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J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(6): 11-12, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472787


BACKGROUND: The present study intended to estimate the comorbidities and risk factors among patients with hypertension in India. Further, the current practice of hypertension management was evaluated and the choice of therapy was assessed based on hypertension grade, risk factors, and comorbidities. METHODS: Electronic medical record data (June 2017-June 2019) of Indian adult hypertensive patients (≥140/90 mmHg) who had two blood pressure (BP) readings were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic characteristics, BP readings, comorbidities, medications and co-medications, and laboratory data were collected at baseline. Grids based on hypertension grade (I, II, and III), demographic factors, risk factors, and comorbidities were created and prescribed antihypertensive drugs (AHDs) in each grid were evaluated. RESULTS: Among 100,075 patients, the proportion of patients in 18-40 year, 40-65 year, and >65 year age groups were 11.4%, 65.1%, and 23.4%, respectively. Proportion of men and women was similar (52.0% vs 47.9%). Proportion of patients with BMI <25 Kg/m2 was 8.1%, 25-29.9 Kg/m2 was 11.9%, and >30 Kg/m2 was 8.8%. Mean BP of patients with hypertension was: grade I (145.05/90.73 mmHg), grade II (160.07/95.64 mmHg), and grade III (180.82/102.76 mmHg). Mean low density lipoprotein (113.26 mg/dL), serum creatinine (2.28 mg/dL), mean HbA1c (8.7%) levels were highest among patients with grade III hypertension. Commonly observed comorbidities were type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM: 51.5%), dyslipidemia (36.4%), and chronic kidney disease (CKD: 4.4%). Top concomitant medications included anti-diabetic therapies (34.6%), drugs for dyslipidemia (30.0%), and anti-platelet therapies (6.9%). CONCLUSION: Most prescribed AHD monotherapies were angiotensin receptor II blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and most prescribed combination therapies were ARBs + diuretics and ARBs + CCBs. Telmisartan and amlodipine+telmisartan for patients with comorbid T2DM or dyslipidemia and metoprolol for those with coronary artery disease were the commonly prescribed AHDs.

Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipertensão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
Semin Dial ; 34(5): 360-367, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259363


BACKGROUND: Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients face disadvantages with higher risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection, atypical manifestations, and associated multiple comorbidities. We describe patients' outcomes with symptomatic COVID-19 on MHD in a large cohort of patients from India. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively from hemodialysis units in 11 public and private hospitals between March 15, 2020, and July 31, 2020. The survival determinants were analyzed using stepwise backward elimination cox-regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 263 total patients (mean age 51.76 ± 13.63 years and males 173) on MHD with symptomatic COVID-19, 35 (13.3%) died. Those who died were older (p = 0.01), had higher frequency of diabetic kidney disease (p = 0.001), comorbidities (p = 0.04), and severe COVID-19 (p = 0.001). Mortality was higher among patients on twice-weekly MHD than thrice-weekly (p = 0.001) and dialysis through central venous catheter (CVC) as compared to arteriovenous fistula (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, CVC use (HR 2.53, 95% CI 1.26-5.07, p = 0.009), disease severity (HR = 3.54, 95% CI 1.52-8.26, p = 0.003), and noninvasive ventilatory support (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.25-0.99, p = 0.049) had significant effect on mortality. CONCLUSION: The adjusted mortality risk of COVID-19 in MHD patients is high in patients associated with severe COVID-19 and patients having CVC as vascular access.

COVID-19/mortalidade , Diálise Renal , Fatores Etários , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Unidades Hospitalares , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação não Invasiva , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313370


BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a modality of kidney replacement therapy (KRT) is largely underutilized globally. We analyzed PD utilization, impact of economic status, projected growth and impact of state policy(s) on PD growth in South Asia and Southeast Asia (SA&SEA) region. METHODS: The National Nephrology Societies of the region responded to a questionnaire on KRT practices. The responses were based on the latest registry data, acceptable community-based studies and societal perceptions. The representative countries were divided into high income and higher-middle income (HI & HMI) and low income and lower-middle income (LI & LMI) groups. RESULTS: Data provided by 15 countries showed almost similar percentage of GDP as health expenditure (4%-7%). But there was a significant difference in per capita income (HI & HMI -US$ 28 129 vs. LI & LMI - US$ 1710.2) between the groups. Even after having no significant difference in monthly cost of haemodialysis (HD) and PD in LI & LMI countries, they have poorer PD utilization as compared to HI & HMI countries (3.4% vs. 10.1%); the reason being lack of formal training/incentives and time constraints for the nephrologist while lack of reimbursement and poor general awareness of modalities has been a snag for the patients. The region expects ≥10% PD growth in the near future. Hong Kong and Thailand with 'PD first' policy have the highest PD utilization. CONCLUSION: Important deterrents to PD underutilization were lack of PD centric policies, lackadaisical patient/physician's attitude, lack of structured patient awareness programs, formal training programs and affordability.

