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1.
Popul Health Manag ; 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35736663

RESUMO

Patients enrolled in Medicaid have significantly higher social needs (SNs) than others. Using claims and electronic health records (EHRs) data, managed care organizations (MCOs) could systemically identify high-risk patients with SNs and develop population health management interventions. Impact of SNs on models predicting health care utilization and costs was assessed. This retrospective study included claims and EHRs data on 39,267 patients younger than age 65 years who were continuously enrolled during 2018-2019 in a Medicaid-managed care plan. SN marker was developed suggesting presence of International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes in any of the 5 SN domains. Impact of SN marker was compared across demographic and 2 diagnosis-based (ie, Charlson and Adjusted Clinical Groups risk score) prediction models of emergency department (ED) visit and hospitalizations, and total, medical, and pharmacy costs. After combining data sources, prevalence of documented SN marker increased from 11% and 13% to 18% of the study population across claims, EHRs, and both combined, respectively. SN marker improved predictions of demographic models for all utilization and total costs outcomes (area under the curve [AUC] of ED model increased from 0.57 to 0.61 and R2 of total cost model increased from 10.9 to 12.2). In both diagnosis-based models, adding SN marker marginally improved outcomes prediction (AUC of ED model increased from 0.65 to 0.66). This study demonstrated feasibility of using claims and EHRs data to systematically capture SNs and incorporate in prediction models that could enable MCOs and policy makers to adjust and develop effective population health interventions.

3.
JAMIA Open ; 5(2): ooac046, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35702627

RESUMO

Objective: Early and accurate prediction of patients at risk of readmission is key to reducing costs and improving outcomes. LACE is a widely used score to predict 30-day readmissions. We examine whether adding social determinants of health (SDOH) to LACE can improve its predictive performance. Methods: This is a retrospective study that included all inpatient encounters in the state of Maryland in 2019. We constructed predictive models by fitting Logistic Regression (LR) on LACE and different sets of SDOH predictors. We used the area under the curve (AUC) to evaluate discrimination and SHapley Additive exPlanations values to assess feature importance. Results: Our study population included 316 558 patients of whom 35 431 (11.19%) patients were readmitted after 30 days. Readmitted patients had more challenges with individual-level SDOH and were more likely to reside in communities with poor SDOH conditions. Adding a combination of individual and community-level SDOH improved LACE performance from AUC = 0.698 (95% CI [0.695-0.7]; ref) to AUC = 0.708 (95% CI [0.705-0.71]; P < .001). The increase in AUC was highest in black patients (+1.6), patients aged 65 years or older (+1.4), and male patients (+1.4). Discussion: We demonstrated the value of SDOH in improving the LACE index. Further, the additional predictive value of SDOH on readmission risk varies by subpopulations. Vulnerable populations like black patients and the elderly are likely to benefit more from the inclusion of SDOH in readmission prediction. Conclusion: These findings provide potential SDOH factors that health systems and policymakers can target to reduce overall readmissions.

4.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three claims-based pharmacy markers (complex, costly and risky medications) were developed to help automatically identify patients for comprehensive medication management. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between newly-developed markers and healthcare outcomes. METHODS: This was a two-year retrospective cohort study using PharMetrics Plus patient-level administrative claims in 2014 and 2015. We included all claims from 1,541,873 individuals with: (1) 24-month medical and pharmacy enrollment in 2014 and 2015, (2) aged between 18 and 63 in 2014, and (3) known gender. Independent/control variables came from 2014 while outcomes came from 2014 (concurrent analysis) and 2015 (prospective analysis). Three pharmacy markers, separately or together, were added to four base models to predict concurrent and prospective healthcare costs (total, medical, and pharmacy) and utilization (having any hospitalization, having any emergency department visit, and having any readmission). We applied linear regression for costs while logistic regression for utilization. Measures of model performances and coefficients were derived from a 5-fold cross-validation repeated 20 times. RESULTS: Individuals with 1+ complex, risky or costly medication markers had higher comorbidity, healthcare costs and utilization than their counterparts. Nine binary risky category markers performed the best among the three types of risky medication markers; the Medication Complexity Score and three-level complex category both outperformed a simpler complex medication indicator. Adding three novel pharmacy markers separately or together into the base models provided the greatest improvement in explaining pharmacy costs, compared with medical (non-medication) costs. These pharmacy markers also added value in explaining healthcare utilization among the simple base models. CONCLUSIONS: Three claims-based pharmacy indicators had positive associations with healthcare outcomes and added value in predicting them. This initial study suggested that these novel markers can be used by pharmacy case management programs to help identify potential high-risk patients most likely to benefit from clinical pharmacist review and other interventions.

