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1.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705265

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The evidence from the literature regarding the association of dietary factors and risk of prostate cancer is inconclusive. METHODS: A nutrient-wide association study was conducted to systematically and comprehensively evaluate the associations between 92 foods or nutrients and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and education were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for standardized dietary intakes. As in genome-wide association studies, correction for multiple comparisons was applied using the false discovery rate (FDR < 5%) method and suggested results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). RESULTS: A total of 5916 and 3842 incident cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 14 and 20 years in EPIC and NLCS, respectively. None of the dietary factors was associated with the risk of total prostate cancer in EPIC (minimum FDR-corrected P, 0.37). Null associations were also observed by disease stage, grade and fatality, except for positive associations observed for intake of dry cakes/biscuits with low-grade and butter with aggressive prostate cancer, respectively, out of which the intake of dry cakes/biscuits was replicated in the NLCS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide little support for an association for the majority of the 92 examined dietary factors and risk of prostate cancer. The association of dry cakes/biscuits with low-grade prostate cancer warrants further replication given the scarcity in the literature.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224225, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652285

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Compensatory behaviours may be one of the reasons for the limited success of sedentary time interventions in older adults, but this possibility remains unexplored. Activity compensation is the idea that if we change activity levels at one time we compensate for them at a later time to maintain a set point. We aimed to assess, among adults aged ≥60 years, whether sedentary time and time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts (≥30 mins) on one day were associated with sedentary time and time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts (≥30 mins) on the following day. We also sought to determine whether these associations varied by sociodemographic and comorbid factors. METHODS: Sedentary time was assessed for seven days using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for 3459 adults who participated in the EPIC-Norfolk Study between 2004 and 2011. We assessed day-to-day associations in total and prolonged bouts of sedentary time using multi-level regressions. We included interaction terms to determine whether associations varied by age, sex, smoking, body mass index, social class, retirement, education and comorbid factors (stroke, diabetes, myocardial infarction and cancer). RESULTS: Participants (mean age = 70.3, SD = 6.8 years) accumulated 540 sedentary mins/day (SD = 80.1). On any given day, every 60 minutes spent in sedentary time was associated with 9.9 extra sedentary minutes on the following day (95% CI 9.0, 10.2). This association was greater in non-retired compared to retired participants (non-retired 2.57 extra minutes, p = 0.024) and in current compared to former and never-smokers (5.26 extra mins for current vs former; 5.52 extra mins for current vs never, p = 0.023 and 0.017, respectively). On any given day, every 60 minutes spent in prolonged bouts was associated with 7.8 extra minutes in these bouts the following day (95% CI 7.6, 8.4). This association was greater in older individuals (0.18 extra minutes/year of age, 95% CI 0.061, 0.29), and for retired versus non-retired (retired 2.74 extra minutes, 95% CI 0.21, 5.74). CONCLUSION: Older adults did not display day-to-day compensation. Instead, individuals demonstrate a large stable component of day-to-day time spent sedentary and in prolonged bouts with a small but important capacity for positive variation. Therefore older adults appear to be largely habitual in their sedentary behaviour. Strategies to augment these patterns may be possible, given they may differ by age, smoking, and working status.

