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1.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Determine global skin transcriptome patterns of early diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc) and how they differ from later disease. METHODS: Skin biopsy RNA from 48 patients in the Prospective Registry for Early Systemic Sclerosis (PRESS) cohort (mean disease duration 1.3 years) and 33 matched healthy controls was examined by next-generation RNA sequencing. Data were analysed for cell type-specific signatures and compared with similarly obtained data from 55 previously biopsied patients in Genetics versus Environment in Scleroderma Outcomes Study cohort with longer disease duration (mean 7.4 years) and their matched controls. Correlations with histological features and clinical course were also evaluated. RESULTS: SSc patients in PRESS had a high prevalence of M2 (96%) and M1 (94%) macrophage and CD8 T cell (65%), CD4 T cell (60%) and B cell (69%) signatures. Immunohistochemical staining of immune cell markers correlated with the gene expression-based immune cell signatures. The prevalence of immune cell signatures in early diffuse SSc patients was higher than in patients with longer disease duration. In the multivariable model, adaptive immune cell signatures were significantly associated with shorter disease duration, while fibroblast and macrophage cell type signatures were associated with higher modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS). Immune cell signatures also correlated with skin thickness progression rate prior to biopsy, but did not predict subsequent mRSS progression. CONCLUSIONS: Skin in early diffuse SSc has prominent innate and adaptive immune cell signatures. As a prominently affected end organ, these signatures reflect the preceding rate of disease progression. These findings could have implications in understanding SSc pathogenesis and clinical trial design.

2.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667644

RESUMO

The Collaborative National Quality and Efficacy Registry (CONQUER) for Scleroderma is a multicenter US-based longitudinal study of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) within 5 years of first non-Raynaud's symptom. The data collection methodology incorporates successful models from other SSc registries. The cohort is designed to provide linked bio-specimen and clinical outcomes data on a longitudinal cohort of SSc patients for validation of hypothesis-driven research and to provide a platform for studying patient-reported outcomes in scleroderma. The CONQUER registry was developed using the guidelines of the International Society for Biological Repositories, and was an iterative process between physicians with an expertise in SSc, patient stakeholders, and information technology experts. Enrollment commenced in June 2018. During the first 6 months of the CONQUER Scleroderma study, 151 SSc patients with less than 5 years of disease duration (from first non-Raynaud's symptom) have been recruited. The mean age is 51 ± 14 years, 83% are female, and 60% of patients have diffuse disease. Survey completion rates are above 88% for all patient-reported outcome surveys. Bio-specimen collection rates are over 97%, and disease severity score completion rates are over 98%. Pulmonary function test data is available on 91% of patients, and echocardiography is available 80%. The CONQUER scleroderma study provides a unique and growing resource for studying scleroderma in a longitudinal, US-based population. KEY POINTS : • The Collaborative National Quality and Efficacy Registry (CONQUER) for Scleroderma is a multicenter US-based longitudinal study of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) within 5 years of first non-Raynaud's symptom. • The CONQUER scleroderma study provides a unique and growing resource for studying scleroderma in a longitudinal, US-based population. • CONQUER is innovative in its design in that it is focused on prospective collection of paired clinical and patient outcome data with bio-specimens.

