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2.
J Child Neurol ; : 8830738211000507, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754870

RESUMO

A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on 79 consecutive patients between 6 months and 5 years admitted to a tertiary hospital with a diagnosis of complex febrile seizures requiring mechanical ventilation from 2011 to 2017 to determine the utility of infectious and neurologic diagnostics. Intubation was used as a proxy for severity of illness. The overall intensive care unit stay was short (95% intubated <24 hours, 88% admitted <3 days). No life-threatening infections were identified, and none required surgical interventions. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was obtained on 43%, 26% of which were abnormal. Sixty-six percent of patients were discharged on rescue benzodiazepine and 20% with maintenance antiseizure medications. Duration of follow-up averaged 4 years (range 1 month to 9 years); 8 patients (10%) were subsequently diagnosed with epilepsy. Our findings suggest that extensive diagnostic evaluations may not be necessary for children with complex febrile seizures requiring mechanical ventilation although the role of EEG is less understood.

5.
Anesthesiology ; 133(6): 1214-1222, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Hypotension Prediction Index is a commercially available algorithm, based on arterial waveform features, that predicts hypotension defined as mean arterial pressure less than 65 mmHg for at least 1 min. We therefore tested the primary hypothesis that index guidance reduces the duration and severity of hypotension during noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We enrolled adults having moderate- or high-risk noncardiac surgery with invasive arterial pressure monitoring. Participating patients were randomized to hemodynamic management with or without index guidance. Clinicians caring for patients assigned to guidance were alerted when the index exceeded 85 (range, 0 to 100) and a treatment algorithm based on advanced hemodynamic parameters suggested vasopressor administration, fluid administration, inotrope administration, or observation. Primary outcome was the amount of hypotension, defined as time-weighted average mean arterial pressure less than 65 mmHg. Secondary outcomes were time-weighted mean pressures less than 60 and 55 mmHg. RESULTS: Among 214 enrolled patients, guidance was provided for 105 (49%) patients randomly assigned to the index guidance group. The median (first quartile, third quartile) time-weighted average mean arterial pressure less than 65 mmHg was 0.14 (0.03, 0.37) in guided patients versus 0.14 (0.03, 0.39) mmHg in unguided patients: median difference (95% CI) of 0 (-0.03 to 0.04), P = 0.757. Index guidance therefore did not reduce amount of hypotension less than 65 mmHg, nor did it reduce hypotension less than 60 or 55 mmHg. Post hoc, guidance was associated with less hypotension when analysis was restricted to episodes during which clinicians intervened. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot trial, index guidance did not reduce the amount of intraoperative hypotension. Half of the alerts were not followed by treatment, presumably due to short warning time, complex treatment algorithm, or clinicians ignoring the alert. In the future we plan to use a lower index alert threshold and a simpler treatment algorithm that emphasizes prompt treatment.

6.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434805

RESUMO

The operating room environment is very dynamic with many unique challenges for anesthesia teams caring for patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19. Specific recommendations by national organizations and institution specific step-by-step guidelines and education materials are required to maintain safety for both patients and caregivers perioperatively, with transport, and medication management.

8.
Anesth Analg ; 131(2): 586-593, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two-thirds of the US population is considered obese and about 8% morbidly obese. Obese patients may present a unique challenge to anesthesia clinicians in airway management. Videolaryngoscopes may provide better airway visualization, which theoretically improves intubation success. However, previous work in morbidly obese patients was limited. We therefore tested the primary hypothesis that the use of McGrath video laryngoscope improves visualization of the vocal cords versus Macintosh direct laryngoscopy (Teleflex, Morrisville, NC) in morbidly obese patients. METHODS: We enrolled 130 surgical patients, aged 18-99 years, with a body mass index ≥40 kg/m and American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-III. Patients were randomly allocated 1:1-stratified for patient's body mass index ≥50 kg/m-to McGrath video laryngoscope versus direct laryngoscopy with a Macintosh blade. The study groups were compared on glottis visualization, defined as improved Cormack and Lehane classification, with proportional odds logistic regression model. RESULTS: McGrath video laryngoscope provided significantly better glottis visualization than Macintosh direct laryngoscopy with an estimated odds ratio of 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-9.8; P < .01). We did not observe any evidence that number of intubation attempts and failed intubations increased or decreased. CONCLUSIONS: McGrath video laryngoscope improves glottis visualization versus Macintosh direct laryngoscopy in morbidly obese patients. Large clinical trials are needed to determine whether improved airway visualization with videolaryngoscopy reduces intubation attempts and failures.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Laringoscópios , Laringoscopia/métodos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Cirurgia Vídeoassistida/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Feminino , Glote/diagnóstico por imagem , Glote/cirurgia , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Laringoscopia/instrumentação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Cirurgia Vídeoassistida/instrumentação , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Thorac Dis ; 11(7): 3156-3170, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463144

RESUMO

The advent of advanced diagnostic bronchoscopy has shown an increased demand for anesthesiologists to administer anesthesia in the bronchoscopy suite. Procedures such as navigational bronchoscopy, airway stenting and advanced therapeutic procedures often require the presence of an anesthesiologist to manage these more complex patients and procedures. In this review we describe the various bronchoscopic procedures and anesthetic management and complications of these procedures at our institution The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland Ohio.