5.
JAMIA Open ; 5(1): ooac020, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35571361

RESUMO

Background: The opioid epidemic in the United States has precipitated a need for public health agencies to better understand risk factors associated with fatal overdoses. Matching person-level information stored in public health, medical, and human services datasets can enhance the understanding of opioid overdose risk factors and interventions. Objective: This study compares approximate match versus exact match algorithms to link disparate datasets together for identifying persons at risk from an applied perspective. Methods: This study used statewide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP), arrest, and mortality data matched at the person-level using an approximate match and 2 exact match algorithms. Impact of matching was assessed by analyzing 3 independent concepts: (1) the prevalence of key risk indicators used by PDMP programs in practice, (2) the prevalence of arrests and fatal opioid overdose, and (3) the performance of a multivariate logistic regression for fatal opioid overdose. The PDMP key risk indicators included (1) multiple provider episodes (MPE), or patients with prescriptions from multiple prescribers and dispensers, (2) high morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs), which represents an opioid's potency relative to morphine, and (3) overlapping opioid and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Results: Prevalence of PDMP-based risk indicators were higher in the approximate match population for MPEs (n = 4893/1 859 445 [0.26%]) and overlapping opioid/benzodiazepines (n = 57 888/1 859 445 [4.71%]), but the exact-basic match population had the highest prevalence of individuals with high MMEs (n = 664/1 910 741 [3.11%]). Prevalence of arrests and deaths were highest for the approximate match population compared with the exact match populations. Model performance was comparable across the 3 matching algorithms (exact-basic validation area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]: 0.854; approximate validation AUC: 0.847; exact + zip validation AUC: 0.826) but resulted in different cutoff points balancing sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions: Our study illustrates the specific tradeoffs of different matching methods. Further research should be performed to compare matching algorithms and its impact on the prevalence of key risk indicators in an applied setting that can improve understanding of risk within a population.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Health care providers increasingly rely upon predictive algorithms when making important treatment decisions, however, evidence indicates that these tools can lead to inequitable outcomes across racial and socio-economic groups. In this study, we introduce a bias evaluation checklist that allows model developers and health care providers a means to systematically appraise a model's potential to introduce bias. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our methods include developing a bias evaluation checklist, a scoping literature review to identify 30-day hospital readmission prediction models, and assessing the selected models using the checklist. RESULTS: We selected 4 models for evaluation: LACE, HOSPITAL, Johns Hopkins ACG, and HATRIX. Our assessment identified critical ways in which these algorithms can perpetuate health care inequalities. We found that LACE and HOSPITAL have the greatest potential for introducing bias, Johns Hopkins ACG has the most areas of uncertainty, and HATRIX has the fewest causes for concern. DISCUSSION: Our approach gives model developers and health care providers a practical and systematic method for evaluating bias in predictive models. Traditional bias identification methods do not elucidate sources of bias and are thus insufficient for mitigation efforts. With our checklist, bias can be addressed and eliminated before a model is fully developed or deployed. CONCLUSION: The potential for algorithms to perpetuate biased outcomes is not isolated to readmission prediction models; rather, we believe our results have implications for predictive models across health care. We offer a systematic method for evaluating potential bias with sufficient flexibility to be utilized across models and applications.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 747, 2022 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need to evaluate how the choice of time interval contributes to the lack of consistency of SDoH variables that appear as important to COVID-19 disease burden within an analysis for both case counts and death counts. METHODS: This study identified SDoH variables associated with U.S county-level COVID-19 cumulative case and death incidence for six different periods: the first 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days since each county had COVID-19 one case per 10,000 residents. The set of SDoH variables were in the following domains: resource deprivation, access to care/health resources, population characteristics, traveling behavior, vulnerable populations, and health status. A generalized variance inflation factor (GVIF) analysis was used to identify variables with high multicollinearity. For each dependent variable, a separate model was built for each of the time periods. We used a mixed-effect generalized linear modeling of counts normalized per 100,000 population using negative binomial regression. We performed a Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness of fit test, an outlier test, and a dispersion test for each model. Sensitivity analysis included altering the county start date to the day each county reached 10 COVID-19 cases per 10,000. RESULTS: Ninety-seven percent (3059/3140) of the counties were represented in the final analysis. Six features proved important for both the main and sensitivity analysis: adults-with-college-degree, days-sheltering-in-place-at-start, prior-seven-day-median-time-home, percent-black, percent-foreign-born, over-65-years-of-age, black-white-segregation, and days-since-pandemic-start. These variables belonged to the following categories: COVID-19 related, vulnerable populations, and population characteristics. Our diagnostic results show that across our outcomes, the models of the shorter time periods (30 days, 60 days, and 900 days) have a better fit. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that the set of SDoH features that are significant for COVID-19 outcomes varies based on the time from the start date of the pandemic and when COVID-19 was present in a county. These results could assist researchers with variable selection and inform decision makers when creating public health policy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Segregação Social , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2 , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Am J Med Qual ; 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404306

