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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic hazard scores (PHS) can identify individuals with increased risk of prostate cancer. We estimated the benefit of additional SNPs on performance of a previously validated PHS (PHS46). MATERIALS AND METHOD: 180 SNPs, shown to be previously associated with prostate cancer, were used to develop a PHS model in men with European ancestry. A machine-learning approach, LASSO-regularized Cox regression, was used to select SNPs and to estimate their coefficients in the training set (75,596 men). Performance of the resulting model was evaluated in the testing/validation set (6,411 men) with two metrics: (1) hazard ratios (HRs) and (2) positive predictive value (PPV) of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. HRs were estimated between individuals with PHS in the top 5% to those in the middle 40% (HR95/50), top 20% to bottom 20% (HR80/20), and bottom 20% to middle 40% (HR20/50). PPV was calculated for the top 20% (PPV80) and top 5% (PPV95) of PHS as the fraction of individuals with elevated PSA that were diagnosed with clinically significant prostate cancer on biopsy. RESULTS: 166 SNPs had non-zero coefficients in the Cox model (PHS166). All HR metrics showed significant improvements for PHS166 compared to PHS46: HR95/50 increased from 3.72 to 5.09, HR80/20 increased from 6.12 to 9.45, and HR20/50 decreased from 0.41 to 0.34. By contrast, no significant differences were observed in PPV of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating 120 additional SNPs (PHS166 vs PHS46) significantly improved HRs for prostate cancer, while PPV of PSA testing remained the same.

2.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000001601, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443458

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prostate cancer (PCa) is most commonly an indolent disease, especially when detected at a localized stage. Unlike other tumors that may benefit from timely receipt of definitive therapy, it is generally accepted that treatment delays for localized PCa are acceptable, especially for low-risk PCa. Since treatment delay for intermediate-risk and high-risk disease is more controversial, we sought to determine if delays for these disease states negatively impacted oncological outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature with searches of Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from inception to June 30, 2020. General study characteristics as well as study population and delay information were collected. The outcomes of interest extracted included biochemical recurrence (BCR), pathological features (positive surgical margins, upgrading, extracapsular extension, and other pathological features), cancer-specific surgical (CSS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: After identifying 1793 unique references, 24 manuscripts met criteria for data extraction, 15 of which were published after 2013. Based on our review, delays up to 3 months are safe for all PCa and are not associated with worse oncological outcomes. Some studies identified worse oncological outcomes as a result of delays beyond 6 to 9 months. However, these studies are counterbalanced by others finding no statistically significant association with delays up to 12 months. Studies that did find worse outcomes as result of delays identified a higher risk of BCR and worse pathological outcomes, but not worse cancer-specific or OS. CONCLUSIONS: Definitive treatment for intermediate-risk and high-risk PCa can be delayed up to 3 months without any oncological consequences. Some evidence suggests that there is a higher risk of BCR and worse pathological outcomes associated with delays beyond 6-9 months. To date, there are no reports of worse CSS or OS as a result of delayed treatment for intermediate-risk and high-risk PCa.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 99-105, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930425

RESUMO

Polygenic hazard score (PHS) models are associated with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer. Our model developed in Europeans (PHS46) showed reduced performance in men with African genetic ancestry. We used a cross-validated search to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might improve performance in this population. Anonymized genotypic data were obtained from the PRACTICAL consortium for 6253 men with African genetic ancestry. Ten iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation search were conducted to select SNPs that would be included in the final PHS46+African model. The coefficients of PHS46+African were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards framework using age at diagnosis as the dependent variable and PHS46, and selected SNPs as predictors. The performance of PHS46 and PHS46+African was compared using the same cross-validated approach. Three SNPs (rs76229939, rs74421890 and rs5013678) were selected for inclusion in PHS46+African. All three SNPs are located on chromosome 8q24. PHS46+African showed substantial improvements in all performance metrics measured, including a 75% increase in the relative hazard of those in the upper 20% compared to the bottom 20% (2.47-4.34) and a 20% reduction in the relative hazard of those in the bottom 20% compared to the middle 40% (0.65-0.53). In conclusion, we identified three SNPs that substantially improved the association of PHS46 with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in men with African genetic ancestry to levels comparable to Europeans.