Kidney Int Rep ; 5(9): 1545-1550, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838077


Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the care of patients with noncommunicable diseases, including those suffering from kidney-related ailments. Many parts of the world, including India, adopted lockdown to curb community transmission of disease. The lockdown affected transportation, access to health care facilities, and availability of medicines and consumables as well as outpatient and inpatient services. We aimed to analyze the effect of lockdown imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the care of patients with kidney diseases in India. Methods: We surveyed 19 major hospitals (8 in the public and 11 in the private sector) to determine the effect of lockdown on the care of patients with kidney disease, including those on dialysis after the first 3 weeks of lockdown. Results: The total number of dialysis patients in these centers came down from 2517 to 2404. Approximately 710 (28.2%) patients missed 1 or more dialysis sessions, 69 (2.74%) required emergency dialysis sessions, 104 (4.13%) stopped reporting for dialysis, and 9 (0.36%) were confirmed to have died. Outpatient attendance in the surveyed hospital came down by 92.3%, and inpatient service reduced by 61%. Tele-consultation was started but was accessed by only a small number of patients. Conclusion: Lack of preparedness before lockdown resulted in an interruption in health care services and posed an immediate adverse effect on the outcome of dialysis patients and patients with kidney disease in India. The long-term impact on the health of patients with less severe forms of kidney disease remains unknown.

Nephrology (Carlton) ; 25(12): 929-932, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713060


There is a lack of data describing the impact of the novel coronavirus 19 pandemic on the patients of chronic kidney disease stage V-dialysis (CKD V-D) from resource-limited countries. A growing body of literature describes an increased susceptibility of CKD V-D to COVID-19 with adverse outcomes in those with severe disease. In the current retrospective report, we elucidate the outcome in consecutive 37 CKD V-D patients with COVID-19 from two dialysis centres in Mumbai, India. Of the 37 patients included in the study, 56.7% of patients were asymptomatic or had mild disease and 27% presented with severe symptoms. The recovery rate was 63%, all those who presented with a severe disease succumbed to the infection. Thirty per cent of patients presented with an extended dialysis break due to various logistic and social issues. Though the overall clinical presentation and outcomes of this cohort from a limited resource setting mimic the global scenario, unique social and logistic issues are an additional burden to the patient, caregivers and the health-care facilities, which may worsen the outcomes in the future as the pandemic continues to spread.

COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
BMC Nephrol ; 16: 215, 2015 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26696239


BACKGROUND: The objective of this article is to describe the organisation of an international, clinical registry, the Chronic Kidney Disease Observational Database (CKDOD), the processes of enrolling patients and entering data and preliminary results to date. DESIGN: The Chronic Kidney Disease Observational Database (CKDOD) is designed to assess the association between different factors with a known influence on chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression as well as treatment strategies such as dietary modifications, blood pressure control and pharmacological interventions in Asian countries (India, China, Malaysia and Thailand). The only inclusion criterion is the presence of CKD stage 2 or higher as defined by the KDIGO guidelines. Demographic and clinical information are collected by a standardised electronic questionnaire, available in English and Chinese. The data are transferred to the CKDOD database either by e-mail or via web access. All data are checked for consistency and missing values. Collection of data started in September 2011 and by April 2015, data on 1323 individual patients had been submitted. The mean age at inclusion was 57 ± 14 years, 67 % were male and 36 % were diabetic. The baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was 26 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Of all enrolled patients, 324 (24 %) received ketoanalogue supplementation during at least one recorded visit. DISCUSSION: The CKDOD is a very large and comprehensive data repository, currently focused in subjects recruited from Asia. The database is expected to provide important long-term information on CKD progression, nutritional and metabolic derangements that accompany CKD progression and treatment strategies to ameliorate progression and complications of CKD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registry - India: CTRI/2012/06/002743 ; 25th July 2012.

Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
Indian J Nephrol ; 19(1): 1-4, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20352002