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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245867, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285615

RESUMO

Abstract Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Resumo Os cães ferozes são caçadores bem organizados de ungulados em muitas partes do mundo, causando grandes danos à população de animais selvagens e, em última instância, ao ecossistema. No Paquistão, os impactos dos cães selvagens na vida selvagem ainda não foram documentados. Em um período de 15 anos (2006-2020), cães selvagens mataram centenas de markhor ameaçados no parque nacional Chitral gol (CGNP), Paquistão. Apesar da predação direta, outros impactos, incluindo distúrbios e competições com outros predadores naturais podem comprometer os esforços de conservação e manejo. A população de cães selvagens parece ter aumentado com o aumento dos locais de despejo pelas comunidades. Nossas descobertas sugerem que há necessidades urgentes para controlar a população de cães selvagens e erradicá-los da zona central do CGNP e das comunidades-tampão vizinhas. O abate convencional de cães deve ser combinado com técnicas modernas como castração e esterilização. As comunidades devem ser educadas sobre o meio ambiente limpo, o descarte adequado de resíduos domésticos e a conservação da biodiversidade.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243250, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278502

RESUMO

Abstract The Punjab urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) is a globally threatened wild sheep species. In Pakistan the species is legally protected and bred in captivity to release into natural habitats to reinforce wild populations. Vigilance and feeding are critical to survival, though the degree to which captive-bred animals exhibit these behaviours post-release has rarely been investigated. We monitored the daily behaviours of five adult urial after release and classifying behaviours from 0600 hrs to 1800 hrs, replicating each one-hour period twice and recording four observations of each animal per hour. At the herd level, vigilance and feeding behaviours were exhibited equally. Males and females invested equal time in feeding, males were more vigilant (p = 0.001) and more aggressive (p = 0.010), and females were more restful (p = 0.019) or engaged in grooming (p = 0.044) or locomotion (p = 0.002). Females spent more time feeding than being vigilant (p = 0.002). Males maintained high levels of vigilance throughout the day. Patterns of resting 1300 hrs to 1500 hrs and feeding in early morning and late afternoon were common for both sexes. Behaviours classified as 'other' were exhibited equally between sexes. Our results reveal positive indications of captive-bred urial balancing threat detection and energy acquisition post-release and exhibiting natural behaviours and activity patterns. We encourage assessment of survivorship to evaluate long-term effectiveness of captive breeding and release as a candidate restoration programme.


Resumo O Punjab urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) é uma espécie de ovelha selvagem ameaçada globalmente. No Paquistão, a espécie é legalmente protegida e criada em cativeiro para ser liberada em habitats para reforçar as populações selvagens. Vigilância e alimentação são essenciais para a sobrevivência, embora o grau de comportamento que os animais criados em cativeiro apresenta raramente tenha sido estudado. Cinco uriais adultos foram monitorados diariamente, após a liberação os comportamentos foram classificados das 6 h às 18 h, replicando cada período de uma hora por duas vezes e registrando quatro observações de cada animal por hora. Em nível do rebanho, os comportamentos de vigilância e alimentação foram exibidos igualmente. Machos e fêmeas investiam tempo igual na alimentação, enquanto os machos eram mais vigilantes (p = 0,001) e mais agressivos (p = 0,010), as fêmeas eram mais repousantes (p = 0,019) ou mais engajadas no asseio (p = 0,044) ou na locomoção (p = 0,002). As fêmeas passam mais tempo se alimentando do que vigiando (p = 0,002). Os machos mantiveram altos níveis de vigilância ao longo do dia. Padrões de descanso de 1300 a 1500 horas e alimentação no início da manhã e no final da tarde eram comuns para ambos os sexos. Comportamentos classificados como "outros" foram exibidos igualmente entre os sexos. Os resultados revelam indicações positivas na detecção de ameaça em relação ao equilíbrio de criação urial em cativeiro e em aquisição de energia pós-liberação, exibindo comportamentos naturais e padrões de atividade. Neste estudo, encorajou-se a utilização da avaliação de sobrevivência para avaliar a eficácia em longo prazo da reprodução em cativeiro e soltura como um programa de restauração dos candidatos.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245867, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431907

RESUMO

Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Cães , Cabras , Paquistão
4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243250, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133572

RESUMO

The Punjab urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) is a globally threatened wild sheep species. In Pakistan the species is legally protected and bred in captivity to release into natural habitats to reinforce wild populations. Vigilance and feeding are critical to survival, though the degree to which captive-bred animals exhibit these behaviours post-release has rarely been investigated. We monitored the daily behaviours of five adult urial after release and classifying behaviours from 0600 hrs to 1800 hrs, replicating each one-hour period twice and recording four observations of each animal per hour. At the herd level, vigilance and feeding behaviours were exhibited equally. Males and females invested equal time in feeding, males were more vigilant (p = 0.001) and more aggressive (p = 0.010), and females were more restful (p = 0.019) or engaged in grooming (p = 0.044) or locomotion (p = 0.002). Females spent more time feeding than being vigilant (p = 0.002). Males maintained high levels of vigilance throughout the day. Patterns of resting 1300 hrs to 1500 hrs and feeding in early morning and late afternoon were common for both sexes. Behaviours classified as 'other' were exhibited equally between sexes. Our results reveal positive indications of captive-bred urial balancing threat detection and energy acquisition post-release and exhibiting natural behaviours and activity patterns. We encourage assessment of survivorship to evaluate long-term effectiveness of captive breeding and release as a candidate restoration programme.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Paquistão , Ovinos
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