4.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 119(4): 49-56, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: PROMIS-29 is a generic health-related quality of life instrument. Our objective was to assess the reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness to change of PROMIS-29 in systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD). METHODS: Seventy-three participants with SSc-ILD were administered patient reported outcomes (PROs) at baseline and follow-up visits which included PROMIS-29 and other measures of generic health, dyspnea, and cough instruments. We assessed internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's α, an alpha of ≥ 0.70 was considered satisfactory. We assessed the responsiveness to change using linear regression models. RESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 51.9 years and the mean disease duration was 7.9 years after first non-Raynaud's symptom. Of the 73 participants, 56.2% were classified as diffuse SSc and 26% limited SSc. The baseline (mean ± SD) FVC % predicted was 73.9±15.5 with a DLCO % predicted of 57.7±21.1; 95.9% had fibrotic NSIP pattern on HRCT. PROMIS-29 scores were 0.2 to 0.9 SD below the US population. Cronbach's α reliability was acceptable for all domains (ranged from 0.77 to 0.98). All scales showed statistically significant correlations with hypothesised PROMIS-29 domains (p≤0.05 for all comparisons). PROMIS-29 showed none-to-small discriminatory ability in comparison with physiologic measures (FVC and DLCO). There was no significant relationship between the change in FVC versus the change in PROMIS-29 measures over time. CONCLUSIONS: PROMIS-29 has adequate reliability and construct validity for evaluation in SSc-ILD. It has moderate-to-large correlations with other PROs. The PROMIS-29 domains were not found to change over time in this cohort, likely due to stable nature of the observational cohort.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Qualidade de Vida , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Dispneia , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escleroderma Sistêmico/psicologia
5.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 202, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the effect of riociguat, an oral, selective soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, on the net digital ulcer (DU) burden in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Participants with SSc-related active or painful indeterminate DUs were recruited in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial. Eligible participants were required to have at least one visible, active ischemic DU or painful indeterminate DU at screening, located at or distal to the proximal interphalangeal joint and that developed or worsened within 8 weeks prior to screening. Participants were randomized 1:1 to placebo or riociguat in individualized doses (maximum of 2.5 mg three times daily) during an 8-week titration period, followed by an 8-week stable dosing period. This was followed by an optional 16-week open-label extension phase for participants with active DU/reoccurrence of DUs within 1 month of the end of the main treatment phase. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to week 16 in net ulcer burden (NUB), analyzed using ANCOVA. Other endpoints included plasma biomarkers and proportion of participants with treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Seventeen participants (eight placebo, nine riociguat) were randomized at five centers. Six participants in each group transitioned to the open-label extension. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the treatment groups, except participants randomized to placebo were older and had longer disease duration (p < 0.05). At baseline, the mean (SD) NUB was 2.5 (2.0) in the placebo and 2.4 (1.4) in the riociguat. No significant treatment difference was observed in the change from baseline to 16 weeks in NUB (adjusted mean treatment difference - 0.24, 95% CI (- 1.46, 0.99), p = 0.70). Four participants experienced five serious AE (four in riociguat and one in placebo); none was considered related to study medication. Statistically significant elevation of cGMP was observed at 16 weeks in the riociguat group (p = 0.05); no other biomarkers showed significant changes. In the open-label extension, participants in the riociguat-riociguat arm had complete healing of their DUs. CONCLUSION: In participants with SSc-DU, treatment with riociguat did not reduce the number of DU net burden compared with placebo at 16 weeks. Open-label extension suggests that longer duration is needed to promote DU healing, which needs to be confirmed in a new trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02915835 . Registered on September 27, 2016.

6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1151-1159, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. (1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort and a patient survey. (2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. (3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. (4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in seven clinical (constitutional, haematological, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and three immunological (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered and weighted criteria reflect current thinking about SLE and provide an improved foundation for SLE research.

7.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management guidelines have identified unmet educational needs in gout patients. Our objective was to develop and pilot test MyGoutCare (MGC©)-a web-based, interactive educational resource for gout patients, tailored to improve knowledge. METHODS: The website was developed with input from patients and experts. A health informatics expert tailored content areas so the patient could walk through a journey to learn various aspects of gout. During the pilot study, patients completed baseline demographics and a 10-item validated gout knowledge questionnaire. After reviewing the website, patients completed a post-survey within 2 weeks of their physician visit. Data was analyzed using paired t-tests and effect size (ES) was calculated for the changed scores. RESULTS: Gout patients and experts agreed on these content areas-triggers of flares, comorbidities, pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment, healthy gout diet, and lifestyle choices. In the pilot study, 50 patients (mean age of 54 years, mean disease duration of 9.5 years, and mean 3-5 flares/year) were recruited. Their post-survey scores (0-10) on knowledge questions improved significantly when compared to pre-survey scores with mean (SD) of 1.95 (1.76) p < 0.0001, ES = 0.95. Patients identified actionable changes moving forward after reviewing the website-decision to continue lifelong urate-lowering therapy, complying with periodic monitoring of serum urate, and making dietary changes. CONCLUSIONS: Web-based platforms that offer patient-focused materials can serve as a practical tool to address ongoing educational needs of gout patients. Additional studies are needed to evaluate if the website can improve patient-physician communication and lead to better long-term outcomes.

