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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: State medicaid programs provide access to effective contraception for people with lower incomes. This study examined contraception use and pregnancy among reproductive-age women enrolled in the South Carolina Medicaid, by eligibility program and socio-demographic sub-groups. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of women aged 15-45 who were newly eligible for South Carolina Medicaid from 2012 to 2016 was examined. Log-binomial regression and average marginal effects assessed relationships between contraception use and pregnancies ending in live and non-live births. Contraception was categorized as permanent, long acting reversible contraception (LARC), short-acting hormonal contraception (SAC), or no contraceptive claims. Women with family planning or full-benefit medicaid coverage were included. RESULTS: Approximately 11% of women used LARC methods, 41% used SAC methods, and 46% had no evidence of contraceptive claims. Method utilization varied by eligibility program, race/ethnicity and age. The likelihood of pregnancy was lower among SAC users and lowest among LARC users compared to women with no evidence of contraception across all three programs (family planning APR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.41-0.49 and APR = 0.13, 95% CI 0.10-0.17; Low income families APR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.77-0.88 and APR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.28-0.38; Partners for Healthy Children APR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.68-0.77 and APR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.30-0.43, respectively). Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic teens were less likely to experience a pregnancy than non-Hispanic white teens. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: The likelihood of pregnancy was lower among women using SAC methods and markedly lower among women using LARC. Variation in contraceptive use among racial/ethnic groups was noted despite Medicaid coverage. As new policies and initiatives emerge, these findings provide important context for understanding the role of Medicaid programs in reducing financial barriers to contraceptive services and ensuring access to effective contraception, while fostering reproductive health autonomy among women.

2.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in healthcare and improved chemotherapy, disparities in breast cancer outcomes continue to persist. Our aim was to evaluate socioeconomic factors that may impact timing of treatment for patients receiving chemotherapy in underserved communities. METHODS: A review of patients with breast cancer who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy from 2015-2019 was conducted at a safety-net hospital. The primary outcomes were times from diagnosis to chemotherapy and surgery. Clinicodemographic factors including race, age, clinical stage, primary language, comorbidities, and median income by zip code were collected. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to evaluate for factors associated with the primary outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred patients were identified. For the neoadjuvant group, median time from diagnosis to chemotherapy and surgery was 52 ± 34 days and 256 ± 59 days, respectively. For the adjuvant group, median time from diagnosis to surgery and chemotherapy was 24.5 ± 18 days and 94.5 ± 53 days, respectively. Non-English language and older age were associated with increased time to chemotherapy in the adjuvant group (p < 0.05). Language and age were not associated with increased time to surgery in both groups. Race, age, comorbidities, and income were not associated with delay in treatment in either groups. CONCLUSIONS: Older age and non-English language were associated with prolonged time from surgery to adjuvant chemotherapy. Targeted interventions directed at patient education and decreasing language barriers especially post-operatively may decrease delays in treatment and subsequently reduce disparities seen in the breast cancer population.

3.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 7(1): 123, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535677

