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Materials (Basel) ; 15(11)2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683229


As the demand for nonrenewable natural resources, such as aggregate, is increasing worldwide, new production of artificial aggregate should be developed. Artificial lightweight aggregate can bring advantages to the construction field due to its lower density, thus reducing the dead load applied to the structural elements. In addition, application of artificial lightweight aggregate in lightweight concrete will produce lower thermal conductivity. However, the production of artificial lightweight aggregate is still limited. Production of artificial lightweight aggregate incorporating waste materials or pozzolanic materials is advantageous and beneficial in terms of being environmentally friendly, as well as lowering carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, additives, such as geopolymer, have been introduced as one of the alternative construction materials that have been proven to have excellent properties. Thus, this paper will review the production of artificial lightweight aggregate through various methods, including sintering, cold bonding, and autoclaving. The significant properties of artificial lightweight aggregate, including physical and mechanical properties, such as water absorption, crushing strength, and impact value, are reviewed. The properties of concrete, including thermal properties, that utilized artificial lightweight aggregate were also briefly reviewed to highlight the advantages of artificial lightweight aggregate.

Materials (Basel) ; 15(9)2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35591539


Due to the extraordinary properties for heavy-duty applications, there has been a great deal of interest in the utilization of waste material via geopolymerization technology. There are various advantages offered by this geopolymer-based material, such as excellent stability, exceptional impermeability, self-refluxing ability, resistant thermal energy from explosive detonation, and excellent mechanical performance. An overview of the work with the details of key factors affecting the heavy-duty performance of geopolymer-based material such as type of binder, alkali agent dosage, mixing design, and curing condition are reviewed in this paper. Interestingly, the review exhibited that different types of waste material containing a large number of chemical elements had an impact on mechanical performance in military, civil engineering, and road application. Finally, this work suggests some future research directions for the the remarkable of waste material through geopolymerization to be employed in heavy-duty application.

Materials (Basel) ; 15(4)2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35208036


There is a burgeoning interest in the development of geopolymers as sustainable construction materials and incombustible inorganic polymers. However, geopolymers show quasi-brittle behavior. To overcome this weakness, hundreds of researchers have focused on the development, characterization, and implementation of geopolymer-reinforced fibers for a wide range of applications for light geopolymers concrete. This paper discusses the rapidly developing geopolymer-reinforced fibers, focusing on material and geometrical properties, numerical simulation, and the effect of fibers on the geopolymers. In the section on the effect of fibers on the geopolymers, a comparison between single and hybrid fibers will show the compressive strength and toughness of each type of fiber. It is proposed that interfacial bonding between matrix and fibers is important to obtain better results, and interfacial bonding between matrix and fiber depends on the type of material surface contact area, such as being hydrophobic or hydrophilic, as well as the softness or roughness of the surface.