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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 241, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420319

RESUMO

Glacier retreat is a major long-standing global issue; however, the ecological impacts of such retreats on marine organisms remain unanswered. Here, we examined changes to the polar benthic community structure of "diatoms" under current global warming in a recently retreated glacial area of Marian Cove, Antarctica. The environments and spatiotemporal assemblages of benthic diatoms surveyed in 2018-2019 significantly varied between the intertidal (tidal height of 2.5 m) and subtidal zone (10 and 30 m). A distinct floral distribution along the cove (~ 4.5 km) was characterized by the adaptive strategy of species present, with chain-forming species predominating near the glacier. The predominant chain-forming diatoms, such as Fragilaria striatula and Paralia sp., are widely distributed in the innermost cove over years, indicating sensitive responses of benthic species to the fast-evolving polar environment. The site-specific and substrate-dependent distributions of certain indicator species (e.g., F. striatula, Navicula glaciei, Cocconeis cf. pinnata) generally reflected such shifts in the benthic community. Our review revealed that the inner glacier region reflected trophic association, featured with higher diversity, abundance, and biomass of benthic diatoms and macrofauna. Overall, the polar benthic community shift observed along the cove generally represented changing environmental conditions, (in)directly linked to ice-melting due to the recent glacier retreat.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; : 144068, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288261

RESUMO

A tidal saltmarsh supporting marine ecosystem services becomes more recognized, but an understanding of its trophic dynamics is far limited. We investigated the benthic food-web dynamics in Ganghwa tidal flat, a representative tidal saltmarsh of South Korea. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratio values were analyzed for the sixteen species of macrobenthos and their potential food sources such as microphytobenthos (MPB) and various organic matters. A year-round survey was conducted in the three sites at Ganghwa showing the different types of sediment bottom (sandy mud or mud) and/or vegetation (Phragmites or Suaeda). In general, the isotopic signature fairly well demonstrated that trophic structure is primarily influenced by sediment mud content and/or dominated vegetation. Among the four feeding types of consumers (filter feeder; deposit feeder; omnivore; carnivore), the deposit feeders such as mollusk, arthropod, and annelid showed increased dietary dependency on MPB at bare sites. Whilst they actively utilized 13C-depleted organic matters at vegetated sites. Meantime, significantly enriched stable nitrogen isotopic ratio of macrobenthos was evidenced in fall, which reflected the seasonal variation of food sources and physiological processes in survival strategy. Overall, the stable isotopic approach was useful to address the key factors (in)directly influencing the benthic food web structure and its functioning in a typical tidal saltmarsh of the Yellow Sea.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143297, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190881

RESUMO

Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are recognized as emerging contaminants that have captured worldwide attention. They are primarily transported in environments and spread around the globe due to their persistent and bioaccumulative characteristics. In this study, 15 PFASs were detected in major rivers of the rapidly developing coastal areas of China and South Korea. The concentrations and compositions of these PFASs varied greatly between different regions along the coastline. The total concentrations ranged from 14.9 to 16,500 ng L-1, and the mean concentrations of Σ15PFASs in Liaodong Bay, Bohai Bay, Laizhou Bay, and the west coast of South Korea were 124 ng L-1, 81.4 ng L-1, 1550 ng L-1, and 36.2 ng L-1, respectively. In Laizhou Bay, the relatively high perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was due to the high usage and manufacturing of PFOA-containing products and contributed 59% of the total compounds. In Liaodong Bay and Bohai Bay, PFBA and PFOA were the most abundant compounds, accounting for >55% of the total compounds. Along the west coast of South Korea, PFBA and PFPeA were the most prevalent compounds, contributing 28% and 24% of the total compounds, respectively. The data collected in the last decade were analyzed to investigate the temporal trends of selected PFASs. The total concentration of Σ10 PFASs decreased in both China and South Korea, while the proportion of short-chain PFASs increased. The proportion of C4-C7 PFCAs in South Korea rapidly increased from 46% to 79% but decreased from 49% to 43% in China. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model successfully addressed the site-specific source apportionment, which showed that 53% of the PFASs in Laizhou Bay were due to fluorine manufacturing. The results of this study provide novel insights into elucidating the spatiotemporal distribution and complicated sources of PFASs over a large area and provide a clear message for all stakeholders, water and coastal managers, and scientists.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; : 142972, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138989

