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2.
Nature ; 591(7849): 211-219, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692554

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRSs), which often aggregate results from genome-wide association studies, can bridge the gap between initial discovery efforts and clinical applications for the estimation of disease risk using genetics. However, there is notable heterogeneity in the application and reporting of these risk scores, which hinders the translation of PRSs into clinical care. Here, in a collaboration between the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) Complex Disease Working Group and the Polygenic Score (PGS) Catalog, we present the Polygenic Risk Score Reporting Standards (PRS-RS), in which we update the Genetic Risk Prediction Studies (GRIPS) Statement to reflect the present state of the field. Drawing on the input of experts in epidemiology, statistics, disease-specific applications, implementation and policy, this comprehensive reporting framework defines the minimal information that is needed to interpret and evaluate PRSs, especially with respect to downstream clinical applications. Items span detailed descriptions of study populations, statistical methods for the development and validation of PRSs and considerations for the potential limitations of these scores. In addition, we emphasize the need for data availability and transparency, and we encourage researchers to deposit and share PRSs through the PGS Catalog to facilitate reproducibility and comparative benchmarking. By providing these criteria in a structured format that builds on existing standards and ontologies, the use of this framework in publishing PRSs will facilitate translation into clinical care and progress towards defining best practice.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1620-1633.e13, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In contrast to most other common diseases, few genetic variants have been identified that impact risk of cirrhosis. We aimed to identify new genetic variants that predispose to cirrhosis, to test whether such variants, aggregated into a polygenic score, enable genomic risk stratification, and to test whether alcohol intake or body mass index interacts with polygenic predisposition. METHODS: We conducted a multi-trait genome-wide association study combining cirrhosis and alanine aminotransferase levels performed in 5 discovery studies (UK Biobank, Vanderbilt BioVU, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, and 2 case-control studies including 4829 individuals with cirrhosis and 72,705 controls and 362,539 individuals with alanine aminotransferase levels). Identified variants were replicated in 3 studies (Partners HealthCare Biobank, FinnGen, and Biobank Japan including 3554 individuals with cirrhosis and 343,826 controls). A polygenic score was tested in Partners HealthCare Biobank. RESULTS: Five previously reported and 7 newly identified genetic variants were associated with cirrhosis in both the discovery studies multi-trait genome-wide association study (P < 5 × 10-8) and the replication studies (P < .05), including a missense variant in the APOE gene and a noncoding variant near EFN1A. These 12 variants were used to generate a polygenic score. Among Partners HealthCare Biobank individuals, high polygenic score-defined as the top quintile of the distribution-was associated with significantly increased risk of cirrhosis (odds ratio, 2.26; P < .001) and related comorbidities compared with the lowest quintile. Risk was even more pronounced among those with extreme polygenic risk (top 1% of the distribution, odds ratio, 3.16; P < .001). The impact of extreme polygenic risk was substantially more pronounced in those with elevated alcohol consumption or body mass index. Modeled as risk by age 75 years, probability of cirrhosis with extreme polygenic risk was 13.7%, 20.1%, and 48.2% among individuals with no or modest, moderate, and increased alcohol consumption, respectively (Pinteraction < .001). Similarly, probability among those with extreme polygenic risk was 6.5%, 10.3%, and 19.5% among individuals with normal weight, overweight, and obesity, respectively (Pinteraction < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Twelve independent genetic variants, 7 of which are newly identified in this study, conferred risk for cirrhosis. Aggregated into a polygenic score, these variants identified a subset of the population at substantially increased risk who are most susceptible to the hepatotoxic effects of excess alcohol consumption or obesity.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295794