3.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 238, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measures of abdominal adiposity are strongly associated with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, data are limited and conflicting regarding the consequences of changes in body fat distribution. The main aims of this paper are to investigate the association between changes in waist circumference (WC) and all-cause and CVD mortality and to examine these changes in relation to concurrent changes in weight. METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) study recruited 25,639 participants between 1993 and 1997, aged 39-79, a number of whom also attended a second examination (1998-2000), and were followed up to 2016 for mortality. Participants were eligible for inclusion if they had WC, weight and height measurements at both time-points; those with a self-reported history of CVD or cancer, body mass index < 18.5 kg/m2 or missing data on covariates were excluded, leaving 12,337 participants for analyses. The median (IQR) follow-up time was 16.4 (15.7, 17.2) years. Hazard Ratios (HRs) for all-cause (2866 deaths) and CVD mortality (822 deaths), by categories of WC change, were determined using Cox proportional hazards analyses. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment, the HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality for men and women with a WC gain (WCG) >  5 cm were 1.51 (1.29-1.75) and 1.25 (1.06-1.46) respectively. For CVD mortality in men and women with a WCG >  5 cm, the HRs were 1.84 (1.39-2.43) and 1.15 (0.85-1.55) respectively. In analyses of concurrent changes in WC and weight, the greatest risk (HRs) (95% CIs) in men occurred with weight loss and WCG: 1.80 (1.13-2.86) for all-cause and 2.22 (1.03-4.82) for CVD mortality. In women, the greatest risk for both all-cause (HR 1.50 (1.16-1.95)) and CVD mortality (HR 1.81 (1.15-2.85)) was observed in those with weight loss and maintenance of WC (WCM). CONCLUSIONS: Objectively measured WCG > 5 cm, was associated with subsequent higher total mortality risk and higher CVD mortality risk in men. Interventions focusing on preventing increase in central adiposity rather than lowering weight per se in later life may potentially have greater health benefits.

4.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479109

RESUMO

Importance: Soft drinks are frequently consumed, but whether this consumption is associated with mortality risk is unknown and has been understudied in European populations to date. Objective: To examine the association between total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drink consumption and subsequent total and cause-specific mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study involved participants (n = 451 743 of the full cohort) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), an ongoing, large multinational cohort of people from 10 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom), with participants recruited between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 2000. Excluded participants were those who reported cancer, heart disease, stroke, or diabetes at baseline; those with implausible dietary intake data; and those with missing soft drink consumption or follow-up information. Data analyses were performed from February 1, 2018, to October 1, 2018. Exposure: Consumption of total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drinks. Main Outcomes and Measures: Total mortality and cause-specific mortality. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for other mortality risk factors. Results: In total, 521 330 individuals were enrolled. Of this total, 451 743 (86.7%) were included in the study, with a mean (SD) age of 50.8 (9.8) years and with 321 081 women (71.1%). During a mean (range) follow-up of 16.4 (11.1 in Greece to 19.2 in France) years, 41 693 deaths occurred. Higher all-cause mortality was found among participants who consumed 2 or more glasses per day (vs consumers of <1 glass per month) of total soft drinks (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% CI, 1.11-1.22; P < .001), sugar-sweetened soft drinks (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16; P = .004), and artificially sweetened soft drinks (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.16-1.35; P < .001). Positive associations were also observed between artificially sweetened soft drinks and deaths from circulatory diseases (≥2 glasses per day vs <1 glass per month; HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.30-1.78; P < .001) and between sugar-sweetened soft drinks and deaths from digestive diseases (≥1 glass per day vs <1 glass per month; HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.24-2.05; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that consumption of total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drinks was positively associated with all-cause deaths in this large European cohort; the results are supportive of public health campaigns aimed at limiting the consumption of soft drinks.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13108, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511603

RESUMO

Data from dietary intervention studies suggest that intake of (-)-epicatechin mediates beneficial vascular effects in humans. However, population-based investigations are required to evaluate associations between habitual intake and health and these studies rely on accurate estimates of intake, which nutritional biomarkers can provide. Here, we evaluate a series of structurally related (-)-epicatechin metabolites (SREM), particularly (-)-epicatechin-3'-glucuronide, (-)-epicatechin-3'-sulfate and 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-5-sulfate (SREMB), as flavan-3-ol and (-)-epicatechin intake. SREMB in urine proved to be a specific indicator of (-)-epicatechin intake, showing also a strong correlation with the amount of (-)-epicatechin ingested (R2: 0.86 (95% CI 0.8l; 0.92). The median recovery of (-)-epicatechin as SREMB in 24 h urine was 10% (IQR 7-13%) and we found SREMB in the majority of participants of EPIC Norfolk (83% of 24,341) with a mean concentration of 2.4 ± 3.2 µmol/L. Our results show that SREMB are suitable as biomarker of (-)-epicatechin intake. According to evaluation criteria from IARC and the Institute of Medicine, the results obtained support use of SREMB as a recovery biomarker to estimate actual intake of (-)-epicatechin.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506954