RESUMO

Mangrove forests cover only 0.1% of the world's continental area; however, these are a substantial carbon sink owing to the high primary production and low rate of decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). The extremely low decomposition rate of SOM in mangrove forests is believed to be caused by low oxygen and nutrient availability as well as recalcitrant biomass from mangrove. However, only a few studies have addressed the microbial mechanism that plays a key role in the decomposition of SOM. In this study, the decomposition of SOM were determined by conducting a field survey and an lab incubation experiment using soil samples from mangrove forests in three regions; Okinawa, Shenzhen, and Hong Kong. In particular, we examined the occurrence of the enzymic latch mechanism, which involves phenolic inhibition of enzymic decomposition, in mangrove forest soils that highlights the importance of phenol oxidase as a key controlling factor. The results clearly showed that enzymic latch involved in the accumulation of SOM in the mangroves of Shenzhen and Hong Kong, whereas the accumulation of SOM in Okinawa was controlled by other mechanisms, such as the iron gate mechanism, which involves stabilization of soil carbon in iron-SOM complexes. The characteristics of mangrove forests, such as iron concentration, were shown as substantial determination factors in the dynamics of SOM. We concluded that the decomposition of SOM were strongly affected by the characteristics of mangrove forests, and the occurrence of enzymic latch in mangrove forests has a potential application in geoengineering technology to enhance the carbon sequestration capacity of mangrove forests.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; : 142938, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138998

RESUMO

We investigated the sedimentary pollution by persistent toxic substances (PTSs) and their potential impacts on the macrobenthic faunal community in the Geum River Estuary, South Korea. Sediment and benthic macrofauna samples were collected from eight sites every two months during the period of February to December in 2015. Target PTSs encompassed metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn), one metalloid (As), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and alkylphenols (APs). The significant difference to the environment of the inner and outer parts of the estuary (p < 0.05) was found with relatively high concentrations of PTSs in sediment from the inner estuary. The concentrations of Cu and Zn exceeded the sediment quality guidelines of Korea representing a potential risk to aquatic organisms. The primary source of PAHs was by-products of diesel and gasoline combustion (37%), followed by a coke oven (32%) and oil-burning (31%). The macrofaunal community was spatially distinguished between the inner and outer parts of the estuary (p < 0.05), regardless of the season. In the inner part of the estuary, the density of the macrofaunal community was high, due to the increased opportunistic species and/or some indicator species (organic polluted or enrichment), implying that the given environment was disturbed. Among the environmental parameters analyzed by the distance-based linear model (DistLM), salinity, chlorophyll-a, and nutrient concentrations were found to be key factors controlling the changes in macrofaunal community structure. Such changes in the closed estuary system would indicate that each taxonomic group had to adjust to lower salinities and alternative food sources. Overall, the distribution of PTSs and macrozoobenthic communities in the Geum River Estuary collectively reflected the environmental gradients caused by surrounding activities in the inner part of the estuary together with direct effects by the irregular inflow of freshwater.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079031

RESUMO

A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, cream-coloured, marine bacterium, with rod-shaped cells, designated strain YJ-S3-2T, was isolated from salt flat sediment of Yongyu-do, Republic of Korea. YJ-S3-2T grew at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0), 4-45 °C (optimum 30 °C) and with 1-18 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 6 %). The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that YJ-S3-2T was closely related to Marinobacter segnicrescens SS011B1-4T (97.0 %) followed by, 'Marinobacter nanhaiticus' D15-8W (96.7 %), Marinobacter bryozoorum 50-11T (96.7 %), Marinobacter koreensis DSMZ 179240T T (96.5 %) and Marinobacter bohaiensis T17T (96.5 %). The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and the genome to genome distance calculator (GGDC) estimate values between YJ-S3-2T and related type strains were 73.7-79.8 and 19.9-22.5 %, and also 73.5 and 20.7 % with Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. YJ-S3-2T was characterized as having Q-9 as the predominant respiratory quinone and the principal fatty acids (>10 %) were C16 : 0 (22.3 %), summed feature 9 (C17 : 1iso ω9c/C16 : 0 10-methyl, 13.8 %) and 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c, 11.9 %). The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified phospholipids. The DNA G+C content of YJ-S3-2T is 60.9 mol%. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic evidence presented in this study, YJ-S3-2T should be classified as representing a novel species within the genus Marinobacter, for which name Marinobacter halodurans sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain YJ-S3-2T (=KACC 19883T=KCTC 62937T=JCM 33109T).