RESUMO

Although most health care occurs in the ambulatory setting, limited research examines how providers and patients think about and enact ambulatory patient safety. This multimethod qualitative study seeks to identify perceived challenges and strategies to improve ambulatory safety from the perspectives of clinicians, staff, and patients. Data included interviews (N = 101), focus groups (N = 65), and observations of safety processes (N = 79) collected from 10 patient-centered medical homes. Key safety issues included the lack of interoperability among health information systems, clinician-patient communication failures, and challenges with medication reconciliation. Commonly cited safety strategies leveraged health information systems or involved dedicated resources (eg, providing access to social workers). Patients also identified strategies not mentioned by clinicians, emphasizing the need for their involvement in developing safety solutions. This work provides insight into safety issues of greatest concern to clinicians, staff, and patients and strategies to improve safety in the ambulatory setting.

9.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 28(4): 473-484, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient effort to comply with complex medication instructions is known to be related to nonadherence and subsequent medical complications or health care costs. A widely used Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI) has been used with electronic health records (EHRs) to identify patients who could benefit from pharmacist intervention. A similar claims-derived measure may be better suited for clinical decision support, since claims offer a more complete view of patient care and health utilization. OBJECTIVE: To define and validate a novel insurance claims-based medication complexity score (MCS) patterned after the widely used MRCI, derived from EHRs. METHODS: Insurance claims and EHR data were provided by HealthPartners (N = 54,988) (Bloomington, Minnesota) and The Johns Hopkins Health System (N = 28,589) (Baltimore, Maryland) for years 2013 and 2017, respectively. Yearly measures of medication complexity were developed for each patient and evaluated with one another using rank correlation within different clinical subgroupings. Indicators for the presence of individually complex prescriptions were also developed and assessed using exact agreement. Complexity measures were then correlated with select covariates to further validate the concordance between MCS and MRCI with respect to clinical metrics. These included demographic, comorbidity, and health care utilization markers. Prescribed medications in each system's EHR were coded using the previously validated MRCI weighting rules. Insurance claims for retail pharmacy medications were coded using our novel MCS, which closely followed MRCI scoring rules. RESULTS: EHR-based MRCI and claims-based MCS were significantly correlated with one another for most clinical subgroupings. Likewise, both measures were correlated with several covariates, including count of active medications and chronic conditions. The MCS was, in most cases, more associated with key health covariates than was MRCI, although both were consistently significant. We found that the highest correlation between MCS and MRCI is obtained with patients who have similar counts of pharmacy records between EHRs and claims (HealthPartners: P = 0.796; Johns Hopkins Health System: P = 0.779). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest good correspondence between MCS and MRCI and that claims data represent a useful resource for assessing medication complexity. Claims data also have major practical advantages, such as interoperability across health care systems, although they lack the detailed clinical context of EHRs. DISCLOSURES: The Johns Hopkins University holds the copyright to the Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) system and receives royalties from the global distribution of the ACG system. This revenue supports a portion of the authors' salary. No additional or external funding supported this work. The authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Seguro , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Polimedicação
10.
JMIR Med Inform ; 10(3): e33212, 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A small proportion of high-need patients persistently use the bulk of health care services and incur disproportionate costs. Population health management (PHM) programs often refer to these patients as persistent high utilizers (PHUs). Accurate PHU prediction enables PHM programs to better align scarce health care resources with high-need PHUs while generally improving outcomes. While prior research in PHU prediction has shown promise, traditional regression methods used in these studies have yielded limited accuracy. OBJECTIVE: We are seeking to improve PHU predictions with an ensemble approach in a retrospective observational study design using insurance claim records. METHODS: We defined a PHU as a patient with health care costs in the top 20% of all patients for 4 consecutive 6-month periods. We used 2013 claims data to predict PHU status in next 24 months. Our study population included 165,595 patients in the Johns Hopkins Health Care plan, with 8359 (5.1%) patients identified as PHUs in 2014 and 2015. We assessed the performance of several standalone machine learning methods and then an ensemble approach combining multiple models. RESULTS: The candidate ensemble with complement naïve Bayes and random forest layers produced increased sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV; 49.0% and 50.3%, respectively) compared to logistic regression (46.8% and 46.1%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that ensemble machine learning can improve prediction of care management needs. Improved PPV implies reduced incorrect referral of low-risk patients. With the improved sensitivity/PPV balance of this approach, resources may be directed more efficiently to patients needing them most.

