to oscillometric monitoring. For various clinical reasons, 143 patients received an arterial catheter, while 163 were monitored oscillometrically. There were a median [Q1, Q3] of 246 [187, 308] pressure measurements in patients with arterial catheters versus 55 (46, 75) measurements in patients monitored oscillometrically. In the primary intent-to-treat analysis, catheter-based monitoring increased detection of AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg, with an estimated proportional odds ratio (ie, odds of being in a worse hypotension category) of 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.70; P = .006). The result was robust over an as-treated analysis and for sensitivity analyses with thresholds of 60 and 70 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative blood pressure monitoring with arterial catheters detected nearly twice as much hypotension as oscillometric measurements.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Cateteres , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Complicações Intraoperatórias/diagnóstico , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/terapia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Oscilometria , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Intensive Care Med ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034686

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intensive care unit (ICU) patients are particularly susceptible to developing pressure injuries. Epidemiologic data is however unavailable. We aimed to provide an international picture of the extent of pressure injuries and factors associated with ICU-acquired pressure injuries in adult ICU patients. METHODS: International 1-day point-prevalence study; follow-up for outcome assessment until hospital discharge (maximum 12 weeks). Factors associated with ICU-acquired pressure injury and hospital mortality were assessed by generalised linear mixed-effects regression analysis. RESULTS: Data from 13,254 patients in 1117 ICUs (90 countries) revealed 6747 pressure injuries; 3997 (59.2%) were ICU-acquired. Overall prevalence was 26.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.9-27.3). ICU-acquired prevalence was 16.2% (95% CI 15.6-16.8). Sacrum (37%) and heels (19.5%) were most affected. Factors independently associated with ICU-acquired pressure injuries were older age, male sex, being underweight, emergency surgery, higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Braden score < 19, ICU stay > 3 days, comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, immunodeficiency), organ support (renal replacement, mechanical ventilation on ICU admission), and being in a low or lower-middle income-economy. Gradually increasing associations with mortality were identified for increasing severity of pressure injury: stage I (odds ratio [OR] 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.8), stage II (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.9), and stage III or worse (OR 2.8; 95% CI 2.3-3.3). CONCLUSION: Pressure injuries are common in adult ICU patients. ICU-acquired pressure injuries are associated with mainly intrinsic factors and mortality. Optimal care standards, increased awareness, appropriate resource allocation, and further research into optimal prevention are pivotal to tackle this important patient safety threat.

12.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 885066620962445, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about hypoxemia surrounding endotracheal intubation in the critically ill. Thus, we sought to identify risk factors associated with peri-intubation hypoxemia and its effects' on the critically ill. METHODS: Data from a multicenter, prospective, cohort study enrolling 1,033 critically ill adults who underwent endotracheal intubation across 16 medical/surgical ICUs in the United States from July 2015-January 2017 were used to identify risk factors associated with peri-intubation hypoxemia and its effects on patient outcomes. We defined hypoxemia as any pulse oximetry ≤ 88% during and up to 30 minutes following endotracheal intubation. RESULTS: In the full analysis (n = 1,033), 123 (11.9%) patients experienced the primary outcome. Five risk factors independently associated with our outcome were identified on multiple logistic regression: cardiac related reason for endotracheal intubation (OR 1.67, [95% CI 1.04, 2.69]); pre-intubation noninvasive ventilation (OR 1.66, [95% CI 1.09, 2.54]); emergency intubation (OR 1.65, [95% CI 1.06, 2.55]); moderate-severe difficult bag-mask ventilation (OR 2.68, [95% CI 1.72, 4.19]); and crystalloid administration within the preceding 24 hours (OR 1.24, [95% CI 1.07, 1.45]; per liter up to 4 liters). Higher baseline SpO2 was found to be protective (OR 0.93, [95% CI 0.91, 0.96]; per percent up to 97%). Consistent results were seen in a separate analysis on only stable patients (n = 921, 93 [10.1%]) (those without baseline hypoxemia ≤ 88%). Peri-intubation hypoxemia was associated with in-hospital mortality (OR 2.40, [95% CI 1.33, 4.31]; stable patients: OR 2.67, [95% CI 1.38, 5.17]) but not ICU length of stay (point estimate 0.9 days, [95% CI -1.0, 2.8 days]; stable patients: point estimate 1.5 days, [95% CI -0.4, 3.4 days]) after adjusting for age, body mass index, illness severity, airway related reason for intubation (i.e., acute respiratory failure), and baseline SPO2. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with pre-existing noninvasive ventilation and volume loading who were intubated emergently in the setting of hemodynamic compromise with bag-mask ventilation described as moderate-severe were at increased risk for peri-intubation hypoxemia. Higher baseline oxygenation was found to be protective against peri-intubation hypoxemia. Peri-intubation hypoxemia was associated with in-hospital mortality but not ICU length of stay. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02508948 and Registered Report Identifier: RR2-10.2196/11101.