4.
J Urol ; 205(1): 22-29, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960678

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The summary presented herein represents Part II of the two-part series dedicated to Advanced Prostate Cancer: AUA/ASTRO/SUO Guideline discussing prognostic and treatment recommendations for patients with castration-resistant disease. Please refer to Part I for discussion of the management of patients with biochemical recurrence without metastatic disease after exhaustion of local treatment options as well as those with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. RESULTS: The Advanced Prostate Cancer Panel created evidence- and consensus-based guideline statements to aid clinicians in the management of patients with advanced prostate cancer. Such statements are summarized in figure 1[Figure: see text] and detailed herein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The systematic review utilized to inform this guideline was conducted by an independent methodological consultant. A research librarian conducted searches in Ovid MEDLINE (1998 to January Week 5 2019), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (through December 2018), and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2005 through February 6, 2019). An updated search was conducted prior to publication through January 20, 2020. The methodology team supplemented searches of electronic databases with the studies included in the prior AUA review and by reviewing reference lists of relevant articles. CONCLUSIONS: This guideline attempts to improve a clinician's ability to treat patients diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer. Continued research and publication of high-quality evidence from future trials will be essential to improve the level of care for these patients.


Assuntos
Oncologia/normas , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Urologia/normas , Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Técnicas de Ablação/normas , Antagonistas de Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/normas , Consenso , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Oncologia/métodos , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/etiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Prognóstico , Prostatectomia/normas , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Radioterapia Adjuvante/normas , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Urologia/métodos
5.
J Urol ; 205(1): 14-21, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960679

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The summary presented herein represents Part I of the two-part series dedicated to Advanced Prostate Cancer: AUA/ASTRO/SUO Guideline discussing prognostic and treatment recommendations for patients with biochemical recurrence without metastatic disease after exhaustion of local treatment options as well as those with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Please refer to Part II for discussion of the management of castration-resistant disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The systematic review utilized to inform this guideline was conducted by an independent methodological consultant. A research librarian conducted searches in Ovid MEDLINE (1998 to January Week 5 2019), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (through December 2018), and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2005 through February 6, 2019). An updated search was conducted prior to publication through January 20, 2020. The methodology team supplemented searches of electronic databases with the studies included in the prior AUA review and by reviewing reference lists of relevant articles. RESULTS: The Advanced Prostate Cancer Panel created evidence- and consensus-based guideline statements to aid clinicians in the management of patients with advanced prostate cancer. Such statements are summarized in figure 1[Figure: see text] and detailed herein. CONCLUSIONS: This guideline attempts to improve a clinician's ability to treat patients diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer. Continued research and publication of high-quality evidence from future trials will be essential to improve the level of care for these patients.


Assuntos
Oncologia/normas , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Urologia/normas , Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Técnicas de Ablação/normas , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/normas , Consenso , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Oncologia/métodos , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Prostatectomia/normas , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Radioterapia Adjuvante/normas , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Urologia/métodos
6.
Cancer ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking, the most common risk factor for bladder cancer (BC), is associated with increased complications after radical cystectomy (RC), poorer oncologic outcomes, and higher mortality. The authors hypothesized that the effect of smoking on the probability of major complications increases with increasing age among patients who undergo RC. METHODS: The authors analyzed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2011-2017), identified all patients undergoing RC using Current Procedural Terminology codes, and formed two groups according to smoking status (active smoker and nonsmoker [included former and never-smokers]). Patient characteristics and 30-day postoperative complications using the Clavien-Dindo Classification (CDC) were assessed. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed that included age, sex, race, body mass index, operative time, comorbidities, chemotherapy status, and type of diversion with major complications (CDC ≥III) as the outcome variable, and explored the interaction between age and smoking status. RESULTS: A total of 10,528 patients underwent RC, including 22.8% who were active smokers. The authors identified an interaction between age and smoking status (P = .045). Older patients were found to experience a stronger smoking effect than younger patients with regard to the probability of major complications. The risk of a major complication was the same for 50-year-old nonsmokers and smokers, but it increased from 17.8% to 21.7% for 70-year-old nonsmokers and smokers, respectively (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Up to 20% of patients who undergo RC are active smokers, and these individuals have an increased risk of major complications. The effect of smoking is stronger with increasing age; the difference with regard to complications for smokers versus nonsmokers was found to increase substantially, wherein older smokers are at an especially high risk of complications.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158149