11.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(2): e30351, 2022 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35119372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The care of pediatric trauma patients is delivered by multidisciplinary care teams with high fluidity that may vary in composition and organization depending on the time of day. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify and describe diurnal variations in multidisciplinary care teams taking care of pediatric trauma patients using social network analysis on electronic health record (EHR) data. METHODS: Metadata of clinical activities were extracted from the EHR and processed into an event log, which was divided into 6 different event logs based on shift (day or night) and location (emergency department, pediatric intensive care unit, and floor). Social networks were constructed from each event log by creating an edge among the functional roles captured within a similar time interval during a shift. Overlapping communities were identified from the social networks. Day and night network structures for each care location were compared and validated via comparison with secondary analysis of qualitatively derived care team data, obtained through semistructured interviews; and member-checking interviews with clinicians. RESULTS: There were 413 encounters in the 1-year study period, with 65.9% (272/413) and 34.1% (141/413) beginning during day and night shifts, respectively. A single community was identified at all locations during the day and in the pediatric intensive care unit at night, whereas multiple communities corresponding to individual specialty services were identified in the emergency department and on the floor at night. Members of the trauma service belonged to all communities, suggesting that they were responsible for care coordination. Health care professionals found the networks to be largely accurate representations of the composition of the care teams and the interactions among them. CONCLUSIONS: Social network analysis was successfully used on EHR data to identify and describe diurnal differences in the composition and organization of multidisciplinary care teams at a pediatric trauma center.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Centros de Traumatologia , Criança , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Análise de Rede Social
12.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 83(2)2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35172049

RESUMO

Objective: Ineligibility for and refusal to participate in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) can potentially lead to unrepresentative study samples and limited generalizability of findings. We examined the rates of exclusion and refusal in RCTs that have studied impact on suicide-related outcomes in the US.Data Sources: PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the Campbell Collaboration Library of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Education Resources Information Center were searched from January 1990 to May 2020 using the terms (suicide prevention) AND (clinical trial).Study Selection: Of 8,403 studies retrieved, 36 RCTs assessing effectiveness on suicide-related outcomes in youth (≤ 25 years old) conducted in the US were included.Data Extraction: Study-level data were extracted by 2 independent investigators for a random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression.Results: The study participants (N = 13,264) had a mean (SD) age of 14.87 (1.58) years and were 50% male, 23% African American, and 24% Hispanic. The exclusion rate was 36.4%, while the refusal rate was 25.5%. The exclusion rate was significantly higher in the studies excluding individuals not exceeding specified cutoff points of suicide screening tools (51.2%; adjusted linear coefficient [ß] = 1.30, standard error [SE] = 0.15; P = .041) and individuals not meeting the age or school grade criterion (45.9%; ß = 1.37, SE = 0.13; P = .005).Conclusions: The rates of exclusion and refusal in youth prevention interventions studying impact on suicide-related outcomes were not as high compared to the rates found in other mental and behavioral interventions. While there was strong racial/ethnic group representation in RCTs examining youth suicide-related outcomes, suicide severity and age limited eligibility.