8.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(9): 1400-1412, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. 1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort, and a patient survey. 2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. 3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. 4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1,001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1,270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in 7 clinical (constitutional, hematologic, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and 3 immunologic (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered, and weighted criteria reflects current thinking about SLE and provides an improved foundation for SLE research.

9.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in the extent of specific patterns of interstitial lung disease (ILD) as they transition from one pattern to another in response to immunosuppressive therapy of Systemic Sclerosis-related ILD. (SSc-ILD) METHODS: We evaluated changes in the quantitative extent of specific lung patterns of ILD using volumetric HRCT scans obtained at baseline and 2 years after therapy in patients treated with either cyclophosphamide (CYC) for 1 year or mycophenolate (MMF) for 2 years in the Scleroderma Lung Study II. ILD patterns included: lung fibrosis (LF), ground glass (GG), honeycombing (HC), and normal lung (NL). Net changes were calculated as the differences in the probabilities of changes from one ILD pattern to another. Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests were used to compare the changes. RESULTS: Forty-seven and 50 patients had baseline and follow-up scans in the CYC and MMF arms, respectively. Mean net improvements reflecting favorable changes in extent of ILD from one pattern to another in the whole lung in the CYC and MMF groups, respectively, were as follows: from LF to NL (21% and 19%), from GG to NL (30% and 28%) and from LF to GG (5% and -0.6%). Means of overall improvement in transitioning from GG or LF to NL patterns were significant for both treatments (all p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Significantly favorable transitions from both GG and LF ILD patterns to NL were found in patients undergoing immunosuppressive treatment for SSc-ILD, suggesting the usefulness of examining these transitions for insights into the underlying pathobiology of treatment response. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: T cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of early systemic sclerosis. This study was undertaken to assess the safety and efficacy of abatacept in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc). METHODS: In this 12-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, participants were randomized 1:1 to receive either subcutaneous abatacept 125 mg or matching placebo, stratified by duration of dcSSc. Escape therapy was allowed at 6 months for worsening disease. The coprimary end points were change in the modified Rodnan skin thickness score (MRSS) compared to baseline and safety over 12 months. Differences in longitudinal outcomes were assessed according to treatment using linear mixed models, with outcomes censored after initiation of escape therapy. Skin tissue obtained from participants at baseline was classified into intrinsic gene expression subsets. RESULTS: Among 88 participants, the adjusted mean change in the MRSS at 12 months was -6.24 units for those receiving abatacept and -4.49 units for those receiving placebo, with an adjusted mean treatment difference of -1.75 units (P = 0.28). Outcomes for 2 secondary measures (Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index and a composite measure) were clinically and statistically significantly better with abatacept. The proportion of subjects in whom escape therapy was needed was higher in the placebo group relative to the abatacept group (36% versus 16%). In the inflammatory and normal-like skin gene expression subsets, decline in the MRSS over 12 months was clinically and significantly greater in the abatacept group versus the placebo group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively). In the abatacept group, adverse events occurred in 35 participants versus 40 participants in the placebo group, including 2 deaths and 1 death, respectively. CONCLUSION: In this phase II trial, abatacept was well-tolerated, but change in the MRSS was not statistically significant. Secondary outcome measures, including gene expression subsets, showed evidence in support of abatacept. These data should be confirmed in a phase III trial.

