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1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35841128

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is a common and morbid condition impacting multiple health domains. We previously reported the development of the PROMIS®-Plus-HF (PROMIS+HF) profile measure, including universal and HF-specific items. To facilitate use, we developed shorter, PROMIS+HF profiles intended for research and clinical use. METHODS AND RESULTS: Candidate items were selected based on psychometric properties and symptom range coverage. HF clinicians (n = 43) rated item importance and clinical actionability. Based on these results, we developed the PROMIS+HF-27 and PROMIS+HF-10 profiles with summary scores (0-100) for overall, physical, mental, and social health. In a cross-sectional sample (n = 600), we measured internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha and Spearman-Brown), test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient; n = 100), known-groups validity via New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, and convergent validity with Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) scores. In a longitudinal sample (n = 75), we evaluated responsiveness of baseline/follow-up scores by calculating mean differences and Cohen's d and comparing with paired t-tests. Internal consistency was good to excellent (α 0.82-0.94) for all PROMIS+HF-27 scores and acceptable to good (α/Spearman-Brown 0.60-0.85) for PROMIS+HF-10 scores. Test-retest intraclass coefficients were acceptable to excellent (0.75-0.97). Both profiles demonstrated known-groups validity for the overall and physical health summary scores based on NYHA class, and convergent validity for nearly all scores compared with KCCQ scores. In the longitudinal sample, we demonstrated responsiveness for PROMIS+HF-27 and PROMIS+HF-10 overall and physical summary scores. For the PROMIS+HF overall summary scores, a group-based increase of 7.6-8.3 points represented a small to medium change (Cohen's d = 0.40-0.42). For the PROMIS+HF physical summary scores, a group-based increase of 5.0-5.9 points represented a small to medium change (Cohen's d = 0.29-0.35). CONCLUSIONS: The PROMIS+HF-27 and PROMIS+HF-10 profiles demonstrated good psychometric characteristics with evidence of responsiveness for overall and physical health. These new measures can facilitate patient-centred research and clinical care, such as improving care quality through symptom monitoring, facilitating shared decision-making, evaluating quality of care, assessing new interventions, and monitoring during the initiation and titration of guideline-directed medical therapy.

2.
Curr Diab Rep ; 22(8): 393-403, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35864324

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes is an ongoing public health issue in the USA, and, despite progress, recent reports suggest acute and chronic diabetes complications are increasing. RECENT FINDINGS: The Natural Experiments for Translation in Diabetes 3.0 (NEXT-D3) Network is a 5-year research collaboration involving six academic centers (Harvard University, Northwestern University, Oregon Health & Science University, Tulane University, University of California Los Angeles, and University of California San Francisco) and two funding agencies (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health) to address the gaps leading to persisting diabetes burdens. The network builds on previously funded networks, expanding to include type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention and an emphasis on health equity. NEXT-D3 researchers use rigorous natural experiment study designs to evaluate impacts of naturally occurring programs and policies, with a focus on diabetes-related outcomes. NEXT-D3 projects address whether and to what extent federal or state legislative policies and health plan innovations affect T2D risk and diabetes treatment and outcomes in the USA; real-world effects of increased access to health insurance under the Affordable Care Act; and the effectiveness of interventions that reduce barriers to medication access (e.g., decreased or eliminated cost sharing for cardiometabolic medications and new medications such as SGLT-2 inhibitors for Medicaid patients). Overarching goals include (1) expanding generalizable knowledge about policies and programs to manage or prevent T2D and educate decision-makers and organizations and (2) generating evidence to guide the development of health equity goals to reduce disparities in T2D-related risk factors, treatment, and complications.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 9(2): e32174, 2022 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The past decade has seen increasing opportunities and efforts to integrate quality improvement into health care. Practice facilitation is a proven strategy to support redesign and improvement in primary care practices that focuses on building organizational capacity for continuous improvement. Practice leadership, staff, and practice facilitators all play important roles in supporting quality improvement in primary care. However, little is known about their perspectives on the context, enablers, barriers, and strategies that impact quality improvement initiatives. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a framework to enable assessment of contextual factors, challenges, and strategies that impact practice facilitation, clinical measure performance, and the implementation of quality improvement interventions. We also illustrated the application of the framework using a real-world case study. METHODS: We developed the TITO (task, individual, technology, and organization) framework by conducting participatory stakeholder workshops and incorporating their perspectives to identify enablers and barriers to quality improvement and practice facilitation. We conducted a case study using a mixed methods approach to demonstrate the use of the framework and describe practice facilitation and factors that impact quality improvement in a primary care practice that participated in the Healthy Hearts in the Heartland study. RESULTS: The proposed framework was used to organize and analyze different stakeholders' perspectives and key factors based on framework domains. The case study showed that practice leaders, staff, and practice facilitators all influenced the success of the quality improvement program. However, these participants faced different challenges and used different strategies. The framework showed that barriers stemmed from patients' social determinants of health, a lack of staff and time, and unsystematic facilitation resources, while enablers included practice culture, staff buy-in, implementation of effective practice facilitation strategies, practice capacity for change, and shared complementary resources from similar, ongoing programs. CONCLUSIONS: Our framework provided a useful and generalizable structure to guide and support assessment of future practice facilitation projects, quality improvement initiatives, and health care intervention implementation studies. The practice leader, staff, and practice facilitator all saw value in the quality improvement program and practice facilitation. Practice facilitators are key liaisons to help the quality improvement program; they help all stakeholders work toward a shared target and leverage tailored strategies. Taking advantage of resources from competing, yet complementary, programs as additional support may accelerate the effective achievement of quality improvement goals. Practice facilitation-supported quality improvement programs may be opportunities to assist primary care practices in achieving improved quality of care through focused and targeted efforts. The case study demonstrated how our framework can support a better understanding of contextual factors for practice facilitation, which could enable well-prepared and more successful quality improvement programs for primary care practices. Combining implementation science and informatics thinking, our TITO framework may facilitate interdisciplinary research in both fields.