13.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with hypercoagulability and increased thrombotic risk in critically ill patients. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated whether aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: A retrospective, observational cohort study of adult patients admitted with COVID-19 to multiple hospitals in the United States between March 2020 and July 2020 was performed. The primary outcome was the need for mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes were ICU admission and in-hospital mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios for study outcomes were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models after adjustment for the effects of demographics and co-morbid conditions. RESULTS: Four hundred twelve patients were included in the study. Three hundred fourteen patients (76.3%) did not receive aspirin, while 98 patients (23.7%) received aspirin within 24 hours of admission or 7 days prior to admission. Aspirin use had a crude association with less mechanical ventilation (35.7% aspirin vs. 48.4% non-aspirin, p=0.03) and ICU admission (38.8% aspirin vs. 51.0% non-aspirin, p=0.04), but no crude association with in-hospital mortality (26.5% aspirin vs. 23.2% non-aspirin, p=0.51). After adjusting for 8 confounding variables, aspirin use was independently associated with decreased risk of mechanical ventilation (adjusted HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.37-0.85, p=0.007), ICU admission (adjusted HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.38-0.85, p=0.005), and in-hospital mortality (adjusted HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.31-0.90, p=0.02). There were no differences in major bleeding (p=0.69) or overt thrombosis (p=0.82) between aspirin users and non-aspirin users. CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin use may be associated with improved outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. However, a sufficiently powered randomized controlled trial is needed to assess whether a causal relationship exists between aspirin use and reduced lung injury and mortality in COVID-19 patients.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0233852, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hypotension following endotracheal intubation in the ICU is associated with poor outcomes. There is no formal prediction tool to help estimate the onset of this hemodynamic compromise. Our objective was to derive and validate a prediction model for immediate hypotension following endotracheal intubation. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, cohort study enrolling 934 adults who underwent endotracheal intubation across 16 medical/surgical ICUs in the United States from July 2015-January 2017 was conducted to derive and validate a prediction model for immediate hypotension following endotracheal intubation. We defined hypotension as: 1) mean arterial pressure <65 mmHg; 2) systolic blood pressure <80 mmHg and/or decrease in systolic blood pressure of 40% from baseline; 3) or the initiation or increase in any vasopressor in the 30 minutes following endotracheal intubation. RESULTS: Post-intubation hypotension developed in 344 (36.8%) patients. In the full cohort, 11 variables were independently associated with hypotension: increasing illness severity; increasing age; sepsis diagnosis; endotracheal intubation in the setting of cardiac arrest, mean arterial pressure <65 mmHg, and acute respiratory failure; diuretic use 24 hours preceding endotracheal intubation; decreasing systolic blood pressure from 130 mmHg; catecholamine and phenylephrine use immediately prior to endotracheal intubation; and use of etomidate during endotracheal intubation. A model excluding unstable patients' pre-intubation (those receiving catecholamine vasopressors and/or who were intubated in the setting of cardiac arrest) was also developed and included the above variables with the exception of sepsis and etomidate. In the full cohort, the 11 variable model had a C-statistic of 0.75 (95% CI 0.72, 0.78). In the stable cohort, the 7 variable model C-statistic was 0.71 (95% CI 0.67, 0.75). In both cohorts, a clinical risk score was developed stratifying patients' risk of hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: A novel multivariable risk score predicted post-intubation hypotension with accuracy in both unstable and stable critically ill patients. STUDY REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02508948 and Registered Report Identifier: RR2-10.2196/11101.