RESUMO

Post-mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is a common and often debilitating condition. The syndrome is defined by chest wall pain unresponsive to standard pain medications and the presence of exquisite point tenderness along the inframammary fold at the site of the T4 and T5 cutaneous intercostal nerve branches as they exit from the chest wall. Pressure at the site triggers and reproduces the patient's spontaneous or motion-evoked pain. The likely pathogenesis is neuroma formation after injury to the T4 and T5 intercostal nerves during breast surgery. We assessed the rate of long-term resolution of post-mastectomy pain after trigger point injections (2 mL of 1:1 mixture of 0.5% bupivacaine and 4 mg/mL dexamethasone) to relieve neuropathic pain in a prospective single-arm cohort study. Fifty-two women (aged 31-92) who underwent partial mastectomy with reduction mammoplasty or mastectomy with or without reconstruction, and who presented with PMPS were enrolled at the University of California San Francisco Breast Care Center from August 2010 through April 2018. The primary outcome was a long-term resolution of pain, defined as significant or complete relief of pain for greater than 3 months. A total of 91 trigger points were treated with mean follow-up 43.9 months with a 91.2% (83/91) success rate. Among those with a long-term resolution of pain, 60 trigger points (72.3%) required a single injection to achieve long-lasting relief. Perineural infiltration with bupivacaine and dexamethasone is a safe, simple, and effective treatment for PMPS presenting as trigger point pain along the inframammary fold.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delaying surgical treatment for hip fragility fractures increases mortality, but early intervention in patients treated with direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) may increase the risk of perioperative blood loss due to residual drug activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the timing of hip fragility fractures surgeries in patients treated with DOAC. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all records of DOAC-treated patients who underwent surgery for hip fragility fractures between 2011 and 2019. They were divided into three groups according to time to surgery since admission to the emergency room (ER), ≤ 24, 24-48, and ≥ 48 h. Blood loss, peri and postoperative complications, readmissions, and short- and long-term mortality were compared between groups. RESULTS: Of the 171 suitable patients (59 males and 112 females), 32 (18.7%) were in the ≤ 24 h group, 93 (54.4%) in the 24-48 h group, and 46 (26.9%) in the ≥ 48 h group. Timing of surgery did not affect blood loss, as indicated by changes in pre- and postoperative hemoglobin levels (p = 0.089) and proportion of perioperatively administered packed cells (p = 0.949). There was a trend towards increased 30-day mortality in the ≥ 48 h group compared to the 24-48 h and ≤ 24 h groups (13.0, 4.3 and 3.1%, respectively. p = 0.099), and a trend towards increased 90 day mortality (6.5, 3.2, and 0%, respectively. p = 0.298). CONCLUSIONS: Early surgery did not increase perioperative blood loss. Delayed surgery ≥ 48 h of patients receiving DOAC who underwent surgery for hip fragility fractures showed a trend towards increased 30 day and 90 day mortality.

5.
J Rural Health ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355426

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Access to the full range of contraceptive options is essential to providing patient-centered reproductive health care. Women living in rural areas often experience more barriers to contraceptive care than women living in urban areas. Therefore, federally funded family planning clinics are important for ensuring women have access to contraceptive care, especially in rural areas. This study examines contraceptive provision, factors supporting contraceptive provision, and contraceptive utilization among federally funded family planning clinics in 2 Southern states. METHODS: All health department and Federally Qualified Health Center clinics in Alabama and South Carolina that offer contraceptive services were surveyed in 2017-2018. Based on these surveys, we examined differences between rural and urban clinics in the following areas: clinic characteristics, services offered, staffing, staff training, policies, patient characteristics, contraceptive provision, and contraceptive utilization. Differences were assessed using Chi-square tests of independence for categorical variables and independent t-tests for continuous variables. FINDINGS: Urban clinics had more staff on average than rural clinics, but rural clinics reported greater ease in recruiting and retaining family planning providers. Patient characteristics did not significantly vary between rural and urban clinics. While no significant differences were observed in the provision of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) overall, a greater proportion of patients in urban clinics utilized LARCs. CONCLUSIONS: While provision of most contraceptives is similar between rural and urban federally funded family planning clinics, important differences in other factors continue to result in women who receive care in rural clinics being less likely to choose LARC methods.