5.
Appl Clin Inform ; 13(2): 485-494, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic clinical quality measures (eCQMs) from electronic health records (EHRs) are a key component of quality improvement (QI) initiatives in small-to-medium size primary care practices, but using eCQMs for QI can be challenging. Organizational strategies are needed to effectively operationalize eCQMs for QI in these practice settings. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize strategies that seven regional cooperatives participating in the EvidenceNOW initiative developed to generate and report EHR-based eCQMs for QI in small-to-medium size practices. METHODS: A qualitative study comprised of 17 interviews with representatives from all seven EvidenceNOW cooperatives was conducted. Interviewees included administrators were with both strategic and cooperative-level operational responsibilities and external practice facilitators were with hands-on experience helping practices use EHRs and eCQMs. A subteam conducted 1-hour semistructured telephone interviews with administrators and practice facilitators, then analyzed interview transcripts using immersion crystallization. The analysis and a conceptual model were vetted and approved by the larger group of coauthors. RESULTS: Cooperative strategies consisted of efforts in four key domains. First, cooperative adaptation shaped overall strategies for calculating eCQMs whether using EHRs, a centralized source, or a "hybrid strategy" of the two. Second, the eCQM generation described how EHR data were extracted, validated, and reported for calculating eCQMs. Third, practice facilitation characterized how facilitators with backgrounds in health information technology (IT) delivered services and solutions for data capture and quality and practice support. Fourth, performance reporting strategies and tools informed QI efforts and how cooperatives could alter their approaches to eCQMs. CONCLUSION: Cooperatives ultimately generated and reported eCQMs using hybrid strategies because they determined neither EHRs alone nor centralized sources alone could operationalize eCQMs for QI. This required cooperatives to devise solutions and utilize resources that often are unavailable to typical small-to-medium-sized practices. The experiences from EvidenceNOW cooperatives provide insights into how organizations can plan for challenges and operationalize EHR-based eCQMs.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Eletrônica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade
6.
Health Serv Res ; 57 Suppl 1: 20-31, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383917