Assuntos
Recusa de Participação , Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Estados Unidos
13.
JAMIA Open ; 5(1): ooac006, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35224458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm could be adapted to extract, with acceptable validity, markers of residential instability (ie, homelessness and housing insecurity) from electronic health records (EHRs) of 3 healthcare systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included patients 18 years and older who received care at 1 of 3 healthcare systems from 2016 through 2020 and had at least 1 free-text note in the EHR during this period. We conducted the study independently; the NLP algorithm logic and method of validity assessment were identical across sites. The approach to the development of the gold standard for assessment of validity differed across sites. Using the EntityRuler module of spaCy 2.3 Python toolkit, we created a rule-based NLP system made up of expert-developed patterns indicating residential instability at the lead site and enriched the NLP system using insight gained from its application at the other 2 sites. We adapted the algorithm at each site then validated the algorithm using a split-sample approach. We assessed the performance of the algorithm by measures of positive predictive value (precision), sensitivity (recall), and specificity. RESULTS: The NLP algorithm performed with moderate precision (0.45, 0.73, and 1.0) at 3 sites. The sensitivity and specificity of the NLP algorithm varied across 3 sites (sensitivity: 0.68, 0.85, and 0.96; specificity: 0.69, 0.89, and 1.0). DISCUSSION: The performance of this NLP algorithm to identify residential instability in 3 different healthcare systems suggests the algorithm is generally valid and applicable in other healthcare systems with similar EHRs. CONCLUSION: The NLP approach developed in this project is adaptable and can be modified to extract types of social needs other than residential instability from EHRs across different healthcare systems.

14.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(1): e14-e23, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35049262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Computable social risk factor phenotypes derived from routinely collected structured electronic health record (EHR) or health information exchange (HIE) data may represent a feasible and robust approach to measuring social factors. This study convened an expert panel to identify and assess the quality of individual EHR and HIE structured data elements that could be used as components in future computable social risk factor phenotypes. STUDY DESIGN: Technical expert panel. METHODS: A 2-round Delphi technique included 17 experts with an in-depth knowledge of available EHR and/or HIE data. The first-round identification sessions followed a nominal group approach to generate candidate data elements that may relate to socioeconomics, cultural context, social relationships, and community context. In the second-round survey, panelists rated each data element according to overall data quality and likelihood of systematic differences in quality across populations (ie, bias). RESULTS: Panelists identified a total of 89 structured data elements. About half of the data elements (n = 45) were related to socioeconomic characteristics. The panelists identified a diverse set of data elements. Elements used in reimbursement-related processes were generally rated as higher quality. Panelists noted that several data elements may be subject to implicit bias or reflect biased systems of care, which may limit their utility in measuring social factors. CONCLUSIONS: Routinely collected structured data within EHR and HIE systems may reflect patient social risk factors. Identifying and assessing available data elements serves as a foundational step toward developing future computable social factor phenotypes.


Assuntos
Troca de Informação em Saúde , Técnica Delfos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Patient Saf ; 18(1): e249-e256, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) may provide a key model for ambulatory patient safety. Our objective was to explore which PCMH and patient safety implementation and social network factors may be necessary or sufficient for higher patient safety culture. METHODS: This was a cross-case analysis study in 25 diverse U.S. PCMHs. Data sources included interviews of a clinician and an administrator in each PCMH, surveys of clinicians and staff, and existing data on the PCMHs' characteristics. We used coincidence analysis, a novel method based on set theory and Boolean logic, to evaluate relationships between factors and the implementation outcome of patient safety culture. RESULTS: The coincidence analysis identified 5 equally parsimonious solutions (4 factors), accounting for all practices with higher safety culture. Three solutions contained the same core minimally sufficient condition: the implementation factor leadership priority for patient safety and the social network factor reciprocity in advice-seeking network ties (advice-seeking relationships). This minimally sufficient condition had the highest coverage (5/7 practices scoring higher on the outcome) and best performance across solutions; all included leadership priority for patient safety. Other key factors included self-efficacy and job satisfaction and quality improvement climate. The most common factor whose absence was associated with the outcome was a well-functioning process for behavioral health. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that PCMH safety culture is higher when clinicians and staff perceive that leadership prioritizes patient safety and when high reciprocity among staff exists. Interventions to improve patient safety should consider measuring and addressing these key factors.