RESUMO

Evidence suggests an influence of sex hormones on cutaneous melanoma risk, but epidemiologic findings are conflicting. We examined the associations between use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and melanoma risk in women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a prospective cohort study initiated in 1992 in 10 European countries. Information on exogenous hormone use at baseline was derived from country-specific self-administered questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Over 1992-2015, 1,696 melanoma cases were identified among 334,483 women, whereof 770 cases among 134,758 postmenopausal women. There was a positive, borderline-significant association between OC use and melanoma risk (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00-1.26), with no detected heterogeneity across countries (phomogeneity = 0.42). This risk increased linearly with duration of use (ptrend = 0.01). Among postmenopausal women, ever use of MHT was associated with a nonsignificant increase in melanoma risk overall (HR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.97-1.43), which was heterogeneous across countries (phomogeneity = 0.05). Our findings do not support a strong and direct association between exogenous hormone use and melanoma risk. In order to better understand these relations, further research should be performed using prospectively collected data including detailed information on types of hormone, and on sun exposure, which may act as an important confounder or effect modifier on these relations.

7.
Diabetes ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506343

RESUMO

Epigenetic changes may contribute substantially to risks of diseases of ageing. Previous studies reported seven methylation variable positions (MVPs) robustly associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, their causal roles in T2DM are unclear. In an incident T2DM case-cohort study nested within the population-based EPIC-Norfolk cohort, we used whole blood DNA collected at baseline, up to 11 years before T2DM onset to investigate the role of methylation in the aetiology of T2DM. We identified 15 novel MVPs with robust associations with incident T2DM, and robustly confirmed three MVPs identified previously (near to TXNIP, ABCG1 and SREBF1). All 18 MVPs showed directionally consistent associations with incident and prevalent T2DM in independent studies. Further conditional analyses suggested that the identified epigenetic signals appear related to T2DM via glucose and obesity-related pathways acting before the collection of baseline samples. We integrated genome-wide genetic data to identify methylation-associated quantitative trait loci robustly associated with 16 of the 18 MVPs, and found one MVP, cg00574958 at CPT1A, with a possible direct causal role on T2DM. None of the implicated genes was previously highlighted by genetic association studies, suggesting that DNA methylation studies may reveal novel biological mechanisms involved in tissue responses to glycemia.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(16): e013020, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407609