12.
Eur Respir J ; 54(2)2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is one of the leading causes of mortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We explored the impact of the updated haemodynamic definition of pulmonary hypertension (PH), as proposed by the 6th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension. METHODS: In this single-centre retrospective analysis, patients with SSc who had right heart catheterisation (RHC) were included. We compared the prior PH definition to the updated PH definition. The prior definition classified PH as mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) ≥25 mmHg and further divided into pre-capillary PH (PAH and PH due to lung disease and/or hypoxia), post-capillary PH, and combined pre- and post-capillary PH groups. For the updated definition, PH was classified as mPAP >20 mmHg and further divided into the different groups. We validated our findings in the DETECT cohort. RESULTS: Between 2005 and March 2019, 268 RHCs were performed in this single-centre cohort. Using the prior definition, 137 (51%) were diagnosed with PH, with 89 classified as pre-capillary PH (56 with PAH and 33 with PH due to lung disease and/or hypoxia), 29 as post-capillary PH, and 19 as combined pre- and post-capillary PH. When the updated definition was applied to the cohort, seven out of 131 (5%) with no PH were reclassified to pre-capillary PH (PAH (n=1), PH due to lung disease (n=3) and post-capillary PH (n=3)). In those with mPAP 21-24 mmHg, with no left heart or significant lung disease, one out of 28 (4%) in our cohort and four out of 36 (11%) in the DETECT cohort were reclassified as PAH. CONCLUSION: The updated PH definition does not appear to have a significant impact on the diagnosis of PH in two different screening cohorts.

13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(12): 2059-2067, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between Krebs von den Lungen 6 (KL-6) and CCL18 levels and the severity and progression of systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related interstitial lung disease (ILD). METHODS: Patients enrolled in the Scleroderma Lung Study II (cyclophosphamide [CYC] versus mycophenolate mofetil [MMF]) were included. Baseline and 12-month plasma samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to assess CCL18 and KL-6 levels. The forced vital capacity (FVC) and the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) were measured every 3 months. Joint models were created to investigate the relationship between baseline CCL18 and KL-6 levels and the course of the FVC and DLco over 1 year according to treatment arm. RESULTS: Baseline KL-6 and CCL18 levels each correlated with the extent of radiographic fibrosis. Levels of both CCL18 and KL-6 declined significantly at 1 year. In both treatment arms (n = 71 for CYC, n = 62 for MMF), a higher baseline KL-6 level predicted progression of ILD based on the course of FVC (P = 0.024 for CYC; P = 0.005 for MMF) and DLco (P < 0.001 for CYC; P = 0.004 for MMF) over 1 year. A higher baseline CCL18 level predicted progression of ILD based on the course of the FVC (P < 0.001 for CYC; P = 0.007 for MMF) and DLco (P = 0.001 for CYC; P < 0.001 for MMF) over 1 year, as well as mortality (P = 0.0008 for CYC arm only). CONCLUSION: In a rigorously conducted clinical trial for SSc-related ILD, KL-6 and CCL18 levels correlated with ILD severity and declined with immunosuppression. Patients with higher baseline KL-6 and CCL18 levels were more likely to experience disease progression despite treatment. KL-6 and CCL18 levels could be used to identify patients with a progressive ILD phenotype who may benefit from a more aggressive initial treatment approach.

14.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1242-1248, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mortality and worsening of organ function are desirable endpoints for clinical trials in systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of this study was to identify factors that allow enrichment of patients with these endpoints, in a population of patients from the European Scleroderma Trials and Research group database. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of diffuse SSc and follow-up over 12±3 months. Disease worsening/organ progression was fulfilled if any of the following events occurred: new renal crisis; decrease of lung or heart function; new echocardiography-suspected pulmonary hypertension or death. In total, 42 clinical parameters were chosen as predictors for the analysis by using (1) imputation of missing data on the basis of multivariate imputation and (2) least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression. RESULTS: Of 1451 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, 706 had complete data on outcome parameters and were included in the analysis. Of the 42 outcome predictors, eight remained in the final regression model. There was substantial evidence for a strong association between disease progression and age, active digital ulcer (DU), lung fibrosis, muscle weakness and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Active DU, CRP elevation, lung fibrosis and muscle weakness were also associated with a significantly shorter time to disease progression. A bootstrap validation step with 10 000 repetitions successfully validated the model. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the predictive factors presented here could enable cohort enrichment with patients at risk for overall disease worsening in SSc clinical trials.