Assuntos
Hipotensão/etiologia , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868151

RESUMO

Patients undergoing heart transplant are at high risk for vasodilatory shock in the postoperative period, due to a combination of vascular dysfunction from end-stage heart failure and inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass and, increasingly, long-term exposure to nonpulsatile blood flow in those who have received a left ventricular assist device as a bridge to transplant. Patients who have this vasoplegic syndrome, which may be refractory to traditional agents used in the treatment of shock, are vulnerable to organ dysfunction and death. Angiotensin II (ANG-2) is of increasing interest as an adjunct to traditional therapy, both for improvement in blood pressure and for sparing the use of high-dose catecholamine vasopressors. This case series describes the use of ANG-2 in 4 clinical scenarios for the treatment of shock due to heart transplant surgery, supporting its use in this role and justifying further prospective studies to clarify the appropriate place for ANG-2 in the hierarchy of adjunctive therapies.

16.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1012-1024, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid-related adverse events are a serious problem in hospitalized patients. Little is known about patients who are likely to experience opioid-induced respiratory depression events on the general care floor and may benefit from improved monitoring and early intervention. The trial objective was to derive and validate a risk prediction tool for respiratory depression in patients receiving opioids, as detected by continuous pulse oximetry and capnography monitoring. METHODS: PRediction of Opioid-induced respiratory Depression In patients monitored by capnoGraphY (PRODIGY) was a prospective, observational trial of blinded continuous capnography and oximetry conducted at 16 sites in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Vital signs were intermittently monitored per standard of care. A total of 1335 patients receiving parenteral opioids and continuously monitored on the general care floor were included in the analysis. A respiratory depression episode was defined as respiratory rate ≤5 breaths/min (bpm), oxygen saturation ≤85%, or end-tidal carbon dioxide ≤15 or ≥60 mm Hg for ≥3 minutes; apnea episode lasting >30 seconds; or any respiratory opioid-related adverse event. A risk prediction tool was derived using a multivariable logistic regression model of 46 a priori defined risk factors with stepwise selection and was internally validated by bootstrapping. RESULTS: One or more respiratory depression episodes were detected in 614 (46%) of 1335 general care floor patients (43% male; mean age, 58 ± 14 years) continuously monitored for a median of 24 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 17-26). A multivariable respiratory depression prediction model with area under the curve of 0.740 was developed using 5 independent variables: age ≥60 (in decades), sex, opioid naivety, sleep disorders, and chronic heart failure. The PRODIGY risk prediction tool showed significant separation between patients with and without respiratory depression (P < .001) and an odds ratio of 6.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.44-8.30; P < .001) between the high- and low-risk groups. Compared to patients without respiratory depression episodes, mean hospital length of stay was 3 days longer in patients with ≥1 respiratory depression episode (10.5 ± 10.8 vs 7.7 ± 7.8 days; P < .0001) identified using continuous oximetry and capnography monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: A PRODIGY risk prediction model, derived from continuous oximetry and capnography, accurately predicts respiratory depression episodes in patients receiving opioids on the general care floor. Implementation of the PRODIGY score to determine the need for continuous monitoring may be a first step to reduce the incidence and consequences of respiratory compromise in patients receiving opioids on the general care floor.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Capnografia/métodos , Oximetria/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa Respiratória , Fatores de Risco
17.
A A Pract ; 14(9): e01266, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909718

RESUMO

Vasodilatory shock is common following cardiac surgery, caused by an inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Some cases are refractory to volume resuscitation, high-dose catecholamines, arginine vasopressin, and established adjunctive therapies. Angiotensin II (ANG-2), an endogenous hormone in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), has several direct and indirect vasoconstrictive properties that make it a promising potential treatment. This case describes the successful use of ANG-2 in an anephric patient who suffered from severe refractory shock following CPB, offering a unique potential mechanism of benefit in a broader population of patients with baseline impaired RAAS.

18.
J Crit Care ; 60: 177-182, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-operative atrial fibrillation is a complication with high morbidity. In patients on prior-to-admission beta-blockers, early post-operative beta-blockade reduces atrial fibrillation risk; however, this benefit is not studied in hemodynamically unstable patients requiring vasopressors. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed at two high-volume centers of adult patients on home beta-blockers, undergoing non-cardiac surgery between 2005 and 2015, and who required post-operative vasopressors. Patients were divided into early beta-blockers (within 24 h) or delayed from vasopressor cessation. The primary outcome was the atrial fibrillation incidence. A propensity score was developed for early beta-blockers and used for adjustment. RESULTS: Eight-hundred seventy one patients required post-operative vasopressors; 423 in the early group and 448 in the delayed group. In the delayed beta-blocker group, intraoperative hypotension was more common (21.6% versus 24.1%, p < 0.001), APACHE III scores higher (56.6 versus 50.8, p < 0.001) and more post-operative norephinephrine use (56.7% veruss 30.3%, p < 0.001). Eighty eight patients developed atrial fibrillation: 40 in the early group, and 48 in the delayed group (p = 0.538). After adjustment, early beta-blockade was not associated with changed incidence of atrial fibrillation. CONCLUSIONS: In patients requiring postoperative vasopressors, early beta-blockade did not protect against postoperative atrial fibrillation.