Assuntos
Segurança do Paciente , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Humanos , Liderança , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Gestão da Segurança , Rede Social
16.
Popul Health Manag ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847729

RESUMO

Health care providers are increasingly using clinical measures derived from electronic health records (EHRs) for risk stratification and predictive modeling. EHR-specific data elements such as prescriptions, laboratory results, and vital signs have been shown to improve risk prediction models. In this study, the value of EHR-based blood pressure (BP) values was assessed in predicting health care costs (ie, total, medical, and pharmacy) and key utilization end points (ie, hospitalization, emergency department use, and being among the highest utilizers). The study population included 37,451 patients of a large integrated delivery system in the mid-western United States with complete EHR data files, who were 18-64 years old, had continuous insurance at an affiliated health plan, and had eligible BP records. Both EHRs and insurance claims of the study population were used to extract the predictors (ie, demographics, diagnosis, and BP values) and outcomes (ie, costs and utilizations). Predictors were extracted from 2012 data, whereas concurrent and prospective outcomes were extracted from 2012 to 2013 data. Three base models (BMs) were constructed to predict each of the outcomes. The first BM no. 1 used demographics. The second BM no. 2 added the Charlson comorbidity index to BM no. 1, whereas the third BM no. 3 added the Adjusted Clinical Group Dx-PM case-mix score to BM no. 1. BP was specified as means, ranges, and classes. Adding BP ranges to BM no. 1 and BM no. 2 showed the greatest improvements when predicting costs and utilization. More specifically, adjusted R2 and area under the curve of BM no. 2 improved by 32.9% and 14.1% when BP ranges were added to predict concurrent total cost and hospitalization, respectively. The effect of BP measures on improving the risk stratification models was diminished when predicting prospective outcomes after adding the measures to BM no. 3 (ie, the more comprehensive diagnostic model), specifically when represented as BP means. Given the increasing availability of BP information, this research suggests that these data should be integrated into provider-based population health analytic activities. Future research should focus on subpopulations that benefit the most from incorporating vital signs such as BP measures in risk stratification models.

17.
JAMIA Open ; 4(4): ooab106, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clinical Knowledge Authoring Tools (CKATs) are integral to the computerized Clinical Decision Support (CDS) development life cycle. CKATs enable authors to generate accurate, complete, and reliable digital knowledge artifacts in a relatively efficient and affordable manner. This scoping review aims to compare knowledge authoring tools and derive the common features of CKATs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a keyword-based literature search, followed by a snowball search, to identify peer-reviewed publications describing the development or use of CKATs. We used PubMed and Embase search engines to perform the initial search (n = 1579). After removing duplicate articles, nonrelevant manuscripts, and not peer-reviewed publication, we identified 47 eligible studies describing 33 unique CKATs. The reviewed CKATs were further assessed, and salient characteristics were extracted and grouped as common CKAT features. RESULTS: Among the identified CKATs, 55% use an open source platform, 70% provide an application programming interface for CDS system integration, and 79% provide features to validate/test the knowledge. The majority of the reviewed CKATs describe the flow of information, offer a graphical user interface for knowledge authors, and provide intellisense coding features (94%, 97%, and 97%, respectively). The composed list of criteria for CKAT included topics such as simulating the clinical setting, validating the knowledge, standardized clinical models and vocabulary, and domain independence. None of the reviewed CKATs met all common criteria. CONCLUSION: Our scoping review highlights the key specifications for a CKAT. The CKAT specification proposed in this review can guide CDS authors in developing more targeted CKATs.

18.
J Med Syst ; 45(11): 94, 2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537892

RESUMO

We aimed to empirically measure the degree to which there is a "digital divide" in terms of access to the internet at the small-area community level within the State of Maryland and the City of Baltimore and to assess the relationship and association of this divide with community-level SDOH risk factors, community-based social service agency location, and web-mediated support service seeking behavior. To assess the socio-economic characteristics of the neighborhoods across the state, we calculated the Area Deprivation Index (ADI) using the U.S. Census, American Community Survey (5-year estimates) of 2017. To assess the digital divide, at the community level, we used the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) data on the number of residential fixed Internet access service connections. We assessed the availability of and web-based access to community-based social service agencies using data provided by the "Aunt Bertha" information platform. We performed community and regional level descriptive and special analyses for ADI social risk factors, connectivity, and both the availability of and web-based searches for community-based social services. To help assess potential neighborhood linked factors associated with the rates of web-based social services searches by individuals in need, we applied logistic regression using generalized estimating equation modeling. Baltimore City contained more disadvantaged neighborhoods compared to other areas in Maryland. In Baltimore City, 20.3% of neighborhoods (defined by census block groups) were disadvantaged with ADI at the 90th percentile while only 6.6% of block groups across Maryland were in this disadvantaged category. Across the State, more than half of all census tracts had 801-1000 households (per 1000 households) with internet subscription. In contrast, in Baltimore City about half of all census tracts had only 401-600 of the households (per 1000 households) with internet subscriptions. Most block groups in Maryland and Baltimore City lacked access to social services facilities (61% of block groups at the 90th percentile of disadvantage in Maryland and 61.3% of block groups at the 90th percentile of disadvantage in Baltimore City). After adjusting for other variables, a 1% increase in the ADI measure of social disadvantage, resulting in a 1.7% increase in the number of individuals seeking social services. While more work is needed, our findings support the premise that the digital divide is closely associated with other SDOH factors. The policymakers must propose policies to address the digital divide on a national level and also in disadvantaged communities experiencing the digital divide in addition to other SDOH challenges.