RESUMO

Background Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I (apoB/apoA-I) ratio and lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) are associated with aortic valve stenosis (AVS) disease progression. Clinical characteristics such as age, sex, and presence of concomitant coronary artery disease may strongly modify these associations; however, these effects have not been well defined in longitudinal studies. We set out to assess these associations between apoB/apoA-I ratio, Lp(a), and AVS incidence in a large population study. Methods and Results We analyzed data from 17 745 participants (mean age, 59.2±9.1 years; men, 44.9%) in the EPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer in Norfolk Prospective Population Study) population study in whom apoB/apoA-I and Lp(a) levels were measured. Participants were identified as having incident AVS if they were hospitalized or died with AVS as an underlying cause. After a median follow-up of 19.8 years (17.9-21.0 years) there were 403 (2.2%) incident cases of AVS. The hazard ratio for AVS risk was 1.30 (95% CI, 1.19-1.41; P<0.001) per SD increase in apoB/apoA-I. Adjusting for age, sex, and coronary artery disease, there was no significant association between apoB/apoA-I and AVS incidence (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.97-1.17 [P=0.215]). Elevated Lp(a) (>50 mg/dL) remained an independent risk factor for AVS after adjustment for age, sex, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and concomitant coronary artery disease (hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.33-2.19 [P<0.001]). Conclusions In this population study, apoB/apoA-I ratio was associated with risk of AVS incidence, especially in younger and female participants and those without concomitant coronary artery disease. Lp(a) was an independent risk factor for AVS incidence. Interventional trials are needed to investigate whether modulating apoB/apoA-I or lowering Lp(a) can prevent or slow down AVS.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although adults with low vitamin D status are at increased risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI), randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation have provided inconsistent results. METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 5,110 adults, aged 50-84 years. In 2011-2012, participants were randomized to an initial oral dose of 200,000 IU vitamin D3 followed by 100,000 IU monthly (n=2,558) or placebo (n=2,552) until late 2013 (median follow-up 1.6 years). Participants reported upper and lower ARIs on monthly questionnaires. Cox models analyzed time to first ARI (upper or lower) by treatment group. RESULTS: Participants' mean age was 66 years and 58% were male; 83% were of European/Other ethnicity, with the rest Maori, Polynesian or South Asian. Mean (SD) baseline blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level was 63 (24) nmol/L; 25% were <50 nmol/L. In a random sample (n=441), vitamin D supplementation increased mean 25OHD to 135 nmol/L at 3 years, while those on placebo stayed at 63 nmol/L. During follow-up, 3,737 participants reported at least one ARI: 74.1% in the vitamin D group versus 73.7% in the placebo group. The hazard ratio for vitamin D compared to placebo was 1.01 (95%CI, 0.94, 1.07). Similar results were seen in most subgroups, including those with baseline 25OHD <50 nmol/L and in analyses of the upper/lower components of the ARI outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation does not prevent ARI in older adults with a low prevalence of profound vitamin D deficiency at baseline. Whether effects of daily or weekly dosing differ requires further study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, Identifier ACTRN12611000402943.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bile acids have been proposed to promote colon carcinogenesis. However, there are limited prospective data on circulating bile acid levels and colon cancer risk in humans. METHODS: Associations between pre-diagnostic plasma levels of 17 primary, secondary and tertiary bile acid metabolites (conjugated and unconjugated) and colon cancer risk were evaluated in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Bile acid levels were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry in samples from 569 incident colon cancer cases and 569 matched controls. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for colon cancer risk across quartiles of bile acid concentrations. RESULTS: Positive associations were observed between colon cancer risk and plasma levels of 7 conjugated bile acid metabolites, i.e. primary bile acids glycocholic acid (ORQuartile 4 vs. Quartile 1=2.22,95 % confidence interval[CI]=1.52, 3.26), taurocholic acid (OR = 1.78, 95%CI=1.23, 2.58), glycochenodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.68, 95%CI=1.13, 2.48), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.62, 95%CI=1.11-2.36), and glycohyocholic acid (OR = 1.65, 95%CI=1.13, 2.40) as well as the secondary bile acids glycodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.68, 95%CI=1.12, 2.54) and taurodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.54, 95%CI=1.02, 2.31). By contrast, unconjugated bile acids and tertiary bile acids were not associated with risk. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study showed that pre-diagnostic levels of certain conjugated primary and secondary bile acids were positively associated with risk of colon cancer. Our findings support experimental data to suggest that a high bile acid load is colon cancer promotive.