6.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(8): 484-489, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgery for hip fractures within 48 hours of admission is considered standard. During the lockdown period due to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, our medical staff was reduced. OBJECTIVES: To compare the demographics, treatment pathways, and outcomes of patients with hip fractures during the COVID-19 epidemic and lockdown with the standard at routine times. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of all patients who were treated surgically for hip fracture in a tertiary center during the COVID-19 lockdown period between 01 March and 01 June 2020 and the equivalent period in 2019. Demographic characteristics, time to surgery, surgery type, hospitalization time, discharge destination, postoperative complications, and 30- and 90-day mortality rates were collected for all patients. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 period, 105 patients were operated due to hip fractures compared to 136 in the equivalent period with no statistical difference in demographics. The rate of surgeries within 48 hours of admission was significantly higher in the COVID-19 period (92% vs. 76%, respectively; P = 0.0006). Mean hospitalization time was significantly shorter (10 vs. 12 days, P = 0.037) with diversion of patient discharge destinations from institutional to home rehabilitation (P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between the COVID-19 period and lower 90-day mortality rates (P = 0.034). No statistically significant differences in postoperative complications or 30-day mortality rates were noted. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 epidemic, despite the limited staff and the lack of therapeutic sequence, there was no impairment in the quality of treatment and a decrease in 90-day mortality was noted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fixação de Fratura , Fraturas do Quadril , Controle de Infecções , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Fixação de Fratura/efeitos adversos , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Fixação de Fratura/reabilitação , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Israel/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Inovação Organizacional , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
7.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3607-3613, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We evaluated timeliness of care at a safety-net hospital after implementation of a multidisciplinary breast program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective database of patients with breast cancer was created after multidisciplinary breast program initiation in 2018. Patients were tracked to obtain time to completion of diagnostic imaging, biopsy, and treatment initiation. Patients with breast cancer diagnosed from 2015-2017 were reviewed for comparison. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients were identified. There was no statistical difference in time to completion of imaging, biopsy, and initial treatment between the 2018 and the 2015-2017 cohorts (p>0.05). No statistical difference was observed in time to completion of imaging, biopsy, and initial treatment between different races (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Within the same socioeconomic status, there was no differential delivery of screening, work-up, and treatment by race. Despite protocol implementations, efficiency of care remained limited in a safety-net hospital with lack of financial resources.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biópsia , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Gerenciamento de Dados/métodos , Feminino , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Classe Social
8.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 103(12): 1125-1131, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of electric scooters (e-scooters) has dramatically increased as they become an attractive alternative for public transportation in busy metropolitan areas worldwide. Despite their benefits, e-scooters challenge the health-care system with poorly understood forms of injuries, mainly orthopaedic fractures. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate e-scooter-related orthopaedic fracture patterns, mechanisms of injury, and management. METHODS: Data on 3,331 e-scooter-related admissions were retrospectively collected between May 2017 and February 2020 in a level-I trauma center. These admissions were analyzed for demographic variables, orthopaedic fracture diagnosis (using the AO/OTA classification), associated injuries, and surgical treatment. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 716 fractures were diagnosed in 563 patients, with 46.4% of the patients requiring hospitalization. Of 492 upper-limb fractures, 89.2% occurred in a rider fall mechanism; and of 210 lower-limb fractures, 15.7% occurred in rider-vehicle collisions. Fifty-nine percent of long bone fractures were complex fragmentary and/or intra-articular fractures. Orthopaedic surgeons recommended that 225 fractures undergo surgical treatment. The most common upper-limb fracture was AO/OTA class 2R1A, with open reduction and internal fixation of the distal part of the radius being the most common upper-limb procedure (n = 58). The most common lower-limb fracture was AO/OTA class 41C, with open reduction and internal fixation of the proximal part of the tibia being the most common procedure (n = 28). A total of 22 patients (3.9%) required reoperation within 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation provides unique information on demographic characteristics, patterns, and treatment of orthopaedic fractures secondary to the high-energy mechanism of e-scooter injuries. These new in-depth data are important, first, for health-care system preparedness with regard to management and resource allocation to treat these challenging injuries and, second, for legislators promoting safety and injury prevention strategies.