8.
Sci Total Environ ; : 142726, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082038

RESUMO

Intertidal flats, as transition zones where terrestrial and marine ecosystems meet, provide unique environments and play an important role in marine ecosystems. In particular, the environmental characteristics of tidal marshes show are different than those of bare flats, especially in the rhizosphere. However, unlike the rhizosphere in terrestrial ecosystems, the rhizosphere of plants in tidal marsh areas and the associated microbial community have been the focus of very little research. Thus, this study investigated the diversity and variation in bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of a Phragmites australis and Suaeda japonica and along the sediment depths. High-throughput sequencing was performed by amplifying the 16S rRNA gene of environmental DNA extracted from sediment cores, and indicator species were identified with respect to the vegetation type and sediment depth. The most abundant phylum was Proteobacteria, followed by Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, and Firmicutes. In general, the results indicated that not only vegetation type and sediment depth themselves but also their interaction resulted in significant differences among the bacterial communities. The envfit results revealed that the environmental variables of sediment, such as mud content, organic matter, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen, had significant effects on the bacterial community structure. The indicator species varied depending on the vegetation type and sediment depth, showing significant correlations with certain selected environmental variables, but were fundamentally related to the rhizosphere. Overall, this study revealed the key factors that determine the bacterial community structure in tidal marshes and the indicator species according to vegetation type in the little studied rhizosphere of the intertidal ecosystem.

9.
J Hazard Mater ; : 124230, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092888

RESUMO

Potential toxicants in sediments collected from an industrialized bay of Korea were identified by use of effect-directed analysis (EDA). Three marine microalgal bioassays (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Isochrysis galbana, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) with diverse endpoints were employed. Initial screening of raw organic extracts of sediments indicated large variations among locations and species in a traditional endpoint "inhibition of growth". After fractionation, inhibition of growths increased significantly, particularly in some fractions containing aromatics with log KOW 5-6 (F2.6). While viabilities of cells were adversely affected in more fractions, including F2.6-F2.7 (log KOW 5-7) and F3.5-F3.6 (log KOW 4-6). Among the several endpoints of viability, esterase activity seemed to be more sensitive, followed by integrity of cell membranes, chlorophyll a, cell size, and intracellular complexity. Instrumental analyses indicated that toxicities to microalgae observed in F2.7 could not be fully explained by target PAHs. Full-scan screening analysis using GC-QTOFMS identified 58 compounds in F2.7 with matching scores ≥90%. Based on toxic potencies for these compounds predicted by ECOSAR, several causative agents, including 1-phenylpyrene, dibenz[a,c]anthracene, and picene were suggested. Overall, viability of microalgae provided sensitive and high-resolution toxicity screening of samples into integrative assessment of sediment.

10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111592, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927183

RESUMO

The environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding was applied to assess benthic ecological health in the west coast of South Korea by investigating a long-term microbial community change (2015-17). The ecological interaction among microorganisms, from phylum to family level, and their associations to environmental variables across the five regions were highlighted. As part of the study, the available chemistry and toxicological data in the regions during the monitoring periods were incorporated into an integrated sediment triad assessment. The bacterial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria (34.2%), Bacteroidetes (13.8%), and Firmicutes (10.8%). Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated consistently across regions and years, while Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria significantly varied by region and years (p < 0.05). The abundance of this phylum declined over time with the increasing abundance of Cyanobacteria, indicating their independent interactions to certain environmental changes. Planctomycetes and Gemmatimonadetes linked to some contaminants (ΣPAHs and Cu), implying indicator taxa. Overall, eDNA-based microbial community analysis combined with exposures of contaminants and responses of microorganisms is a promising strategy for the assessment of benthic ecological health in contaminated sediments from coastal waters.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Proteobactérias , República da Coreia
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111560, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841802

