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PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279893, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598904


Arsenic is a potent environmental toxicant and human carcinogen. Skin lesions are the most common manifestations of chronic exposure to arsenic. Advanced-stage skin lesions, particularly hyperkeratosis have been recognized as precancerous diseases. However, the underlying mechanism of arsenic-induced skin lesions remains unknown. Periostin, a matricellular protein, is implicated in the pathogenesis of many forms of skin lesions. The objective of this study was to examine whether periostin is associated with arsenic-induced skin lesions. A total of 442 individuals from low- (n = 123) and high-arsenic exposure areas (n = 319) in rural Bangladesh were evaluated for the presence of arsenic-induced skin lesions (Yes/No). Participants with skin lesions were further categorized into two groups: early-stage skin lesions (melanosis and keratosis) and advanced-stage skin lesions (hyperkeratosis). Drinking water, hair, and nail arsenic concentrations were considered as the participants' exposure levels. The higher levels of arsenic and serum periostin were significantly associated with skin lesions. Causal mediation analysis revealed the significant effect of arsenic on skin lesions through the mediator, periostin, suggesting that periostin contributes to the development of skin lesions. When skin lesion was used as a three-category outcome (none, early-stage, and advanced-stage skin lesions), higher serum periostin levels were significantly associated with both early-stage and advanced-stage skin lesions. Median (IQR) periostin levels were progressively increased with the increasing severity of skin lesions. Furthermore, there were general trends in increasing serum type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels with the progression of the disease. The median (IQR) of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin, and IgE levels were significantly higher in the early-and advanced-stage skin lesions compared to the group of participants without skin lesions. The results of this study suggest that periostin is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of arsenic-induced skin lesions through the dysregulation of type 2 immune response.

Arsênio , Ceratose Actínica , Dermatopatias , Humanos , Arsênio/toxicidade , Arsênio/análise , Interleucina-13 , Interleucina-4 , Interleucina-5 , Exposição Ambiental , Abastecimento de Água , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Imunoglobulina E/efeitos adversos
J Ethnopharmacol ; 304: 116024, 2023 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549369


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clerodendrum viscosum is an important medicinal plant in Ayurveda in Bangladesh and its leaves are used as a remedy for various diseases such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, hyperglycemic, hepatoprotective effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extract of C. viscosum leaves against Pb-induced neurobehavioral and biochemical changes in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Swiss albino mice were divided as a) control, b) lead treated (Pb) and c) C. viscosum leaves (Cle) d) Pb plus Cle groups. Pb-acetate (10 mg/kg body weight) was given to Pb and Pb + Cle groups mice, and water extract of leaves (50 mg/kg body weight) was provided as supplementation to Cle and Pb + Cle groups mice for 30 days. Elevated plus maze and Morris water maze tests were used for evaluating anxiety, spatial memory and learning, respectively. Status of cholinesterase, SOD, GSH enzyme activity and neurotoxicity markers such BDNF and Nrf2 levels were analyzed in the brain tissue of experimental mice. RESULTS: Poorer learning, inferior spatial memory, and increased anxiety-like behavior in Pb-exposure mice were noted when compared to control mice in Morris water maze and elevated plus maze test, respectively. In addition, expression of BDNF and Nrf2, cholinesterase activity along with antioxidant activity were significantly reduced compared to control group (p < 0.01). Interestingly, C. viscosum leaves' aqueous extract supplementation in Pb-exposed mice provide a significant improved neurochemical and antioxidant properties through the augmentation of activity of cholinergic enzymes, and upregulation of BDNF and Nrf2 levels in the brain tissue compared to Pb-exposed mice. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that C. viscosum leaves restore the cognitive dysfunction and reduce anxiety-like behavior through upregulation of BDNF mediated Akt-Nrf2 pathway in Pb-exposure mice.

Clerodendrum , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Camundongos , Animais , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Chumbo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Memória Espacial , Colinesterases , Peso Corporal , Aprendizagem em Labirinto
Chemosphere ; 298: 134277, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278445


Chronic exposure to arsenic via drinking water is a serious public health issue in many countries. Arsenic causes not only cancers but also non-malignant diseases, including asthma. We have previously reported that arsenic exposure increases the risk of Th2-mediated allergic asthma. The serum level of periostin, an extracellular matrix protein activated by Th2 cytokines, is recognized as a biomarker for Th2-mediated eosinophilic asthma and contributes to enhanced airway inflammation and remodeling. However, the role of periostin in arsenic-related asthma is unknown. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the associations of serum periostin levels with arsenic exposure and the features of asthma in 442 individuals in Bangladesh who participated in our previous study. Exposure levels of the participants were determined by measuring the arsenic concentrations in drinking water, hair, and nails through inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Periostin levels in serum were assessed by immunoassay. In this study, we found that serum periostin levels of the participants were increased with increasing exposure to arsenic. Notably, even the participants with 10.1-50 µg/L arsenic in drinking water had significantly higher levels of periostin than participants with <10 µg/L of water arsenic. Elevated serum periostin levels were positively associated with serum levels of Th2 mediators, such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin. Each log increase in periostin levels was associated with approximately eight- and three-fold increases in the odds ratios (ORs) for reversible airway obstruction (RAO) and asthma symptoms, respectively. Additionally, causal mediation analyses revealed that arsenic exposure metrics had both direct and indirect (periostin-mediated) effects on the risk of RAO and asthma symptoms. Thus, the results suggested that periostin may be involved in the arsenic-related pathogenesis of Th2-mediated asthma. The elevated serum periostin levels may predict the greater risk of asthma among the people living in arsenic-endemic areas.