9.
J Surg Oncol ; 124(4): 627-634, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Extra abdominal desmoid tumors are rare, highly aggressive, and invasive benign soft tissue tumors. Current treatment modalities show high levels of recurrence and comorbidities. Cryo-surgery as an alternative was subsequently investigated. METHODS: In this retrospective, single center study 11 patients showing symptomatic tumors were treated with individualized cryo-surgery. Treatment protocol included preoperative planning using computer rendered 3D models, intraoperative navigation and execution using cone beam guidance, and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging image analysis using a gaussian mixture model software. Subjective outcomes were reported using Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaires. RESULTS: Sixteen ablations were performed, each demonstrating a complete match with the determined preoperative plan and model. A total of 9/11 (82%) of patients showed improvements in symptoms and a reduction in tumor volume while 2/11 (18%) did not. Average reduction in tumor volume and viable segments were 36.7% (p = 0.0397) and 63.3% (p = 0.0477), respectively. Mild complications according to the SIR Adverse Event Classification Guidelines were experienced in 3/16 (19%) ablations. SF-36 scores showed a statistically significant improvement (p = 0.0194) in the mental health category and a nonsignificant (p = 0.8071) improvement in the physical health category. CONCLUSION: Cryo-surgery using the three-phase protocol as described may improve the overall outcome of future ablation procedures.


Assuntos
Criocirurgia/métodos , Fibromatose Agressiva/cirurgia , Carga Tumoral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fibromatose Agressiva/patologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959801

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sub-capital femoral fractures (SCFF) are impacted or non-displaced in Garden types 1 and 2, respectively. Non-surgical treatment is protected weight-bearing combined with physiotherapy and radiographic follow-up in selected patients. Traditionally, in situ pinning is the surgical treatment of choice. The aim of this study was to estimate whether the valgus deformity in Garden types 1 and 2 (AO classification 31B1.1 and 31B1.2) SCFF is a virtual perception of a posterior tilt deformity and if addressing this deformity improves patients' outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 96 patients with Garden Types 1 and 2 SCFF treated in tertiary medical center between 1/2014 and 9/2017 were retrospectively reviewed. They all had preoperative hip joint anteroposterior and lateral radiographic views. 75 patients had additional computed tomography (CT) scans. Femoral head displacement was measured on an anteroposterior and axial radiograph projections and were performed before and after surgery. Preoperative 3D reconstructions were performed for a better fracture characterization, and assessment of the imaging was performed by the first author. RESULTS: The average age of the study cohort was 73 years (range 28-96, 68% females). There were 58 right-sided and 38 left-sided fractures. Ninety patients had Type 1 and six patients had Type 2 fractures. The average preoperative posterior tilt was 15 degrees and the average valgus displacement was 10 degrees on plain radiographs compared to 28 degrees and 11 degrees, respectively, on CT scans. Posterior tilt was found with a virtual perception as valgus-impacted fractures. The postoperative posterior tilt was corrected to an average of 3 degrees and the valgus displacement to 5 degrees. CONCLUSION: CT provides an accurate modality for measuring femoral head displacement and fracture extent. The posterior tilt displacement should be addressed during surgery to lower failure risk and the need for additional procedures. IRB APPROVAL: TLV-0292-15. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

11.
Contraception ; 104(2): 155-158, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Capacity building and training to improve contraceptive care is essential for patient-centered care and reproductive autonomy. This study assessed the feasibility of translating the knowledge and skills gained from contraception trainings into improvements in practice. STUDY DESIGN: Participants completed surveys following contraceptive care trainings provided to family planning clinic and hospital obstetric providers and staff as a part of the Choose Well contraceptive access initiative in South Carolina. Surveys assessed participants' intent to change their practice post-training and anticipated barriers to implementing change. A mixed-methods approach was utilized including descriptive analysis of Likert scale responses and thematic content analysis to synthesize open-ended, qualitative responses. RESULTS: Data were collected from 160 contraceptive training sessions provided to 4814 clinical and administrative staff between 2017 and 2019. Post-training surveys were completed by 3464 participants (72%), and of these, 2978 answered questions related to the study outcomes. Most respondents (n = 2390; 80.7%) indicated intent to change their practice and 35.5% (n = 1044) anticipated barriers to implementing intended changes. Across all training categories, organizational factors (time constraints, policies and practices, infrastructure/resources) were the most frequently perceived barrier to improving contraceptive services. Structural factors related to cost for patients were also identified as barriers to IUD and implant provision. CONCLUSION: The trainings were successful in influencing family planning staff and providers' intent to improve their contraceptive practices, yet some anticipated barriers in translating training into practice. Improvements in organizational and structural policies are critical to realizing the benefits of trainings in advancing quality contraceptive care. IMPLICATIONS: In addition to training, coordinated efforts to address organizational practices and resources, coupled with system-level policy changes are essential to facilitate the delivery and sustainability of patient-centered contraceptive care.