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) sponsored Disparities Elimination through Coordinated Interventions to Prevent and Control Heart and Lung Disease (DECIPHeR) Alliance to support late-stage implementation research aimed at reducing disparities in communities with high burdens of cardiovascular and/or pulmonary disease. STUDY SETTING: NHBLI funded seven DECIPHeR studies and a Coordinating Center. Projects target high-risk diverse populations including racial and ethnic minorities, urban, rural, and low-income communities, disadvantaged children, and persons with serious mental illness. Two projects address multiple cardiovascular risk factors, three focus on hypertension, one on tobacco use, and one on pediatric asthma. STUDY DESIGN: The initial phase supports planning activities for sustainable uptake of evidence-based interventions in targeted communities. The second phase tests late-stage evidence-based implementation strategies. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Not applicable. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We provide an overview of the DECIPHeR Alliance and individual study designs, populations, and settings, implementation strategies, interventions, and outcomes. We describe the Alliance's organizational structure, designed to promote cross-center partnership and collaboration. CONCLUSIONS: The DECIPHeR Alliance represents an ambitious national effort to develop sustainable implementation of interventions to achieve cardiovascular and pulmonary health equity.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Hipertensão , Pneumopatias , Criança , Humanos , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Pobreza , Grupos Raciais
7.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(8): 1845-1852, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small-sized primary care practices, defined as practices with fewer than 10 clinicians, delivered the majority of outpatient visits in the USA. Statin therapy in high-risk individuals reduces atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events, but prescribing patterns in small primary care practices are not well known. This study describes statin treatment patterns in small-sized primary care practices and examines patient- and practice-level factors associated with lack of statin treatment. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of statin-eligible patients from practices that participated in Healthy Hearts in the Heartland (H3), a quality improvement initiative aimed at improving cardiovascular care measures in small primary care practices. All statin-eligible adults who received care in one of 53 H3 practices from 2013 to 2016. Statin-eligible adults include those aged at least 21 with (1) clinical ASCVD, (2) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥ 190 mg/dL, or (3) diabetes aged 40-75 and with LDL-C 70-189 mg/dL. Eligible patients with no record of moderate- to high-intensity statin prescription are defined by ACC/AHA guidelines. RESULTS: Among the 13,330 statin-eligible adults, the mean age was 58 years and 52% were women. Overall, there was no record of moderate- to high-intensity statin prescription among 5,780 (43%) patients. Younger age, female sex, and lower LDL-C were independently associated with a lack of appropriate intensity statin therapy. Higher proportions of patients insured by Medicaid and having only family medicine trained physicians (versus having at least one internal medicine trained physician) at the practice were also associated with lower appropriate intensity statin use. Lack of appropriate intensity statin therapy was higher in independent practices than in Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) (50% vs. 40%, p value < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: There is an opportunity for improved ASCVD risk reduction in small primary care practices. Statin treatment patterns and factors influencing lack of treatment vary by practice setting, highlighting the importance of tailored approaches to each setting.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , LDL-Colesterol , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Stanf Soc Innov Rev ; 19(3): A27-A29, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744527

RESUMO

To reduce mortality for people experiencing cardiovascular health disparities, new innovations in health care must be implemented with strategic partnerships that involve trusted organizations and community members.

12.
AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc ; 2021: 200-209, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457134