RESUMO

Background - Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased risks of stroke and heart failure. Electronic health record (EHR) based AF risk prediction may facilitate efficient deployment of interventions to diagnose or prevent AF altogether. Methods - We externally validated an EHR atrial fibrillation (EHR-AF) score in IBM Explorys Life Sciences, a multi-institutional dataset containing statistically de-identified EHR data for over 21 million individuals ("Explorys Dataset"). We included individuals with complete AF risk data, ≥2 office visits within two years, and no prevalent AF. We compared EHR-AF to existing scores including CHARGE-AF, C2HEST, and CHA2DS2-VASc. We assessed association between AF risk scores and 5-year incident AF, stroke, and heart failure using Cox proportional hazards modeling, 5-year AF discrimination using c-indices, and calibration of predicted AF risk to observed AF incidence. Results - Of 21,825,853 individuals in the Explorys Dataset, 4,508,180 comprised the analysis (age 62.5, 56.3% female). AF risk scores were strongly associated with 5-year incident AF (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation [SD] increase 1.85 using CHA2DS2-VASc to 2.88 using EHR-AF), stroke (1.61 using C2HEST to 1.92 using CHARGE-AF), and heart failure (1.91 using CHA2DS2-VASc to 2.58 using EHR-AF). EHR-AF (c-index 0.808 [95%CI 0.807-0.809]) demonstrated favorable AF discrimination compared to CHARGE-AF (0.806 [0.805-0.807]), C2HEST (0.683 [0.682-0.684]), and CHA2DS2-VASc (0.720 [0.719-0.722]). Of the scores, EHR-AF demonstrated the best calibration to incident AF (calibration slope 1.002 [0.997-1.007]). In subgroup analyses, AF discrimination using EHR-AF was lower in individuals with stroke (c-index 0.696 [0.692-0.700]) and heart failure (0.621 [0.617-0.625]). Conclusions - EHR-AF demonstrates predictive accuracy for incident AF using readily ascertained EHR data. AF risk is associated with incident stroke and heart failure. Use of such risk scores may facilitate decision-support and population health management efforts focused on minimizing AF-related morbidity.

8.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA120315291, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lipoprotein(a) concentrations are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and new therapies that enable potent and specific reduction are in development. In the largest study conducted to date, we address 3 areas of uncertainty: (1) the magnitude and shape of ASCVD risk conferred across the distribution of lipoprotein(a) concentrations; (2) variation of risk across racial and clinical subgroups; (3) clinical importance of a high lipoprotein(a) threshold to guide therapy. Approach and Results: Relationship of lipoprotein(a) to incident ASCVD studied in 460 506 middle-aged UK Biobank participants. Over a median follow-up of 11.2 years, incident ASCVD occurred in 22 401 (4.9%) participants. Median lipoprotein(a) concentration was 19.6 nmol/L (25th-75th percentile 7.6-74.8). The relationship between lipoprotein(a) and ASCVD appeared linear across the distribution, with a hazard ratio of 1.11 (95% CI, 1.10-1.12) per 50 nmol/L increment. Substantial differences in concentrations were noted according to race-median values for white, South Asian, black, and Chinese individuals were 19, 31, 75, and 16 nmol/L, respectively. However, risk per 50 nmol/L appeared similar-hazard ratios of 1.11, 1.10, and 1.07 for white, South Asian, and black individuals, respectively. A high lipoprotein(a) concentration defined as ≥150 nmol/L was present in 12.2% of those without and 20.3% of those with preexisting ASCVD and associated with hazard ratios of 1.50 (95% CI, 1.44-1.56) and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.05-1.27), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lipoprotein(a) concentrations predict incident ASCVD among middle-aged adults within primary and secondary prevention contexts, with a linear risk gradient across the distribution. Concentrations are variable across racial subgroups, but the associated risk appears similar.