15.
J Med Chem ; 62(9): 4350-4369, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951312

RESUMO

Through a phenotypic high-throughput screen using a serum response element luciferase promoter, we identified a novel 5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylthiopropionic acid lead inhibitor of Rho/myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)/serum response factor (SRF)-mediated gene transcription with good potency (IC50 = 180 nM). We were able to rapidly improve the cellular potency by 5 orders of magnitude guided by sharply defined and synergistic SAR. The remarkable potency and depth of the SAR, as well as the relatively low molecular weight of the series, suggests, but does not prove, that binding to the unknown molecular target may be occurring through a covalent mechanism. The series nevertheless has no observable cytotoxicity up to 100 µM. Ensuing pharmacokinetic optimization resulted in the development of two potent and orally bioavailable anti-fibrotic agents that were capable of dose-dependently reducing connective tissue growth factor gene expression in vitro as well as significantly reducing the development of bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis in mice in vivo.

16.
RMD Open ; 5(1): e000826, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997150

RESUMO

Background: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a severe, progressive multiorgan disease but to date, there are no established standardised international guidelines for follow-up of patients with SSc. The goal of this project was to develop an expert consensus for annual systematic investigations in patients with SSc to enhance their standard-of-care. Material and methods: The Delphi method was applied. All SSc experts from the European Scleroderma Trials and Research group network and the Scleroderma Clinical Trial Consortium were invited to participate. All experts were asked to answer questionnaires in five Delphi steps to determine the domains of interest and tools for each domain for an annual systematic assessment of patients with SSc. Each item was rated on a scale between 0% and 100% (not and very important), and parameters rated >80% by more than 75% of the experts were regarded as acceptable. Results: In total, 157 experts worldwide participated with 71.3% experts seeing >50 patients with SSc annually. In the first round, 23 domains and 204 tools were suggested. After five Delphi steps, experts agreed on 10 domains including (1) Raynaud's phenomenon; (2) Digital ulcers; (3) Skin and mucosa; (4) Lung; (5); Heart; (6) GI domain, (7) Renal; (8) Musculoskeletal; (9) Laboratory and (10) Treatment. Overall, 55 tools were identified including clinical assessments, laboratory measurements and imaging or functional investigations. Conclusion: Through five Delphi steps with world leading experts, a consensus was established on strongly suggested tools for a minimum annual systemic assessment of organ involvement in SSc. This work should enhance the standardisation and homogenisation of the practices.

17.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 31(3): 241-249, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870216

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recently published data and provide a practical overview for management of systemic sclerosis-interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD). RECENT FINDINGS: Published evidence shows considerable practitioner variability in screening patients for ILD. Recent published data support use of cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate mofetil as first-line treatment of SSc-ILD. For patients not responding to first-line therapies, consideration is given to rituximab as rescue therapy. Recent trials of hematopoietic autologous stem cell transplantation have demonstrated benefit in patients with progressive SSc-ILD. Antifibrotic agents are approved in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; studies with antifibrotics are underway for SSc-ILD. SUMMARY: The specter of rapidly progressive lung disease requires clinicians to risk stratify patients according to known predictors for progression and rigorously monitor for symptoms and advancing disease. The abovementioned therapies promise improved efficacy and favorable side-effect profiles compared to cyclophosphamide.

18.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(5): 648-656, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether progressive skin fibrosis is associated with visceral organ progression and mortality during follow-up in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc). METHODS: We evaluated patients from the European Scleroderma Trials and Research database with dcSSc, baseline modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) ≥7, valid mRSS at 12±3 months after baseline and ≥1 annual follow-up visit. Progressive skin fibrosis was defined as an increase in mRSS >5 and ≥25% from baseline to 12±3 months. Outcomes were pulmonary, cardiovascular and renal progression, and all-cause death. Associations between skin progression and outcomes were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS: Of 1021 included patients, 78 (7.6%) had progressive skin fibrosis (skin progressors). Median follow-up was 3.4 years. Survival analyses indicated that skin progressors had a significantly higher probability of FVC decline ≥10% (53.6% vs 34.4%; p<0.001) and all-cause death (15.4% vs 7.3%; p=0.003) than non-progressors. These significant associations were also found in subgroup analyses of patients with either low baseline mRSS (≤22/51) or short disease duration (≤15 months). In multivariable analyses, skin progression within 1 year was independently associated with FVC decline ≥10% (HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.65) and all-cause death (HR 2.58, 95% CI 1.31 to 5.09). CONCLUSIONS: Progressive skin fibrosis within 1 year is associated with decline in lung function and worse survival in dcSSc during follow-up. These results confirm mRSS as a surrogate marker in dcSSc, which will be helpful for cohort enrichment in future trials and risk stratification in clinical practice.