RESUMO

We demonstrate that secure multi-party computation (MPC) using garbled circuits is viable technology for solving clinical use cases that require cross-institution data exchange and collaboration. We describe two MPC protocols, based on Yao's garbled circuits and tested using large and realistically synthesized datasets. Linking records using private set intersection (PSI), we compute two metrics often used in patient risk stratification: high utilizer identification (PSI-HU) and comorbidity index calculation (PSI-CI). Cuckoo hashing enables our protocols to achieve extremely fast run times, with answers to clinically meaningful questions produced in minutes instead of hours. Also, our protocols are provably secure against any computationally bounded adversary in a semi-honest setting, the de-facto mode for cross-institution data analytics. Finally, these protocols eliminate the need for an implicitly trusted third-party "honest broker" to mediate the information linkage and exchange.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Segurança Computacional , Humanos , Medição de Risco
13.
Hepatology ; 74(2): 926-936, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Estimates of racial disparity in cirrhosis have been limited by lack of large-scale, longitudinal data, which track patients from diagnosis to death and/or transplant. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We analyzed a large, metropolitan, population-based electronic health record data set from seven large health systems linked to the state death registry and the national transplant database. Multivariate competing risk analyses, adjusted for sex, age, insurance status, Elixhauser score, etiology of cirrhosis, HCC, portal hypertensive complication, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Sodium (MELD-Na), examined the relationship between race, transplant, and cause of death as defined by blinded death certificate review. During the study period, 11,277 patients met inclusion criteria, of whom 2,498 (22.2%) identified as Black. Compared to White patients, Black patients had similar age, sex, MELD-Na, and proportion of alcohol-associated liver disease, but higher comorbidity burden, lower rates of private insurance, and lower rates of portal hypertensive complications. Compared to White patients, Black patients had the highest rate all-cause mortality and non-liver-related death and were less likely to be listed or transplanted (P < 0.001 for all). In multivariate competing risk analysis, Black patients had a 26% increased hazard of liver-related death (subdistribution HR, 1.26; 95% CI, [1.15-1.38]; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Black patients with cirrhosis have discordant outcomes. Further research is needed to determine how to address these real disparities in the field of hepatology.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/patologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 917, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homelessness is associated with substantial morbidity. Data linkages between homeless and health systems are important to understand unique needs across homeless populations, identify homeless individuals not registered in homeless databases, quantify the impact of housing services on health-system use, and motivate health systems and payers to contribute to housing solutions. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey including six health systems and two Homeless Management Information Systems (HMIS) in Cook County, Illinois. We performed privacy-preserving record linkage to identify homelessness through HMIS or ICD-10 codes captured in electronic medical records. We measured the prevalence of health conditions and health-services use across the following typologies: housing-service utilizers stratified by service provided (stable, stable plus unstable, unstable) and non-utilizers (i.e., homelessness identified through diagnosis codes-without receipt of housing services). RESULTS: Among 11,447 homeless recipients of healthcare, nearly 1 in 5 were identified by ICD10 code alone without recorded homeless services (n = 2177; 19%). Almost half received homeless services that did not include stable housing (n = 5444; 48%), followed by stable housing (n = 3017; 26%), then receipt of both stable and unstable services (n = 809; 7%). Setting stable housing recipients as the referent group, we found a stepwise increase in behavioral-health conditions from stable housing to those known as homeless solely by health systems. Compared to those in stable housing, prevalence rate ratios (PRR) for those without homeless services were as follows: depression (PRR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.9 to 2.5), anxiety (PRR = 2.5; 95% CI 2.1 to 3.0), schizophrenia (PRR = 3.3; 95% CI 2.7 to 4.0), and alcohol-use disorder (PRR = 4.4; 95% CI 3.6 to 5.3). Homeless individuals who had not received housing services relied on emergency departments for healthcare-nearly 3 of 4 visited at least one and many (24%) visited multiple. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in behavioral-health conditions and health-system use across homeless typologies highlight the particularly high burden among homeless who are disconnected from homeless services. Fragmented and high use of emergency departments for care should motivate health systems and payers to promote housing solutions, especially those that incorporate substance use and mental health treatment.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Habitação , Humanos , Illinois , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação
16.
Lupus Sci Med ; 8(1)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to develop algorithms to identify lupus clinical classification criteria attributes using structured data found in the electronic health record (EHR) and determine whether they could be used to describe a cohort of people with lupus and discriminate them from a defined healthy control cohort. METHODS: We created gold standard lupus and healthy patient cohorts that were fully adjudicated for the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) and European League Against Rheumatism/ACR (EULAR/ACR) classification criteria and had matched EHR data. We implemented rule-based algorithms using structured data within the EHR system for each attribute of the three classification criteria. Individual criteria attribute and classification criteria algorithms as a whole were assessed over our combined cohorts and the overall performance of the algorithms was measured through sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Individual classification criteria attributes had a wide range of sensitivities, 7% (oral ulcers) to 97% (haematological disorders) and specificities, 56% (haematological disorders) to 98% (photosensitivity), but all could be identified in EHR data. In general, algorithms based on laboratory results performed better than those primarily based on diagnosis codes. All three classification criteria systems effectively distinguished members of our case and control cohorts, but the SLICC criteria-based algorithm had the highest overall performance (76% sensitivity, 99% specificity). CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to characterise disease manifestations in people with lupus using classification criteria-based algorithms that assess structured EHR data. These algorithms may reduce chart review burden and are a foundation for identifying subpopulations of patients with lupus based on disease presentation to support precision medicine applications.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Reumatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Reumáticas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos
17.
Implement Sci ; 16(1): 33, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Practice facilitation is a multicomponent implementation strategy used to improve the capacity for practices to address care quality and implementation gaps. We sought to assess whether practice facilitators use of coaching strategies aimed at improving self-sufficiency were associated with improved implementation of quality improvement (QI) interventions in the Healthy Hearts in the Heartland Study. METHODS: We mapped 27 practice facilitation activities to a framework that classifies practice facilitation strategies by the degree to which the practice develops its own process expertise (Doing Tasks, Project Management, Consulting, Teaching, and Coaching) and then used regression tree analysis to group practices by facilitation strategies experienced. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess whether practice groups identified by regression tree analysis were associated with successful implementation of QI interventions and practice and study context variables. RESULTS: There was no association between number of strategies performed by practice facilitators and number of QI interventions implemented. Regression tree analysis identified 4 distinct practice groups based on the number of Project Management and Coaching strategies performed. The median number of interventions increased across the groups. Practices receiving > 4 project management and > 6 coaching activities implemented a median of 17 of 35 interventions. Groups did not differ significantly by practice size, association with a healthcare network, or practice type. Statistically significant differences in practice location, number and duration of facilitator visits, and early study termination emerged among the groups, compared to the overall practice population. CONCLUSIONS: Practices that engage in more coaching-based strategies with practice facilitators are more likely to implement more QI interventions, and practice receptivity to these strategies was not dependent on basic practice demographics.