12.
Am J Public Health ; 111(1): 136-144, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211579

RESUMO

Objectives. To examine the differences in adolescent birth rates by deprivation and Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) in rural and urban counties of the United States in 2017 and 2018.Methods. We analyzed available data on birth rates for females aged 15 to 19 years in the United States using the restricted-use natality files from the National Center for Health Statistics, American Community Survey 5-year population estimates, and the Area Health Resources Files.Results. Rural counties had an additional 7.8 births per 1000 females aged 15 to 19 years (b = 7.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.13, 8.55) compared with urban counties. Counties with the highest deprivation had an additional 23.1 births per 1000 females aged 15 to 19 years (b = 23.12; 95% CI = 22.30, 23.93), compared with less deprived counties. Rural counties with whole shortage designation had an additional 8.3 births per 1000 females aged 15 to 19 years (b = 8.27; 95% CI = 6.86, 9.67) compared with their urban counterparts.Conclusions. Rural communities across deprivation and HPSA categories showed disproportionately high adolescent birth rates. Future research should examine the extent to which contraceptive access differs among deprived and HPSA-designated rural communities and the impact of policies that may create barriers for rural communities.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Trauma Case Rep ; 30: 100357, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163608

RESUMO

Background: Osteitis pubis (OP) is an inflammatory condition of the symphysis pubis (SP) characterized by focal pain and local tenderness. Pelvic instability (PI) is commonly associated with this condition. It is still not clear if OP leads to PI or it is PI that leads to OP. The exact cause of osteitis pubis is not yet known, although several predisposing factors have been suggested to contribute to this condition. In most cases, it is self-remitting and rarely needs surgical intervention. Case presentation: A 63-year old woman presented with a 12-month history of persistent pain at the symphysis pubis and non-responsive to analgesics. The pain was aggravated by physical activity such as standing and walking. Physical examination showed focal tenderness at the symphysis pubis with no tenderness over the sacroiliac joints or lumbar region. The diagnosis was confirmed by characteristic findings on radiographs, CT and MRI. Surgery was considered after all conservative measures failed. The patient underwent a wedge-shaped resection of the symphysis pubis; the bone defect was filled autologous tri-cortical bone and fixed with dual plating. The outcome was satisfactory with radiologic union and symptom resolution postoperatively. Conclusions: Osteitis pubis due to pelvic instability can cause chronic and persistent pain. In cases where conservative treatment fails, surgery should be considered. We recommend wide surgical resection of all non-viable bone at the symphysis pubis with the addition of tri-cortical iliac bone graft. Double plating should be considered in order to maximize the rate of fusion and further stabilize the fixation.

14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5905740, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150177