11.
J Nutr ; 149(11): 1985-1993, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396627

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Beverage consumption is a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but there is insufficient evidence to inform the suitability of substituting 1 type of beverage for another. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of T2D when consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was replaced with consumption of fruit juice, milk, coffee, or tea. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study of 8 European countries (n = 27,662, with 12,333 cases of incident T2D, 1992-2007), beverage consumption was estimated at baseline by dietary questionnaires. Using Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusting for other beverages and potential confounders, we estimated associations of substituting 1 type of beverage for another on incident T2D. RESULTS: Mean ± SD of estimated consumption of SSB was 55 ± 105 g/d. Means ± SDs for the other beverages were as follows: fruit juice, 59 ± 101 g/d; milk, 209 ± 203 g/d; coffee, 381 ± 372 g/d; and tea, 152 ± 282 g/d. Substituting coffee for SSBs by 250 g/d was associated with a 21% lower incidence of T2D (95% CI: 12%, 29%). The rate difference was -12.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -5.0) per 10,000 person-years among adults consuming SSBs ≥250 g/d (absolute rate = 48.3/10,000). Substituting tea for SSBs was estimated to lower T2D incidence by 22% (95% CI: 15%, 28%) or -11.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -2.6) per 10,000 person-years, whereas substituting fruit juice or milk was estimated not to alter T2D risk significantly. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a potential benefit of substituting coffee or tea for SSBs for the primary prevention of T2D and may help formulate public health recommendations on beverage consumption in different populations.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319002

RESUMO

Several studies have reported associations of hypertension with cancer, but not all results were conclusive. We examined the association of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure with the development of incident cancer at all anatomical sites in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by EPIC-participating center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and dietary (in women also reproductive) factors. The study included 307,318 men and women, with an average follow-up of 13.7 (standard deviation 4.4) years and 39,298 incident cancers. We confirmed the expected positive association with renal cell carcinoma: HR = 1.12 (1.08-1.17) per 10 mm Hg higher SBP and HR = 1.23 (1.14-1.32) for DBP. We additionally found positive associations for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): HR = 1.16 (1.07-1.26) (SBP), HR = 1.31 (1.13-1.51) (DBP), weaker for head and neck cancers: HR = 1.08 (1.04-1.12) (SBP), HR = 1.09 (1.01-1.17) (DBP) and, similarly, for skin SCC, colon cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer and uterine adenocarcinoma (AC), but not for esophageal AC, lung SCC, lung AC or uterine endometroid cancer. We observed weak inverse associations of SBP with cervical SCC: HR = 0.91 (0.82-1.00) and lymphomas: HR = 0.97 (0.93-1.00). There were no consistent associations with cancers in other locations. Our results are largely compatible with published studies and support weak associations of blood pressure with cancers in specific locations and morphologies.

13.
Int J Cardiol ; 293: 226-230, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation - Older Persons (SCORE-OP) algorithm is developed to assess 10-year risk of death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals aged ≥65 years. We studied the performance of SCORE-OP in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) prospective population cohort. METHODS: 10-year CVD mortality as predicted by SCORE-OP was compared with observed CVD mortality among individuals in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. Persons aged 65-79 years without known CVD were included in the analysis. CVD mortality was defined as death due to ischemic heart disease, cardiac failure, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral-artery disease or aortic aneurysm. Predicted 10-year CVD mortality was calculated by the SCORE-OP algorithm, and compared to observed mortality rates. The area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUROC) was calculated to evaluate discriminative power. Calibration was evaluated by calculating ratios of predicted vs observed mortality and by Hosmer-Lemeshow tests. RESULTS: A total of 6590 individuals (45.8% men), mean age 70.2 years (standard deviation 3.3) were included. The predicted mortality by SCORE-OP was 9.84% (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.76-9.92) and observed mortality was 10.2% (95% CI 9.52-11.04), ratio 0.96. AUROC was 0.63 (95% CI 0.60-0.65), and X2 was 3.3 (p = 0.92). CONCLUSION: SCORE-OP overall accurately estimates the rate of CVD mortality in a general population aged 65-79 years. However, while calibration is excellent, the discriminative power of the SCORE-OP is limited, and as such cannot be readily implemented in clinical practice for this population.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: PMR and GCA are associated with increased risk of vascular disease. However, it remains unclear whether this relationship is causal or reflects a common underlying propensity. The aim of this study was to identify whether known cardiovascular risk factors increase the risk of PMR and GCA. METHODS: Clinical records were examined using key word searches to identify cases of PMR and GCA, applying current classification criteria in a population-based cohort. Associations between cardiovascular risk factors and incident PMR and GCA were analysed using Cox proportional hazards. RESULTS: In 315 022 person years of follow-up, there were 395 incident diagnoses of PMR and 118 incident diagnoses of GCA that met the clinical definition. Raised diastolic blood pressure (>90 mmHg) at baseline/recruitment was associated with subsequent incident PMR [hazard ratio=1.35 (95% CI 1.01, 1.80) P=0.045], and ever-smoking was associated with incident GCA [hazard ratio=2.01 (95% CI 1.26, 3.20) P=0.003]. Estimates were similar when the analysis was restricted to individuals whose diagnoses satisfied the current classification criteria sets. CONCLUSION: PMR and GCA shares common risk factors with vascular disease onset, suggesting a common underlying propensity. This may indicate a potential for disease prevention strategies through modifying cardiovascular risk.