Assuntos
Tutoria , Melhoria de Qualidade , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
18.
Inform Health Soc Care ; 46(2): 205-217, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632053

RESUMO

Examining the feasibility of developing an index measure for the social determinants of health using public data is needed. We examined these characteristics at the ZIP code in California and New York using public data extracted from the US Census, American Community Survey, the USDA Food Research Access Atlas, and the Dartmouth Atlas. We conducted a retrospective study from 2000 to 2017. The main outcome was a novel index measure representing six domains (economic stability, neighborhood and physical environment, education, community and social context, food access, and health care) and encompassing 13 items. The index measure at the ZIP code was created using principal component analysis, normalized to "0" worse and "1" better in California (ZIP codes n = 1,447 to 1,515) and New York (ZIP codes n = 1,211 to 1,298). We assessed the reliability and conducted a nonparametric comparison to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation County Health Rankings, Area Deprivation Index, Social Deprivation Index, and GINI Index. These measures shared similarities and differences with the novel measure. Mapping of this novel measure showed regional variation. As a result, developing a universal social determinants of health measure is feasible and more research is needed to link it to health outcomes.


Assuntos
Características de Residência , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
19.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(1): 32-39, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no commonly accepted comprehensive framework for describing the practical specifics of external support for practice change. Our goal was to develop such a taxonomy that could be used by both external groups or researchers and health care leaders. METHODS: The leaders of 8 grants from Agency for Research and Quality for the EvidenceNOW study of improving cardiovascular preventive services in over 1500 primary care practices nationwide worked collaboratively over 18 months to develop descriptions of key domains that might comprehensively characterize any external support intervention. Combining literature reviews with our practical experiences in this initiative and past work, we aimed to define these domains and recommend measures for them. RESULTS: The taxonomy includes 1 domain to specify the conceptual model(s) on which an intervention is built and another to specify the types of support strategies used. Another 5 domains provide specifics about the dose/mode of that support, the types of change process and care process changes that are encouraged, and the degree to which the strategies are prescriptive and standardized. A model was created to illustrate how the domains fit together and how they would respond to practice needs and reactions. CONCLUSIONS: This taxonomy and its use in more consistently documenting and characterizing external support interventions should facilitate communication and synergies between 3 areas (quality improvement, practice change research, and implementation science) that have historically tended to work independently. The taxonomy was designed to be as useful for practices or health systems managing change as it is for research.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Comunicação , Humanos , Pesquisadores
20.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 129: 60-67, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe PCORnet, a clinical research network developed for patient-centered outcomes research on a national scale. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study of the current state and future directions for PCORnet. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of the health systems and patient populations of the 9 Clinical Research Networks and 2 Health Plan Research Networks that are part of PCORnet. RESULTS: Within the Clinical Research Networks, electronic health data are currently collected from 337 hospitals, 169,695 physicians, 3,564 primary care practices, 338 emergency departments, and 1,024 community clinics. Patients can be recruited for prospective studies from any of these clinical sites. The Clinical Research Networks have accumulated data from 80 million patients with at least one visit from 2009 to 2018. The PCORnet Health Plan Research Network population of individuals with a valid enrollment segment from 2009 to 2019 exceeds 60 million individuals, who on average have 2.63 years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: PCORnet's infrastructure comprises clinical data from a diverse cohort of patients and has the capacity to rapidly access these patient populations for pragmatic clinical trials, epidemiological research, and patient-centered research on rare diseases.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Serviços de Informação/organização & administração , Seleção de Pacientes , Resultado do Tratamento , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos
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