RESUMO

The identification of recurrent founder variants in cancer predisposing genes may have important implications for implementing cost-effective targeted genetic screening strategies. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence and relative risk of the CHEK2 recurrent variant c.349A>G in a series of 462 Portuguese patients with early-onset and/or familial/hereditary prostate cancer (PrCa), as well as in the large multicentre PRACTICAL case-control study comprising 55,162 prostate cancer cases and 36,147 controls. Additionally, we investigated the potential shared ancestry of the carriers by performing identity-by-descent, haplotype and age estimation analyses using high-density SNP data from 70 variant carriers belonging to 11 different populations included in the PRACTICAL consortium. The CHEK2 missense variant c.349A>G was found significantly associated with an increased risk for PrCa (OR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.2). A shared haplotype flanking the variant in all carriers was identified, strongly suggesting a common founder of European origin. Additionally, using two independent statistical algorithms, implemented by DMLE+2.3 and ESTIAGE, we were able to estimate the age of the variant between 2300 and 3125 years. By extending the haplotype analysis to 14 additional carrier families, a shared core haplotype was revealed among all carriers matching the conserved region previously identified in the high-density SNP analysis. These findings are consistent with CHEK2 c.349A>G being a founder variant associated with increased PrCa risk, suggesting its potential usefulness for cost-effective targeted genetic screening in PrCa families.

8.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168599

RESUMO

Gleason score, a measure of prostate tumor differentiation, is the strongest predictor of lethal prostate cancer at the time of diagnosis. Metabolomic profiling of tumor and of patient serum could identify biomarkers of aggressive disease and lead to the development of a less-invasive assay to perform active surveillance monitoring. Metabolomic profiling of prostate tissue and serum samples was performed. Metabolite levels and metabolite-set were compared pathways across Gleason scores. Machine learning algorithms were trained and tuned to predict transformation or differentiation status from metabolite data. 135 metabolites were significantly different (adjusted p<0.05) in tumor vs normal tissue, and pathway analysis identified one sugar metabolism pathway (adjusted p=0.03). Machine learning identified profiles that predicted tumor versus normal tissue (AUC of 0.82 ± 0.08). In tumor tissue, 25 metabolites were associated with Gleason score (unadjusted p<0.05), 4 increased in high grade while the remainder were enriched in low grade. While pyroglutamine and 1,5-anhydroglucitol were correlated (0.73 and 0.72, respectively) between tissue and serum from the same patient, no metabolites were consistently associated with Gleason score in serum. Previously reported as well as novel metabolites with differing abundance were identified across tumor tissue. However, a "metabolite signature" for Gleason score was not obtained. This may be due to study design and analytical challenges that future studies should consider. Implications: Metabolic profiling can distinguish benign and neoplastic tissues. A novel unsupervised machine learning method can be utilized to achieve this distinction.

9.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(11): e20224, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) increases the risk of metabolic adverse effects among patients with prostate cancer. The transformative impact of mobile health (mHealth) apps may benefit men managing activity and nutrition at home. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the usability and patient experience of a newly developed mHealth app among prostate cancer patients on ADT and physicians' beliefs about the potential benefits of using this app. METHODS: This study took place over 2 months, beginning in March 2019. A sample of 5 patients (age 45-75 years) initiating ADT participated in a semistructured focus group discussion with a facilitator. The study participants also included 5 specialist physicians who provided in-depth interviews. An institutional review board-approved script was used to guide both the focus group and physician interviews. Usability was tested through specific scenarios presented to the patients, including downloading the mHealth app, entering information on physical activity and meals, and navigating the app. The focus group and interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts iteratively and exhaustively. Thematic discrepancies between reviewers were resolved through consensus. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 62 years. This group included 4 White and 1 Latin American patients. The physician specialists included 2 urologists, 2 medical oncologists, and 1 radiation oncologist. Analyses revealed that the patients appreciated the holistic care enabled by the app. Difficulties were observed with registration of the app among 60% (3/5) of the patients; however, all the patients were able to input information about their physical activity and navigate the options within the app. Most patients (4/5, 80%) were able to input data on their recent meal. Among the health care physicians, the dominant themes reflected in the interviews included undermining of patients ability to use technology, patients' fear of technology, and concern for the ability of older patients to access technology. CONCLUSIONS: The patients reported an overall positive experience of using an mHealth app to record and track diet and exercise. Usability was observed to be an important factor for adoption and was determined by ease of registration and use, intuitive appearance of the app, and focus on holistic cancer care. The physicians believed that the app was easy to use but raised concerns about usability among older men who may not typically use smartphone apps.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation against routine prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing led to a decrease in prostate cancer screening, but the heterogeneity of its impact by race/ethnicity remains unclear. METHODS: The proportion of 40-74 year-old men who self-reported receiving a routine PSA test in the past year was estimated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS; 2012-2018). Odds ratios (ORs) of undergoing screening by race/ethnicity were estimated, adjusting for healthcare-related factors. Prostate cancer incidence rates and rate ratios (IRRs) by race/ethnicity were estimated using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry data (2004-2017). RESULTS: PSA testing frequencies were 32.3% (95% CI = 31.7 to 32.8%) among non-Hispanic White (NHW), 30.3% (95% CI = 28.3 to 32.3%) among non-Hispanic Black (NHB), 21.8% (95% CI = 19.9 to 23.7%) among Hispanic, and 17.7% (95% CI = 14.1 to 21.3%) among Asian/Pacific Islander men in 2012. The absolute screening frequency declined by 9.5% from 2012 to 2018, with a larger decline among NHB (11.6%) than NHW men (9.3%). The relative annual decrease was greater among NHB (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.84 to 0.88) than NHW men (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.89 to 0.90; Pheterogeneity =0.005), driven by a larger decline among NHB men ages 40-54 y. The NHB: NHW IRR for total prostate cancer increased from 1.73 (95% CI = 1.69 to 1.76) in 2011 to 1.87 (95% CI = 1.83 to 1.92) in 2012 and has remained elevated, driven by differences in localized tumor incidence. Metastatic disease incidence is rising across all racial/ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of prostate cancer screening varies by race/ethnicity, and there was a modestly steeper decline in PSA testing among younger NHB men relative to NHW men since 2012. The NHB: NHW IRR for localized prostate cancer modestly increased following 2012.