12.
Curr Pharm Des ; 25(19): 2140-2148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272347

RESUMO

Sugammadex is a reversal agent that was engineered to reverse the effects of aminosteroid muscle relaxants. It is a modified gamma-cyclodextrin, i.e. a large glucose molecule bound in a ring-like structure. Sugammadex, when injected intravenously, creates a concentration gradient favoring the movement of aminosteroid muscle relaxants from the neuromuscular junction back into the plasma, and then encapsulates the aminosteroid muscle relaxants within its inner structure by forming tight water-soluble complexes. The dissociation of the aminosteroidal muscle relaxant from the post-synaptic acetylcholine receptors is responsible for the termination of neuromuscular blockade. This review article presents the current indication, mechanism of action, limitations, side effects and contraindications of sugammadex. An overview of monitoring of the adequacy of reversal of aminosteroid muscle relaxants with sugammadex is presented. Moreover, the use of sugammadex in special situations, including "cannot intubate cannot oxygenate" scenarios is also described.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuromusculares/uso terapêutico , Bloqueio Neuromuscular , Sugammadex/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes , Receptores Colinérgicos
14.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212704, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-quality chest compressions are imperative for Cardio-Pulmonary-Resuscitation (CPR). International CPR guidelines advocate, that chest compressions should not be interrupted for ventilation once a patient's trachea is intubated or a supraglottic-airway-device positioned. Supraglottic-airway-devices offer limited protection against pulmonary aspiration. Simultaneous chest compressions and positive pressure ventilation both increase intrathoracic pressure and potentially enhances the risk of pulmonary aspiration. The hypothesis was, that regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration is more common during continuous versus interrupted chest compressions in human cadavers ventilated with a laryngeal tube airway. METHODS: Twenty suitable cadavers were included, and were positioned supine, the stomach was emptied, 500 ml of methylene-blue-solution instilled and laryngeal tube inserted. Cadavers were randomly assigned to: 1) continuous chest compressions; or, 2) interrupted chest compressions for ventilation breaths. After 14 minutes of the initial designated CPR strategy, pulmonary aspiration was assessed with a flexible bronchoscope. The methylene-blue-solution was replaced by 500 ml barium-sulfate radiopaque suspension. 14 minutes of CPR with the second designated ventilation strategy was performed. Pulmonary aspiration was then assessed with a conventional chest X-ray. RESULTS: Two cadavers were excluded for technical reasons, leaving 18 cadavers for statistical analysis. Pulmonary aspiration was observed in 9 (50%) cadavers with continuous chest compressions, and 7 (39%) with interrupted chest compressions (P = 0.75). CONCLUSION: Our pilot study indicate, that incidence of pulmonary aspiration is generally high in patients undergoing CPR when a laryngeal tube is used for ventilation. Our study was not powered to identify potentially important differences in regurgitation or aspiration between ongoing vs. interrupted chest compression. Our results nonetheless suggest that interrupted chest compressions might better protect against pulmonary aspiration when a laryngeal tube is used for ventilation.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Máscaras Laríngeas/efeitos adversos , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/instrumentação , Distribuição Aleatória , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/etiologia
16.
Anesth Analg ; 127(2): 424-431, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29916861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypotension is associated with postoperative mortality. Early detection of hypotension by continuous hemodynamic monitoring might prompt timely therapy, thereby reducing intraoperative hypotension. We tested the hypothesis that continuous noninvasive blood pressure monitoring reduces intraoperative hypotension. METHODS: Patients ≥45 years old with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status III or IV having moderate-to-high-risk noncardiac surgery with general anesthesia were included. All participating patients had continuous noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring using a finger cuff (ClearSight, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) and a standard oscillometric cuff. In half the patients, randomly assigned, clinicians were blinded to the continuous values, whereas the others (unblinded) had access to continuous blood pressure readings. Continuous pressures in both groups were used for analysis. Time-weighted average for mean arterial pressure <65 mm Hg was compared using 2-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and Hodges Lehmann estimation of location shift with corresponding asymptotic 95% CI. RESULTS: Among 320 randomized patients, 316 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. With 158 patients in each group, those assigned to continuous blood pressure monitoring had significantly lower time-weighted average mean arterial pressure <65 mm Hg, 0.05 [0.00, 0.22] mm Hg, versus intermittent blood pressure monitoring, 0.11 [0.00, 0.54] mm Hg (P = .039, significance criteria P < .048). CONCLUSIONS: Continuous noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring nearly halved the amount of intraoperative hypotension. Hypotension reduction with continuous monitoring, while statistically significant, is currently of uncertain clinical importance.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Anestesiologia/métodos , Pressão Arterial , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Oscilometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
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