RESUMO

Large bone defects pose an unsolved challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Our group has previously reported the construction of a barrier membrane made of ammoniomethacrylate copolymer USP (AMCA), which supports the adhesion, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In this study, we report the use of AMCA membranes to seclude critical segmental defect (~1.0 cm) created in the middle third of rabbit radius and test the efficiency of bone regeneration. Bone regeneration was assessed by radiography, biweekly for 8 weeks. The results were verified by histology and micro-CT at the end of the follow-up. The AMCA membranes were found superior to no treatment in terms of new bone formation in the defect, bone volume, callus surface area normalized to total volume, and the number of bone trabeculae, after eight weeks. Additional factors were then assessed, and these included the addition of simvastatin to the membrane, coating the membrane with human MSC, and a combination of those. The addition of simvastatin to the membranes demonstrated a stronger effect at a similar radiological follow-up. We conclude that AMCA barrier membranes per se and simvastatin delivered in a controlled manner improve bone regeneration outcome.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Metacrilatos/farmacologia , Sinvastatina/farmacologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte , Animais , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Membranas Artificiais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Metacrilatos/síntese química , Coelhos , Rádio (Anatomia)/diagnóstico por imagem , Rádio (Anatomia)/efeitos dos fármacos , Rádio (Anatomia)/lesões , Microtomografia por Raio-X
15.
Womens Health Issues ; 30(6): 436-445, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancies remain an important public health issue. Modern contraception is an important clinical service for reducing unintended pregnancy. This study examines contraception use among a representative sample of women residing in two southeastern U.S. states. METHODS: A cross-sectional statewide survey assessing women's contraceptive use and reproductive health experiences was conducted in Alabama and South Carolina. Characteristics of the study population were compared across contraceptive use categories and multivariable regression analysis was performed examining relationships between covariates of interest and contraceptive use outcomes. RESULTS: Approximately 3,775 women were included in the study population. Overall, 26.5% of women reported not using any contraception. Short-acting hormonal methods were the most commonly reported (26.3%), followed by permanent methods (24.4%), long-acting reversible contraception (LARC; 14.3%), and barrier/other methods (8.5%). Nonuse was more prevalent among women with some college or an associate's degree, incomes between $25,000 and $50,000, no health insurance, and longer gaps in care. LARC use among women with Medicaid as a pay source was higher than use among privately insured women and higher in South Carolina than Alabama. Both nonuse and LARC use were higher among women with no insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings are largely consistent with previous research using similar population-based surveys. LARC use was higher among the study population relative to what is observed nationally. Factors enabling access to contraceptive services, particularly for lower income women, were associated with contraception use patterns. These findings provide important context for understanding individuals' access to resources and are important for fostering increased access to contraceptive services among women in these two states.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Anticoncepcionais , Alabama , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , South Carolina , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
16.
J Surg Res ; 254: 300-305, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a rare entity of benign origin. Multiple treatment strategies, including surgical procedures, can have sequelae of recurrence, nonhealing wounds, and protracted pain. Even after GM is diagnosed, the best management strategy remains controversial. We sought to evaluate intralesional steroid injection as a potential treatment for GM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic medical records from 2003 to 2017 of patients diagnosed with benign breast lesions were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with pathologically confirmed GM were identified. All treatment methods were documented, which included observation, oral steroids, methotrexate, steroid injection, and surgical excision. Primary outcome was time to resolution. Effectiveness was based on relief of symptoms along with duration of symptoms from initial time of diagnosis to full relief. Analysis of variance was used to compare outcomes between groups. RESULTS: Of the 49 patients with confirmed GM diagnoses, 57% had observation only, 24% had steroid injection, and 19% had surgical resection. The average time to resolution differed significantly among the three groups (11.5 mo from the start of observation, 2.0 mo from the time of steroid injection, and 0.5 mo from the time of surgical excision, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Intralesional steroid injection is an effective treatment of GM. Selective management is appropriate for patients with GM, and surgical resection is not required for most patients.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Mastite Granulomatosa/tratamento farmacológico , Triancinolona/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Oper Orthop Traumatol ; 32(5): 440-454, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intramedullary nailing of tibia fractures via a suprapatellar, transarticular approach with the knee joint in 20-30° of flexion and the use of specific protection tubes to preserve intra-articular structures. INDICATIONS: Extra-articular fractures of the proximal tibia; simple and comminuted fractures of the tibia diaphysis; segmental diaphyseal fractures of the tibia; extra-articular fractures of the distal tibia and fractures with simple intra-articular distal extension; floating knee injuries. CONTRAINDICATIONS: Gustilo grade 3C open fractures of the tibia; severe soft tissue laceration, contamination or infection in the suprapatellar area; ipsilateral knee joint prosthesis; knee arthrodesis; implants blocking the nail entry point. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: Via a suprapatellar, transarticular approach an intramedullary tibia nail is inserted after anatomical reposition of the tibial fracture with the knee joint in 20-30° of flexion. Use of specific protection tubes to preserve intra-articular structures. The proximal and distal locking configuration depends upon the specific fracture characteristics. RESULTS: In all, 61 patients underwent suprapatellar tibia nailing and were under follow-up at least until fracture union. Twelve patients suffered from an open fracture. A total of 17 patients had a distal third fracture, 8 sustained a proximal third fracture and 36 had a shaft fracture. Follow-up focused on patients with distal fractures; 6/17 patients sustained open fractures. Average time to union was 9 weeks. One fracture did not heal and required exchange nailing. Two patients complained about anterior knee pain. Functionally, full range of motion was regained in all patients.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas , Fraturas da Tíbia , Humanos , Tíbia , Fraturas da Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Orthop Trauma ; 33 Suppl 6: S39-S43, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083148