19.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(8): 1350-1359, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We previously identified CYR61 as a histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC-5)-repressed gene in systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) endothelial cells (ECs). When overexpressed, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR-61) promoted angiogenesis in SSc ECs. This study was undertaken to examine the role of CYR-61 in fibrosis and determine the mechanisms involved in CYR-61-mediated angiogenesis in SSc. METHODS: Dermal ECs and fibroblasts were isolated from biopsy specimens from healthy subjects and patients with SSc. CYR-61 level was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CYR-61 was overexpressed using a CYR61 vector or knocked down using small interfering RNA, and functional and mechanistic studies were then conducted in fibroblasts and ECs. RESULTS: Lower CYR61 messenger RNA levels were observed in dermal fibroblasts and ECs from SSc patients than in those from healthy controls. In SSc fibroblasts, overexpression of CYR-61 led to significant reduction in the expression of profibrotic genes, including COL1A1 (P = 0.002) and ACTA2 (P = 0.04), and an increase in the expression of matrix-degrading genes, including MMP1 (P = 0.002) and MMP3 (P =0.004), and proangiogenic VEGF (P = 0.03). The antifibrotic effect of CYR-61 was further demonstrated by delay in wound healing, inhibition of gel contraction, inactivation of the transforming growth factor ß pathway, and early superoxide production associated with senescence in SSc fibroblasts. In SSc ECs, overexpression of CYR-61 led to increased production of vascular endothelial cell growth factor. The proangiogenic effects of CYR-61 were mediated by signaling through αvß3 receptors and downstream activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, AKT, and the endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide pathway system. CONCLUSION: CYR-61, which is epigenetically regulated by HDAC-5, is a potent antifibrotic and proangiogenic mediator in SSc. Therapeutic intervention to promote CYR-61 activity or increase CYR-61 levels might be of benefit in SSc.

20.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 22(6): 1036-1040, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838791

RESUMO

AIM: The modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) is a validated outcome measure for skin thickness in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Training has been shown to reduce variability in the measurement of mRSS. Our objective was to assess the inter- and intra-observer variability of mRSS scoring using the proposed recommendations for training by the Scleroderma Clinical Trials Consortium (SCTC) and World Scleroderma Foundation (WSF). METHOD: Fifty-two trainees and eight adult SSc patients participated in the SSc skin scoring workshop that was conducted in two sessions by four teachers. Each session, attended by 26 trainees, had a teaching and evaluation phase. The teaching phase comprised of: (a) lecture on mRSS scoring; (b) video demonstration of mRSS scoring; and (c) live demonstration of mRSS on one SSc patient. In the evaluation phase, each trainee independently assessed the mRSS in four SSc patients. For intra-observer reliability, 14 trainees re-assessed the mRSS of two SSc patients whom they had previously examined. We computed the inter- and intra-observer variability using a linear mixed model. RESULTS: For the evaluation phase, 34 (65.4%) trainees were within five units of the established teachers' score in 3 out of 4 patients. Overall, the whole group had acceptable inter-observer variability (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.71, mean = 8.64 and within-patient standard deviation [SD] = 4.25). The intra-observer ICC was 0.85 and within-patient SD was 2.73. CONCLUSION: There was good inter-observer and excellent intra-observer reliability. This is the first study examining the training of assessors using the SCTC/WSF recommendations and our results support the importance of standardized training for skin scoring.

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