RESUMO

Contamination status of traditional and emerging persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in sediments and their major sources were investigated in Ulsan Bay, Korea. A total of 47 PTSs, including 15 traditional PAHs, ten styrene oligomers (SOs), six alkylphenols (APs), and 16 emerging PAHs (E-PAHs) were analyzed. Concentrations of traditional PAHs, SOs, and APs ranged from 35 to 1300 ng g-1 dry weight (dw), 30 to 3800 ng g-1 dw, and 30 to 430 ng g-1 dw, respectively. For the last 20 years, PTSs contamination in the bay area has been improved. However, 12 E-PAHs were widely detected in sediments, with a maximum of 240 ng g-1 dw (for benzo[e]pyrene) at the creek site. These E-PAHs seemed to originate from surrounding activities, such as biomass combustion, mobile sources, and diesel combustion. Due to environmental concerns for E-PAHs, further research on the potential toxicity, distribution, and behavior of these compounds should be implemented.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , República da Coreia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13821, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796895

RESUMO

Understanding what and how physico-chemical factors of a ligand configure conditions for ligand-receptor binding is a key to accurate assessment of toxic potencies of environmental pollutants. We investigated influences of the dipole-driven orientation and resulting directional configuration of ligands on receptor binding activities. Using physico-chemical properties calculated by ab initio density functional theory, directional reactivity factors (DRF) were devised as main indicators of toxic potencies, linking molecular ligand-receptor binding to in vitro responses. The directional reactive model was applied to predict variation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated toxic potencies among homologues of chrysene with structural modifications such as the numbers of constituent benzene rings, methylation and hydroxylation. Results of predictive models were consistent with empirical potencies determined by use of the H4IIE-luc transactivation bioassay. The experiment-free approach based on first principles provides an analytical framework for estimating molecular bioactivity in silico and complements conventional empirical approaches to studying molecular initiating events in adverse outcome pathways.

13.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(8): 4555-4561, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721276

RESUMO

A yellowish-brown-coloured bacterium, designated strain JGD-17T, was isolated from a tidal flat of Janggu-do, Garorim bay, Taean-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated and long-rod-shaped. Growth was observed at 20-45 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 6.0-10.0 (9.0) and with 1-5 % (w/v) NaCl (1-3 %). Results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain JGD-17T was closely related to Muricauda nanhaiensis SM1704T (96.1 %), Muricauda olearia CL-SS4T (95.0 %), Muricauda beolgyonensis BB-My12T (94.9 %), Muricauda marina H19-56T (94.7 %) and Muricauda indica 3PC125-7T (94.5 %). The ranges of values for the average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization analyses with related strains were 71.3-74.1 % and 16.9-18.2 %. The genomic DNA G+C content was 41.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbour-joining method showed that strain JGD-17T formed a clade with Muricauda nanhaiensis SM1704T, Muricauda lutaonensis CC-HSB-11T, Muricauda lutea CSW06T and Muricauda pacifica SM027T. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (26.9 %), iso-C15 : 1 G (19.5 %) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (12.7 %). The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminolipid, an unidentified phospholipid and two unidentified lipids. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain JGD-17T represents a novel species within the genus Muricauda, for which the name Muricauda ochracea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JGD-17T (=KCTC 72732T=KACC 21486T=JCM 33817T).


Assuntos
Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 156: 111226, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510372

RESUMO

Dokdo's high marine biodiversity has received worldwide attention recently. A total of 578 macrozoobenthos are recorded since the 1960s, but ecology of Dokdo's fauna is unknown. We monitored Dokdo's subtidal macrozoobenthos for 5 years in 2013-17, in the present study. Five stations representing three subtidal habitats were monitored; 1) oceanic plateau, 2) coastal terrace, and 3) island wharf. In total, 13,664 individuals belonging to 141 taxa were recorded during the survey. The number of species and density varied greatly among stations without distinct year-round variation. Faunal compositions significantly differed in time and space, reflecting varied faunal adaptations in a harsh environment. Whilst, temporal stability in faunal assemblages was evidenced for some dominant or cosmopolitan taxa. High spatial heterogeneity reflects site-specific oceanographic conditions. Meantime, sea-surface temperature and wave action were associated with year-round faunal compositions. Overall, the Dokdo's macrozoobenthos significantly contribute to marine biodiversity of the East Sea.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Ilhas , Oceanos e Mares , República da Coreia
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 154: 111046, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319891