RESUMO

Ongoing studies investigating fracture healing have uncovered and allowed investigators to gain a better understanding of where the variety of cells, which participate in this process, originate, and how they communicate as well as how they can be enhanced to successfully heal a fracture when the process has slowed or failed completely. This brief review will highlight some of the recent findings regarding the role the immune system in fracture healing and how these cells communicate with each other during the healing process. In addition, two 2 methods that have recently been shown to be promising techniques in supporting fracture when it stalls or reversing the process, when the fracture has failed to heal, will also be described.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Consolidação da Fratura/fisiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Fraturas não Consolidadas/terapia , Humanos
19.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 15(6): 964-968, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and high breast density both increase breast cancer risk but paradoxically are inversely related. Bariatric surgery decreases breast cancer risk, but its impact on mammographic breast density is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: We investigated how mammographic density changes after bariatric surgery and whether this change is related to weight loss. SETTING: University of California, San Francisco Medical Center. METHODS: We reviewed records from 349 prospectively collected patients who underwent bariatric surgery between 2013 and 2015 and identified 42 women with pre- and postoperative screening mammograms within 1.5 years of surgery. We recorded body mass index (BMI), height and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System density and calculated BMI loss and total weight loss. Data were analyzed in Stata 14.2. RESULTS: Average age was 54.2 years, mean preoperative BMI was 43.8 kg/m2, mean BMI lost was 30.9%, and total weight loss was 31.1% at 1.3 years. Over one-third had a change in mammographic breast density, which increased 93.3% of the time (P < .001). Amount of weight loss was not associated with a density change. Patients with the lowest mammographic density preoperatively were most likely to have a density change (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Most women with a mammographic change had an increase in breast density, despite bariatric surgery being associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Baseline breast density was associated with a density change, but amount of weight loss was not. These findings suggest the metabolic effects of bariatric surgery have an effect on breast parenchyma independent of absolute BMI reduction or weight loss.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Densidade da Mama/fisiologia , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/cirurgia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Int Orthop ; 43(11): 2607-2612, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: As patients who were afflicted with poliomyelitis during the outbreaks in the past are aging, lower extremity osteoporotic fractures are becoming more frequent. Fixation in deformed, porotic bone, coupled with muscle weakness and imbalance creates a unique challenge when treating these fractures as does their reduced rehabilitation potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of femoral fractures in surviving poliomyelitis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-five patients with 74 femoral fractures were treated between 1990 and 2014. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Parkland and Palmer mobility score, and quality-of-life was assessed using the SF-12® score. RESULTS: Some 84% of the fractures were a result of low-energy mechanisms and occurred in the polio-affected limbs, but nonaffected limbs were also injured owing to low-energy mechanisms in all cases. Fifty-seven fractures were treated operatively. There were nine re-operations (16%), including implant removals, nonunion, peri-implant fractures, and malunion. Some 60% of the patients did not regain their previous ambulatory capacity. Post-operative weight-bearing status did not correlate with the final functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Polio patients with femoral fractures have a guarded prognosis for regaining their pre-injury ambulatory capacity. A higher re-operation rate than that with "normal" osteoporotic fractures is expected.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Limitação da Mobilidade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/cirurgia , Poliomielite/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/etiologia , Fraturas do Fêmur/reabilitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/reabilitação , Prognóstico , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sobreviventes , Resultado do Tratamento , Caminhada , Suporte de Carga , Adulto Jovem
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