19.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This survey assessed satisfaction with the practice environment among physicians who have completed fellowship training in critical care medicine (CCM) as recognized by the American Board of Anesthesiology (and are members of the American Society of Anesthesiology) and evaluated the perceived effectiveness of training programs in preparing fellows for critical care practice. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey composed of 39 multiple choice and open-ended questions was administered between August and December 2018 to all members of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) who self-identified as being CCM trained. The survey instrument was developed and revised in an iterative fashion by ASA committee on CCM and the Society for Education in Anesthesia (SEA). Survey results were analyzed using a mixed-method approach. RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-three of the 1400 anesthesiologists who self-identified to the ASA as having CCM training (25.2%) completed the survey. Most were men (72.3%), board certified in CCM (98.7%), and had practiced a median of 5 years. Half of the respondents rated their training as "excellent." A total of 70.6% described currently working in academic centers with 53.6% providing care in open surgical intensive care units (ICUs). Most anesthesiologist intensivists (75%) spend at least 25% of their clinical time providing ICU care (versus clinical anesthesia). A total of 89% of the respondents were involved in educational activities, 60% reported being in administrative leadership roles, and 37% engaged in scholarly activity. Areas of dissatisfaction included fatigue, lack of collegiality or respect, lack of research training, decreased job satisfaction, and burnout. Analysis suggested moderate levels of job satisfaction (49%), work-life balance (52%), and high levels of burnout (74%). A significant contributor to burnout was with a perception of lack of respect (P = .005) in the work environment. Burnout was not significantly associated with gender or duration of practice. Qualitative analysis of the open-ended responses also identified these 3 variables as major themes. CONCLUSIONS: This survey of CCM-trained anesthesiologists described a high rate of board certification, practice in academic settings, and participation in resident education. Areas of dissatisfaction with an anesthesia/critical care practice included burnout, work/life balance, and lack of respect. These results may increase recruitment of anesthesiologists into critical care and inform strategies to improve satisfaction with anesthesia critical care practice, fellowship training.

20.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(9): 1253-1261, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609011

RESUMO

Rationale: Exogenous angiotensin II increases mean arterial pressure in patients with catecholamine-resistant vasodilatory shock (CRVS). We hypothesized that renin concentrations may identify patients most likely to benefit from such therapy.Objectives: To test the kinetic changes in renin concentrations and their prognostic value in patients with CRVS.Methods: We analyzed serum samples from patients enrolled in the ATHOS-3 (Angiotensin II for the Treatment of High-Output Shock) trial for renin, angiotensin I, and angiotensin II concentrations before the start of administration of angiotensin II or placebo and after 3 hours.Measurements and Main Results: Baseline serum renin concentration (normal range, 2.13-58.78 pg/ml) was above the upper limits of normal in 194 of 255 (76%) study patients with a median renin concentration of 172.7 pg/ml (interquartile range [IQR], 60.7 to 440.6 pg/ml), approximately threefold higher than the upper limit of normal. Renin concentrations correlated positively with angiotensin I/II ratios (r = 0.39; P < 0.001). At 3 hours after initiation of angiotensin II therapy, there was a 54.3% reduction (IQR, 37.9% to 66.5% reduction) in renin concentration compared with a 14.1% reduction (IQR, 37.6% reduction to 5.1% increase) with placebo (P < 0.0001). In patients with renin concentrations above the study population median, angiotensin II significantly reduced 28-day mortality to 28 of 55 (50.9%) patients compared with 51 of 73 patients (69.9%) treated with placebo (unstratified hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.35 to 0.88; P = 0.012) (P = 0.048 for the interaction).Conclusions: The serum renin concentration is markedly elevated in CRVS and may identify patients for whom treatment with angiotensin II has a beneficial effect on clinical outcomes.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02338843).


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/sangue , Catecolaminas/efeitos adversos , Catecolaminas/uso terapêutico , Renina/sangue , Choque/sangue , Choque/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoconstritores/efeitos adversos , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
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