15.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the demographic and lifestyles factors associated with vitamin C deficiency and to examine the association between plasma vitamin C level and self-reported physical functional health. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study using the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study. Plasma vitamin C level < 11 µmol/L indicated vitamin C deficiency. Unconditional logistic regression models assessed the association between vitamin C deficiency and potential risk factors. Associations between quartiles of vitamin C and self-reported functional health measured by the 36-item short-form questionnaire (SF-36) were assessed. RESULTS: After adjustment, vitamin C deficiency was associated with older age, being male, lower physical activity, smoking, more socially deprived area (Townsend index) and a lower educational attainment. Compared to the highest, those in the lowest quartile of vitamin C were more likely to score in the lowest decile of physical function (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.43 (95%CI: 1.21-1.70)), bodily pain (aOR: 1.29 (95% CI: 1.07-1.56)), general health (aOR: 1.4 (95%CI: 1.18-1.66)), and vitality (aOR: 1.23 (95%CI: 1.04-1.45)) SF-36 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Simple public health interventions should be aimed at populations with risk factors for vitamin C deficiency. Poor self-reported functional health was associated with lower plasma vitamin C levels, which may reflect symptoms of latent scurvy.

16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(4): 938-948, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Mediterranean countries, adherence to a traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) is associated with better cognitive function and reduced dementia risk. It is unclear if similar benefits exist in non-Mediterranean regions. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to examine associations between MedDiet adherence and cognitive function in an older UK population and to investigate whether associations differed between individuals with high compared with low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: We conducted an analysis in 8009 older individuals with dietary data at Health Check 1 (1993-1997) and cognitive function data at Health Check 3 (2006-2011) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk). Associations were explored between MedDiet adherence and global and domain-specific cognitive test scores and risk of poor cognitive performance in the entire cohort, and when stratified according to CVD risk status. RESULTS: Higher MedDiet adherence defined by the Pyramid MedDiet score was associated with better global cognition (ß ± SE = -0.012 ± 0.002; P < 0.001), verbal episodic memory (ß ± SE = -0.009 ± 0.002; P < 0.001), and simple processing speed (ß ± SE = -0.002 ± 0.001; P = 0.013). Lower risk of poor verbal episodic memory (OR: 0.784; 95% CI: 0.641, 0.959; P = 0.018), complex processing speed (OR: 0.739; 95% CI: 0.601, 0.907; P = 0.004), and prospective memory (OR: 0.841; 95% CI: 0.724, 0.977; P = 0.023) was also observed for the highest compared with the lowest Pyramid MedDiet tertiles. The effect of a 1-point increase in Pyramid score on global cognitive function was equivalent to 1.7 fewer years of cognitive aging. MedDiet adherence defined by the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) score (mapped through the use of both binary and continuous scoring) showed similar, albeit less consistent, associations. In stratified analyses, associations were evident in individuals at higher CVD risk only (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to the MedDiet is associated with better cognitive function and lower risk of poor cognition in older UK adults. This evidence underpins the development of interventions to enhance MedDiet adherence, particularly in individuals at higher CVD risk, aiming to reduce the risk of age-related cognitive decline in non-Mediterranean populations.