9.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(11): 2738-2746, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of a genome-wide polygenic score for coronary artery disease (GPSCAD) with lifetime trajectories of CAD risk, directly compare its predictive capacity to traditional risk factors, and assess its interplay with the Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) clinical risk estimator. Approach and Results: We studied GPSCAD in 28 556 middle-aged participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, of whom 4122 (14.4%) developed CAD over a median follow-up of 21.3 years. A pronounced gradient in lifetime risk of CAD was observed-16% for those in the lowest GPSCAD decile to 48% in the highest. We evaluated the discriminative capacity of the GPSCAD-as assessed by change in the C-statistic from a baseline model including age and sex-among 5685 individuals with PCE risk estimates available. The increment for the GPSCAD (+0.045, P<0.001) was higher than for any of 11 traditional risk factors (range +0.007 to +0.032). Minimal correlation was observed between GPSCAD and 10-year risk defined by the PCE (r=0.03), and addition of GPSCAD improved the C-statistic of the PCE model by 0.026. A significant gradient in lifetime risk was observed for the GPSCAD, even among individuals within a given PCE clinical risk stratum. We replicated key findings-noting strikingly consistent results-in 325 003 participants of the UK Biobank. CONCLUSIONS: GPSCAD-a risk estimator available from birth-stratifies individuals into varying trajectories of clinical risk for CAD. Implementation of GPSCAD may enable identification of high-risk individuals early in life, decades in advance of manifest risk factors or disease.

10.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(5): 417-423, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial sitosterolemia is a rare Mendelian disorder characterized by hyperabsorption and decreased biliary excretion of dietary sterols. Affected individuals typically have complete genetic deficiency-homozygous loss-of-function (LoF) variants-in the ABCG5 or ABCG8 genes and have substantially elevated plasma sitosterol and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The impact of partial genetic deficiency of ABCG5 or ABCG8-as occurs in heterozygous carriers of LoF variants-on LDL-C and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) has remained uncertain. METHODS: We first recruited 9 sitosterolemia families, identified causative LoF variants in ABCG5 or ABCG8, and evaluated the associations of these ABCG5 or ABCG8 LoF variants with plasma phytosterols and lipid levels. We next assessed for LoF variants in ABCG5 or ABCG8 in CAD cases (n=29 321) versus controls (n=357 326). We tested the association of rare LoF variants in ABCG5 or ABCG8 with blood lipids and risk for CAD. Rare LoF variants were defined as protein-truncating variants with minor allele frequency <0.1% in ABCG5 or ABCG8. RESULTS: In sitosterolemia families, 7 pedigrees harbored causative LoF variants in ABCG5 and 2 pedigrees in ABCG8. Homozygous LoF variants in either ABCG5 or ABCG8 led to marked elevations in sitosterol and LDL-C. Of those sitosterolemia families, heterozygous carriers of ABCG5 LoF variants exhibited increased sitosterol and LDL-C levels compared with noncarriers. Within large-scale CAD case-control cohorts, prevalence of rare LoF variants in ABCG5 and in ABCG8 was ≈0.1% each. ABCG5 heterozygous LoF variant carriers had significantly elevated LDL-C levels (25 mg/dL [95% CI, 14-35]; P=1.1×10-6) and were at 2-fold increased risk of CAD (odds ratio, 2.06 [95% CI, 1.27-3.35]; P=0.004). By contrast, ABCG8 heterozygous LoF carrier status was not associated with increased LDL-C or risk of CAD. CONCLUSIONS: Although familial sitosterolemia is traditionally considered as a recessive disorder, we observed that heterozygous carriers of an LoF variant in ABCG5 had significantly increased sitosterol and LDL-C levels and a 2-fold increase in risk of CAD.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3635, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820175