Intoxicação por Arsênico , Arsênio , Asma , Água Potável , Arsênio/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Água Potável/análise , Humanos , Unhas/química
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574656


Skeletal muscle mass reduction has been implicated in insulin resistance (IR) that promotes cardiometabolic diseases. We have previously reported that arsenic exposure increases IR concomitantly with the reduction of skeletal muscle mass among individuals exposed to arsenic. The arsenic methylation capacity is linked to the susceptibility to some arsenic exposure-related diseases. However, it remains unknown whether the arsenic methylation capacity affects the arsenic-induced reduction of muscle mass and elevation of IR. Therefore, this study examined the associations between the arsenic methylation status and skeletal muscle mass measures with regard to IR by recruiting 437 participants from low- and high-arsenic exposure areas in Bangladesh. The subjects' skeletal muscle mass was estimated by their lean body mass (LBM) and serum creatinine levels. Subjects' drinking water arsenic concentrations were positively associated with total urinary arsenic concentrations and the percentages of MMA, as well as inversely associated with the percentages of DMA and the secondary methylation index (SMI). Subjects' LBM and serum creatinine levels were positively associated with the percentage of DMA and SMI, as well as inversely associated with the percentage of MMA. HOMA-IR showed an inverse association with SMI, with a confounding effect of sex. Our results suggest that reduced secondary methylation capacity is involved in the arsenic-induced skeletal muscle loss that may be implicated in arsenic-induced IR and cardiometabolic diseases.

Arsênio , Arsenicais , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Metilação , Músculo Esquelético
Front Microbiol ; 11: 542053, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324354


Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) not only enhance plant growth but also control phytopathogens and mitigate abiotic stresses, including water-deficit stress. In this study, 21 (26.9%) rhizobacterial strains isolated from drought-prone ecosystems of Bangladesh were able to form air-liquid (AL) biofilms in the glass test tubes containing salt-optimized broth plus glycerol (SOBG) medium. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Pseudomonas chlororaphis (ESR3 and ESR15), P. azotoformans ESR4, P. poae ESR6, P. fluorescens (ESR7 and ESR25), P. gessardii ESR9, P. cedrina (ESR12, ESR16, and ESR23), P. veronii (ESR13 and ESR21), P. parafulva ESB18, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ESR20, Bacillus cereus (ESD3, ESD21, and ESB22), B. horikoshii ESD16, B. aryabhattai ESB6, B. megaterium ESB9, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus ESD8 were identified. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies showed that the biofilm matrices contain proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and lipids. Congo red binding results indicated that these bacteria produced curli fimbriae and nanocellulose-rich polysaccharides. Expression of nanocellulose was also confirmed by Calcofluor binding assays and scanning electron microscopy. In vitro studies revealed that all these rhizobacterial strains expressed multiple plant growth-promoting traits including N2 fixation, production of indole-3-acetic acid, solubilization of nutrients (P, K, and Zn), and production of ammonia, siderophores, ACC deaminase, catalases, lipases, cellulases, and proteases. Several bacteria were also tolerant to multifarious stresses such as drought, high temperature, extreme pH, and salinity. Among these rhizobacteria, P. cedrina ESR12, P. chlororaphis ESR15, and B. cereus ESD3 impeded the growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913, while P. chlororaphis ESR15 and B. cereus ESD21 prevented the progression of Ralstonia solanacearum ATCC® 11696TM. In a pot experiment, tomato plants inoculated with P. azotoformans ESR4, P. poae ESR6, P. gessardii ESR9, P. cedrina ESR12, P. chlororaphis ESR15, S. maltophilia ESR20, P. veronii ESR21, and B. aryabhattai ESB6 exhibited an increased plant growth compared to the non-inoculated plants under water deficit-stressed conditions. Accordingly, the bacterial-treated plants showed a higher antioxidant defense system and a fewer tissue damages than non-inoculated plants under water-limiting conditions. Therefore, biofilm-producing PGPR can be utilized as plant growth promoters, suppressors of plant pathogens, and alleviators of water-deficit stress.