17.
BMJ ; 365: l2323, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective associations of baseline and long term trajectories of physical activity on mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Adults from the general population in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 14 599 men and women (aged 40 to 79) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort, assessed at baseline (1993 to 1997) up to 2004 for lifestyle and other risk factors; then followed to 2016 for mortality (median of 12.5 years of follow-up, after the last exposure assessment). MAIN EXPOSURE: Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) derived from questionnaires, calibrated against combined movement and heart rate monitoring. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Multivariable proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for age, sex, sociodemographics, and changes in medical history, overall diet quality, body mass index, blood pressure, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels. RESULTS: During 171 277 person years of follow-up, 3148 deaths occurred. Long term increases in PAEE were inversely associated with mortality, independent of baseline PAEE. For each 1 kJ/kg/day per year increase in PAEE (equivalent to a trajectory of being inactive at baseline and gradually, over five years, meeting the World Health Organization minimum physical activity guidelines of 150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity physical activity), hazard ratios were: 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.82) for all cause mortality, 0.71 (0.62 to 0.82) for cardiovascular disease mortality, and 0.89 (0.79 to 0.99) for cancer mortality, adjusted for baseline PAEE, and established risk factors. Similar results were observed when analyses were stratified by medical history of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Joint analyses with baseline and trajectories of physical activity show that, compared with consistently inactive individuals, those with increasing physical activity trajectories over time experienced lower risks of mortality from all causes, with hazard ratios of 0.76 (0.65 to 0.88), 0.62 (0.53 to 0.72), and 0.58 (0.43 to 0.78) at low, medium, and high baseline physical activity, respectively. At the population level, meeting and maintaining at least the minimum physical activity recommendations would potentially prevent 46% of deaths associated with physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Middle aged and older adults, including those with cardiovascular disease and cancer, can gain substantial longevity benefits by becoming more physically active, irrespective of past physical activity levels and established risk factors. Considerable population health impacts can be attained with consistent engagement in physical activity during mid to late life.


Assuntos
Exercício , Mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246245

RESUMO

Importance: Keratoconus is an important cause of visual loss in young adults, but little is known about its genetic causes. Understanding the genetic determinants of corneal biomechanical factors may in turn teach us about keratoconus etiology. Objectives: To identify genetic associations with corneal biomechanical properties and to examine whether these genetic variants are associated with keratoconus. Design, Setting, and Participants: A stage 1 discovery and replication genome-wide association study (GWAS) of corneal biomechanical properties was performed in 2 cross-sectional populations (6645 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition [EPIC]-Norfolk Eye Study and 2384 participants from the TwinsUK study). In stage 2, the association of genetic determinants identified in stage 1 with keratoconus was examined in a case-control study. A total of 752 patients with keratoconus were compared with 974 TwinsUK participants (undergoing direct sequencing) or 13 828 EPIC-Norfolk participants (undergoing genotyping and imputation) who were not part of the stage 1 analysis. Data were collected from March 1, 1993, through March 13, 2017, and analyzed from November 1, 2015, through February 1, 2018. Exposures: In stage 1, allele dosage at genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); in stage 2, allele dosage at SNPs with genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8) in stage 1 and not previously reported as associated with corneal disease. Main Outcomes and Measures: In stage 1, corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF), measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA); in stage 2, association with keratoconus compared with controls. Results: Among 6645 participants in the discovery cohort (3635 women (54.7%); mean age, 69 years [range, 48-92 years]), 7 genome-wide significant loci associated with CH or CRF were identified that were independently replicated. Two further suggestive loci were identified after meta-analysis. To date, 5 of the identified loci, at ANAPC1, ADAMTS8, ADAMTS17, ABCA6, and COL6A1, have not previously been reported as associated with corneal disease. The ABCA6 locus (rs77542162) was associated with keratoconus using the TwinsUK (odds ratio [OR], 0.50; 95% CI, 0.27-0.92; P = .03) and EPIC-Norfolk controls (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22-0.70; P = .002). The other loci were associated with keratoconus using TwinsUK (OR per effect allele for ADAMTS8, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.37-0.71; P = 7.9 × 10-5]; for COL6A1, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.05-2.59; P = .03]) or EPIC-Norfolk (OR per effect allele for ANAPC1, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.68-0.89; P = 3.7 × 10-4]; for ADAMTS17, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.68-0.99; P = .04]) controls. Conclusions and Relevance: Five loci that are associated with corneal biomechanical properties and that have suggestive associations with keratoconus were reported. These findings suggest the role of type VI collagen, extracellular matrix, and connective-tissue development for corneal biomechanics and keratoconus and the role of CH and CRF as biomarkers for keratoconus.