RESUMO

Genetic variation can predispose to disease both through (i) monogenic risk variants that disrupt a physiologic pathway with large effect on disease and (ii) polygenic risk that involves many variants of small effect in different pathways. Few studies have explored the interplay between monogenic and polygenic risk. Here, we study 80,928 individuals to examine whether polygenic background can modify penetrance of disease in tier 1 genomic conditions - familial hypercholesterolemia, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, and Lynch syndrome. Among carriers of a monogenic risk variant, we estimate substantial gradients in disease risk based on polygenic background - the probability of disease by age 75 years ranged from 17% to 78% for coronary artery disease, 13% to 76% for breast cancer, and 11% to 80% for colon cancer. We propose that accounting for polygenic background is likely to increase accuracy of risk estimation for individuals who inherit a monogenic risk variant.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Penetrância , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(6): 703-714, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS) integrate information from many common DNA variants into a single number. Because rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) are substantially higher among South Asians, a GPS to identify high-risk individuals may be particularly useful in this population. OBJECTIVES: This analysis used summary statistics from a prior genome-wide association study to derive a new GPSCAD for South Asians. METHODS: This GPSCAD was validated in 7,244 South Asian UK Biobank participants and tested in 491 individuals from a case-control study in Bangladesh. Next, a static ancestry and GPSCAD reference distribution was built using whole-genome sequencing from 1,522 Indian individuals, and a framework was tested for projecting individuals onto this static ancestry and GPSCAD reference distribution using 1,800 CAD cases and 1,163 control subjects newly recruited in India. RESULTS: The GPSCAD, containing 6,630,150 common DNA variants, had an odds ratio (OR) per SD of 1.58 in South Asian UK Biobank participants and 1.60 in the Bangladeshi study (p < 0.001 for each). Next, individuals of the Indian case-control study were projected onto static reference distributions, observing an OR/SD of 1.66 (p < 0.001). Compared with the middle quintile, risk for CAD was most pronounced for those in the top 5% of the GPSCAD distribution-ORs of 4.16, 2.46, and 3.22 in the South Asian UK Biobank, Bangladeshi, and Indian studies, respectively (p < 0.05 for each). CONCLUSIONS: The new GPSCAD has been developed and tested using 3 distinct South Asian studies, and provides a generalizable framework for ancestry-specific GPS assessment.

13.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 114, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631328

RESUMO

Preliminary reports suggest that the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID- 19) pandemic has led to disproportionate morbidity and mortality among historically disadvantaged populations. We investigate the racial and socioeconomic associations of COVID- 19 hospitalization among 418,794 participants of the UK Biobank, of whom 549 (0.13%) had been hospitalized. Both Black participants (odds ratio 3.7; 95%CI 2.5-5.3) and Asian participants (odds ratio 2.2; 95%CI 1.5-3.2) were at substantially increased risk as compared to White participants. We further observed a striking gradient in COVID- 19 hospitalization rates according to the Townsend Deprivation Index - a composite measure of socioeconomic deprivation - and household income. Adjusting for socioeconomic factors and cardiorespiratory comorbidities led to only modest attenuation of the increased risk in Black participants, adjusted odds ratio 2.4 (95%CI 1.5-3.7). These observations confirm and extend earlier preliminary and lay press reports of higher morbidity in non-White individuals in the context of a large population of participants in a national biobank. The extent to which this increased risk relates to variation in pre-existing comorbidities, differences in testing or hospitalization patterns, or additional disparities in social determinants of health warrants further study.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511642