RESUMO

The regulating services by natural tidal flats to purify organic pollutants are increasingly recognized, but a quantitative assessment is very limited. We developed a mesocosm system to determine removal efficiency of organic matters and nutrients by simulating a natural tidal condition. The tidal flat sediments significantly removed waterborne organic pollutants to background levels in ~2 and 6-7 days for COD and TP, respectively. This rapid removal of organic matters by natural sediments could be attributed to the microbe community degrading the corresponding pollutants. Temporal trend and degree of removal rates for COD and TP were similar between the bare tidal flat and the salt marsh. Meantime, the salt marsh environment removed waterborne DIP much quickly and also efficiently, implying a high affinity of halophytes on dissolved organic matters. Of note, sedimentary organic sink prevailed in defaunated condition under the smaller bioturbation effect. A mini-review on the purification capacity of natural and/or constructed coastal wetlands generally supported a high efficiency of vegetation to remove various sources of organic matters.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Nutrientes , Áreas Alagadas
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 154: 111113, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319928

RESUMO

The potential ecological impacts of elevated suspended sediments (SS) in coastal areas due to human activities remain unclear. In particular, physiological response of benthic fish to SS exposure in polluted environment has not been documented. We determined sub-lethal toxicity of polluted and non-polluted SS to olive flounder. Test organism was exposed to varying concentrations of SS (0-4000 mg L-1) and real-time oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was measured for 12 h. The early-juvenile was sensitive to SS, particularly at >500 mg L-1, but late-juvenile was tolerant up to 4000 mg SS L-1. Metal polluted SS (HQmetal > 1) increased OCR in general, particularly at >1000 SS mg L-1. Combined effect of copper and SS exposure on fish was either synergistic or antagonistic. Overall, potential adverse effect of polluted SS on fish greatly varied at different life stage and/or by metal pollution gradients.


Assuntos
Linguado , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adolescente , Animais , Peixes , Humanos , Metais , Consumo de Oxigênio
17.
Environ Int ; 139: 105743, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334124

RESUMO

The resuspension dynamics of microphytobenthos (MPB) and sediment fluxes were investigated in a disturbed coastal environment by employing an in situ mooring system. We aimed to identify the interrelationship between microalgal biomass and sediment particles in aspect of their (de)coupling mechanism in a tidal channel system. In specific, the Chl-a (as a proxy of MPB biomass) and the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were simultaneously measured under natural tidal conditions at different time scales, encompassing daily to fortnightly variations. Looking for the sediment dynamics, the SSC showed a strong positive correlation (p < 0.001) with the Reynolds stress; however, this relationship was not observed for benthic Chl-a. This could be due to more dynamic characteristics of the smaller biological cells, i.e., the decoupled benthic Chl-a from the sediment particles might randomly distribute in the turbid water column above the tidal channel. Notably, the iteration between MPB coupling (prevailing in spring) and segregation (prevailing in neap) with the sediment particles across the flood and ebb tidal cycles was evident during the study period. Meantime, the onshore flux of suspended sediment was almost balanced by its offshore flux, but that of Chl-a appeared to be unbalanced due to an excessive onshore transport. Altogether, the study area seems to experience a time lag in resuspension between MPB and sediment, followed by biological trapping in the tidal channel system, which would support a productive shallow water environment. The present study is the first to address the tidal resuspension of benthic microalgae in relation to sediment dynamics in a disturbed coastal environment of the Yellow Sea.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Microalgas , Biomassa , Sedimentos Geológicos , Estações do Ano
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(7): 4443-4454, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167753

RESUMO

An enhanced, multiple lines of evidence approach was applied to assess potential toxicological effects associated with polluted sediments. Two in vitro bioassays (H4IIE-luc and Vibrio fischeri) and three in vivo bioassays (microalgae: Isochrysis galbana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum; zebrafish embryo: Danio rerio) were applied. To identify causative chemicals in samples, targeted analyses (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), styrene oligomers (SOs), and alkylphenols) and nontargeted full-scan screening analyses (FSA; GC- and LC-QTOFMS) were performed. First, great AhR-mediated potencies were observed in midpolar and polar fractions of sediment extracts, but known and previously characterized AhR agonists, including PAHs and SOs could not fully explain the total potencies of samples. Enoxolone was identified as a novel AhR agonist in a highly potent sediment fraction by use of FSA. Enoxolone has a relative potency of 0.13 compared to benzo[a]pyrene (1.0) in the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Nonylphenols associated with membrane damage that influenced the viability of the microalgae were also observed. Finally, inhibitions of bioluminescence of V. fischeri and lethality of D. rerio embryos were strongly related to nonpolar compounds. Overall, the present work addressed assay- and end point-specific variations and sensitivities for potential toxicities of mixture samples, warranting a significant utility of the "multiple lines of evidence" approach in ecological risk assessment.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Baías , Bioensaio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico
19.
Environ Int ; 137: 105517, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018133