19.
J Nutr ; 149(6): 1047-1055, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-specificity of exploratory dietary patterns limits their generalizability in investigations with type 2 diabetes incidence. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to derive country-specific exploratory dietary patterns, investigate their association with type 2 diabetes incidence, and replicate diabetes-associated dietary patterns in other countries. METHODS: Dietary intake data were used, assessed by country-specific questionnaires at baseline of 11,183 incident diabetes cases and 14,694 subcohort members (mean age 52.9 y) from 8 countries, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (mean follow-up time 6.9 y). Exploratory dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis. HRs for incident type 2 diabetes were calculated by Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models. Diabetes-associated dietary patterns were simplified or replicated to be applicable in other countries. A meta-analysis across all countries evaluated the generalizability of the diabetes-association. RESULTS: Two dietary patterns per country/UK-center, of which overall 3 dietary patterns were diabetes-associated, were identified. A risk-lowering French dietary pattern was not confirmed across other countries: pooled HRFrance per 1 SD: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.10. Risk-increasing dietary patterns, derived in Spain and UK-Norfolk, were confirmed, but only the latter statistically significantly: HRSpain: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.22 and HRUK-Norfolk: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.20. Respectively, this dietary pattern was characterized by relatively high intakes of potatoes, processed meat, vegetable oils, sugar, cake and cookies, and tea. CONCLUSIONS: Only few country/center-specific dietary patterns (3 of 18) were statistically significantly associated with diabetes incidence in this multicountry European study population. One pattern, whose association with diabetes was confirmed across other countries, showed overlaps in the food groups potatoes and processed meat with identified diabetes-associated dietary patterns from other studies. The study demonstrates that replication of associations of exploratory patterns with health outcomes is feasible and a necessary step to overcome population-specificity in associations from such analyses.

20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(6): 1089-1092, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the potential effect of social inequality on pancreatic cancer risk in Western Europe, by reassessing the association within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study, including a larger number of cases and an extended follow-up. METHODS: Data on highest education attained were gathered for 459,170 participants (70% women) from 10 European countries. A relative index of inequality (RII) based on adult education was calculated for comparability across countries and generations. Cox regression models were applied to estimate relative inequality in pancreatic cancer risk, stratifying by age, gender, and center, and adjusting for known pancreatic cancer risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 1,223 incident pancreatic cancer cases were included after a mean follow-up of 13.9 (±4.0) years. An inverse social trend was found in models adjusted for age, sex, and center for both sexes [HR of RII, 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.59], which was also significant among women (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.05-1.92). Further adjusting by smoking intensity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, prevalent diabetes, and physical activity led to an attenuation of the RII risk and loss of statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The present reanalysis does not sustain the existence of an independent social inequality influence on pancreatic cancer risk in Western European women and men, using an index based on adult education, the most relevant social indicator linked to individual lifestyles, in a context of very low pancreatic cancer survival from (quasi) universal public health systems. IMPACT: The results do not support an association between education and risk of pancreatic cancer.

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