RESUMO

Preliminary reports suggest that the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to disproportionate morbidity and mortality among historically disadvantaged populations. The extent to which these disparities are related to socioeconomic versus biologic factors is largely unknown. We investigate the racial and socioeconomic associations of COVID-19 hospitalization among 418,794 participants of the UK Biobank, of whom 549 (0.13%) had been hospitalized. Both black participants (odds ratio 3.4; 95%CI 2.4-4.9) and Asian participants (odds ratio 2.1; 95%CI 1.5-3.2) were at substantially increased risk as compared to white participants. We further observed a striking gradient in COVID-19 hospitalization rates according to the Townsend Deprivation Index - a composite measure of socioeconomic deprivation - and household income. Adjusting for such factors led to only modest attenuation of the increased risk in black participants, adjusted odds ratio 3.1 (95%CI 2.0-4.8). These observations confirm and extend earlier preliminary and lay press reports of higher morbidity in non-white individuals in the context of a large population of participants in a national biobank. The extent to which this increased risk relates to variation in pre-existing comorbidities, differences in testing or hospitalization patterns, or additional disparities in social determinants of health warrants further study.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(22): 2769-2780, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for coronary artery disease (CAD) identify high-risk individuals more likely to benefit from primary prevention statin therapy. Whether polygenic CAD risk is captured by conventional paradigms for assessing clinical cardiovascular risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to intersect polygenic risk with guideline-based recommendations and management patterns for CAD primary prevention. METHODS: A genome-wide CAD PRS was applied to 47,108 individuals across 3 U.S. health care systems. The authors then assessed whether primary prevention patients at high polygenic risk might be distinguished on the basis of greater guideline-recommended statin eligibility and higher rates of statin therapy. RESULTS: Of 47,108 study participants, the mean age was 60 years, and 11,020 (23.4%) had CAD. The CAD PRS strongly associated with prevalent CAD (odds ratio: 1.4 per SD increase in PRS; p < 0.0001). High polygenic risk (top 20% of PRS) conferred 1.9-fold odds of developing CAD (p < 0.0001). However, among primary prevention patients (n = 33,251), high polygenic risk did not correspond with increased recommendations for statin therapy per the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (46.2% for those with high PRS vs. 46.8% for all others, p = 0.54) or U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (43.7% vs. 43.7%, p = 0.99) or higher rates of statin prescriptions (25.0% vs. 23.8%, p = 0.04). An additional 4.1% of primary prevention patients may be recommended for statin therapy if high CAD PRS were considered a guideline-based risk-enhancing factor. CONCLUSIONS: Current paradigms for primary cardiovascular prevention incompletely capture a polygenic susceptibility to CAD. An opportunity may exist to improve CAD prevention efforts by integrating both genetic and clinical risk.

16.
Circulation ; 141(22): 1760-1763, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479201
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2254, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382064

RESUMO

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an important cause of heart failure and the leading indication for heart transplantation. Many rare genetic variants have been associated with DCM, but common variant studies of the disease have yielded few associated loci. As structural changes in the heart are a defining feature of DCM, we report a genome-wide association study of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived left ventricular measurements in 36,041 UK Biobank participants, with replication in 2184 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We identify 45 previously unreported loci associated with cardiac structure and function, many near well-established genes for Mendelian cardiomyopathies. A polygenic score of MRI-derived left ventricular end systolic volume strongly associates with incident DCM in the general population. Even among carriers of TTN truncating mutations, this polygenic score influences the size and function of the human heart. These results further implicate common genetic polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of DCM.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
18.
Nature ; 581(7809): 444-451, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461652

RESUMO

Structural variants (SVs) rearrange large segments of DNA1 and can have profound consequences in evolution and human disease2,3. As national biobanks, disease-association studies, and clinical genetic testing have grown increasingly reliant on genome sequencing, population references such as the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD)4 have become integral in the interpretation of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs)5. However, there are no reference maps of SVs from high-coverage genome sequencing comparable to those for SNVs. Here we present a reference of sequence-resolved SVs constructed from 14,891 genomes across diverse global populations (54% non-European) in gnomAD. We discovered a rich and complex landscape of 433,371 SVs, from which we estimate that SVs are responsible for 25-29% of all rare protein-truncating events per genome. We found strong correlations between natural selection against damaging SNVs and rare SVs that disrupt or duplicate protein-coding sequence, which suggests that genes that are highly intolerant to loss-of-function are also sensitive to increased dosage6. We also uncovered modest selection against noncoding SVs in cis-regulatory elements, although selection against protein-truncating SVs was stronger than all noncoding effects. Finally, we identified very large (over one megabase), rare SVs in 3.9% of samples, and estimate that 0.13% of individuals may carry an SV that meets the existing criteria for clinically important incidental findings7. This SV resource is freely distributed via the gnomAD browser8 and will have broad utility in population genetics, disease-association studies, and diagnostic screening.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Médica/normas , Genética Populacional/normas , Genoma Humano/genética , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Padrões de Referência , Seleção Genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e203959, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347951