Assuntos
Acesso à Internet , Características de Residência , Humanos , Internet , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 697501, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513783

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite the growing efforts to standardize coding for social determinants of health (SDOH), they are infrequently captured in electronic health records (EHRs). Most SDOH variables are still captured in the unstructured fields (i.e., free-text) of EHRs. In this study we attempt to evaluate a practical text mining approach (i.e., advanced pattern matching techniques) in identifying phrases referring to housing issues, an important SDOH domain affecting value-based healthcare providers, using EHR of a large multispecialty medical group in the New England region, United States. To present how this approach would help the health systems to address the SDOH challenges of their patients we assess the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with and without housing issues and briefly look into the patterns of healthcare utilization among the study population and for those with and without housing challenges. Methods: We identified five categories of housing issues [i.e., homelessness current (HC), homelessness history (HH), homelessness addressed (HA), housing instability (HI), and building quality (BQ)] and developed several phrases addressing each one through collaboration with SDOH experts, consulting the literature, and reviewing existing coding standards. We developed pattern-matching algorithms (i.e., advanced regular expressions), and then applied them in the selected EHR. We assessed the text mining approach for recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) after comparing the identified phrases with manually annotated free-text for different housing issues. Results: The study dataset included EHR structured data for a total of 20,342 patients and 2,564,344 free-text clinical notes. The mean (SD) age in the study population was 75.96 (7.51). Additionally, 58.78% of the cohort were female. BQ and HI were the most frequent housing issues documented in EHR free-text notes and HH was the least frequent one. The regular expression methodology, when compared to manual annotation, had a high level of precision (positive predictive value) at phrase, note, and patient levels (96.36, 95.00, and 94.44%, respectively) across different categories of housing issues, but the recall (sensitivity) rate was relatively low (30.11, 32.20, and 41.46%, respectively). Conclusion: Results of this study can be used to advance the research in this domain, to assess the potential value of EHR's free-text in identifying patients with a high risk of housing issues, to improve patient care and outcomes, and to eventually mitigate socioeconomic disparities across individuals and communities.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Habitação , Mineração de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estados Unidos
20.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 51(6): 1189-1202, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515351

RESUMO

AIM: Brief screening and predictive modeling have garnered attention for utility at identifying individuals at risk of suicide. Although previous research has investigated these methods, little is known about how these methods compare against each other or work in combination in the pediatric population. METHODS: Patients were aged 8-18 years old who presented from January 1, 2017, to June 30, 2019, to a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED). All patients were screened with the Ask Suicide Questionnaire (ASQ) as part of a universal screening approach. For all models, we used 5-fold cross-validation. We compared four models: Model 1 only included the ASQ; Model 2 included the ASQ and EHR data gathered at the time of ED visit (EHR data); Model 3 only included EHR data; and Model 4 included EHR data and a single item from the ASQ that asked about a lifetime history of suicide attempt. The main outcome was subsequent PED visit with suicide-related presenting problem within a 3-month follow-up period. RESULTS: Of the N = 13,420 individuals, n = 141 had a subsequent suicide-related PED visit. Approximately 63% identified as Black. Results showed that a model based only on EHR data (Model 3) had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.775 compared to the ASQ alone (Model 1), which had an AUC of 0.754. Combining screening and EHR data (Model 4) resulted in a 17.4% (absolute difference = 3.6%) improvement in sensitivity and 13.4% increase in AUC (absolute difference = 6.6%) compared to screening alone (Model 1). CONCLUSION: Our findings show that predictive modeling based on EHR data is helpful either in the absence or as an addition to brief suicide screening. This is the first study to compare brief suicide screening to EHR-based predictive modeling and adds to our understanding of how best to identify youth at risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in clinical care settings.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle
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