RESUMO

The Yellow and Bohai seas comprise one of the most rapidly developing regions in the world, but efforts to assess coastal pollution by persistent toxic substances (PTSs) on wide spatial scale are lacking. The present study aimed to (1) measure the concentrations of PTSs, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols (APs), and styrene oligomers (SOs) via large-scale sediment monitoring (total of 125 locations), (2) assess potential ecological risk of PTSs in sediments to coastal ecosystems, (3) estimate various sources and fresh inputs of PTSs, (4) determine distribution patterns of PTSs by human activities and land-use type, and (5) address decadal (2008-2018) changes in distributions of PTSs. The high concentrations of PAHs [> 7000 ng g-1 dry weight (dw)] in sediments were detected in Nantong in the Yellow Sea of China (YSC) and Huludao and Qinhuangdao in the Bohai Sea (BS), whereas lesser concentrations (< 200 ng g-1 dw) were detected in the Yellow Sea of Korea (YSK). We found relatively high concentrations of sedimentary APs and SOs in Nantong, Huludao, and Qinhuangdao from the YSC and BS regions, but corresponding concentrations were generally below < 100 ng g-1 dw in other locations. Concentrations of PAHs at 38 locations (30% of YSC and BS) posed a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems, whereas relatively low risk concentrations occurred in all locations of YSK. The main source of PAHs (concentrated in YSC and BS) were by-products of diesel and gasoline combustion (42% of total concentration), whereas biomass combustion (24%) dominated in YSK. Fresh inputs of PTSs indicated that the generation and use of PTSs continue across all regions and locations. Among PTSs, concentrations of PAHs were significantly associated with location (p < 0.05) relative to land-use within a given region, whereas concentrations of APs and SOs showed no significant relationships (p > 0.05) among or within regions. Over time, concentrations of PAHs have generally declined, but sediment contamination has increased at some locations in China, with sources shifting from a mixture of PAHs types to those linked to diesel and gasoline combustion. Additional studies are needed on the fate and potential ecological risk posed by certain PTSs in hotspots. This is one of the first efforts providing backgrounds on PTS pollution in the large marine ecosystem of the Yellow and Bohai seas.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Oceanos e Mares , República da Coreia
20.
Environ Int ; 137: 105519, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014790

RESUMO

Soils in coastal areas of the land-sea interface are vulnerable to heavy metal (HM) accumulation and subsequently to human health risk. However, few studies have investigated the HM pollution and risk in soils along the coastal areas of the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem (YSLME), in an international perspective. This study is the first comprehensive work in the YSLME encompassing 122 coastal locations along the Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea of China (YSC), and Yellow Sea of South Korea (YSK). Soil HM pollution showed great spatial variations cross the regions and countries. Accumulations of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the YSK were significantly higher than those in the BS and YSC (p < 0.05). Whilst the elevated Cd, Hg, and Ni in soils were found in the BS and YSC compared to those in the YSK (p < 0.05). Meantime, the assessment of ecological risk posed by HMs indicated higher potential risk in the BS than other coastal areas. In specific, Cd and Hg posed a higher risk in the BS and YSC, while As showed relatively high risk in the YSK, indicating site-dependent accumulation of HMs in soils. Soil pH and organic matter were found to be important factors affecting the HM accumulation in the study areas. Industrial activities are the major driving factors influencing spatial distributions of HMs, and such activities exhibited different degrees of influence across the sampling sites. Altogether, the results of present study first identified the bilateral characteristics of soil HM pollution along the entire coasts of the YSLME in a comprehensive manner in several aspects: (1) sources, (2) hot spots, (3) priority chemicals of concern, and (4) site-specific potential risk of the soil HMs. Overall, this study provides references and backgrounds for future environmental management strategies and aids in developing a bilateral government policy towards coastal pollution management of HMs from an international scale and perspective.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Oceanos e Mares , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
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