RESUMO

Importance: Pathogenic DNA variants associated with familial hypercholesterolemia, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, and Lynch syndrome are widely recognized as clinically important and actionable when identified, leading some clinicians to recommend population-wide genomic screening. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and clinical importance of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants associated with each of 3 genomic conditions (familial hypercholesterolemia, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, and Lynch syndrome) within the context of contemporary clinical care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used gene-sequencing data from 49 738 participants in the UK Biobank who were recruited from 22 sites across the UK between March 21, 2006, and October 1, 2010. Inpatient hospital data date back to 1977; cancer registry data, to 1957; and death registry data, to 2006. Statistical analysis was performed from July 22, 2019, to November 15, 2019. Exposures: Pathogenic or likely pathogenic DNA variants classified by a clinical laboratory geneticist. Main Outcomes and Measures: Composite end point specific to each genomic condition based on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events for familial hypercholesterolemia, breast or ovarian cancer for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, and colorectal or uterine cancer for Lynch syndrome. Results: Among 49 738 participants (mean [SD] age, 57 [8] years; 27 144 female [55%]), 441 (0.9%) harbored a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant associated with any of 3 genomic conditions, including 131 (0.3%) for familial hypercholesterolemia, 235 (0.5%) for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, and 76 (0.2%) for Lynch syndrome. Presence of these variants was associated with increased risk of disease: for familial hypercholesterolemia, 28 of 131 carriers (21.4%) vs 4663 of 49 607 noncarriers (9.4%) developed atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, 32 of 116 female carriers (27.6%) vs 2080 of 27 028 female noncarriers (7.7%) developed associated cancers; and for Lynch syndrome, 17 of 76 carriers (22.4%) vs 929 of 49 662 noncarriers (1.9%) developed colorectal or uterine cancer. The predicted probability of disease at age 75 years despite contemporary clinical care was 45.3% for carriers of familial hypercholesterolemia, 41.1% for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, and 38.3% for Lynch syndrome. Across the 3 conditions, 39.7% (175 of 441) of the carriers reported a family history of disease vs 23.2% (34 517 of 148 772) of noncarriers. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that approximately 1% of the middle-aged adult population in the UK Biobank harbored a pathogenic variant associated with any of 3 genomic conditions. These variants were associated with an increased risk of disease despite contemporary clinical care and were not reliably detected by family history.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
PLoS Genet ; 16(4): e1008629, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282858

RESUMO

Analyzing 12,361 all-cause cirrhosis cases and 790,095 controls from eight cohorts, we identify a common missense variant in the Mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component 1 gene (MARC1 p.A165T) that associates with protection from all-cause cirrhosis (OR 0.91, p = 2.3*10-11). This same variant also associates with lower levels of hepatic fat on computed tomographic imaging and lower odds of physician-diagnosed fatty liver as well as lower blood levels of alanine transaminase (-0.025 SD, 3.7*10-43), alkaline phosphatase (-0.025 SD, 1.2*10-37), total cholesterol (-0.030 SD, p = 1.9*10-36) and LDL cholesterol (-0.027 SD, p = 5.1*10-30) levels. We identified a series of additional MARC1 alleles (low-frequency missense p.M187K and rare protein-truncating p.R200Ter) that also associated with lower cholesterol levels, liver enzyme levels and reduced risk of cirrhosis (0 cirrhosis cases for 238 R200Ter carriers versus 17,046 cases of cirrhosis among 759,027 non-carriers, p = 0.04) suggesting that deficiency of the MARC1 enzyme may lower blood cholesterol levels and protect against cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Alelos , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/enzimologia , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/enzimologia , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/sangue , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/enzimologia , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/genética , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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