11.
BMC Surg ; 20(1): 235, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rise in deaths attributed to opioid drugs has become a major public health problem in the United States and in the world. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is associated with a faster postoperative recovery and our aim was to investigate if the use of MIS was associated with lower odds of prolonged opioid prescriptions after major procedures. METHODS: Retrospective study using the IBM Watson Health Marketscan® Commerical Claims and Encounters Database investigating opioid-naïve cancer patients aged 18-64 who underwent open versus MIS radical prostatectomy (RP), partial colectomy (PC) or hysterectomy (HYS) from 2012 to 2017. Propensity weighted logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the independent effect of surgical approach on prolonged opioid prescriptions, defined as prescriptions within 91-180 days of surgery. RESULTS: Overall, 6838 patients underwent RP (MIS 85.5%), 4480 patients underwent PC (MIS 61.6%) and 1620 patients underwent HYS (MIS 41.8%). Approximately 70-80% of all patients had perioperative opioid prescriptions. In the weighted model, patients undergoing MIS were significantly less likely to have prolonged opioid prescriptions in all three surgery types (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.737, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.595-0.914, p = 0.006; OR 0.728, 95% CI 0.600-0.882, p = 0.001; OR 0.655, 95% CI 0.466-0.920, p = 0.015, respectively). CONCLUSION: The use of the MIS was associated with lower odds of prolonged opioid prescription in all procedures examined. While additional studies such as clinical trials are needed for further confirmation, our findings need to be considered for patient counseling as postoperative differences between approaches do exist.

12.
Cancer ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Underinsured patients face significant barriers in accessing high-quality care. Evidence of whether access to high-volume surgical care is mediated by disparities in health insurance coverage remains wanting. METHODS: The authors used the National Cancer Data Base to identify all adult patients who had a confirmed diagnosis of breast, prostate, lung, or colorectal cancer during 2004 through 2016. The odds of receiving surgical care at a high-volume hospital were estimated according to the type of insurance using multivariable logistic regression analyses for each malignancy. Then, the interactions between study period and insurance status were assessed. RESULTS: In total, 1,279,738 patients were included in the study. Of these, patients with breast cancer who were insured by Medicare (odds ratio [OR], 0.75; P < .001), Medicaid (OR, 0.55; P < .001), or uninsured (OR, 0.50; P < .001); patients with prostate cancer who were insured by Medicare (OR, 0.87; P = .003), Medicaid (OR, 0.58; P = .001), or uninsured (OR, 0.36; P < .001); and patients with lung cancer who were insured by Medicare (OR, 0.84; P = .020), Medicaid (OR, 0.74; P = .001), or uninsured (OR, 0.48; P < .001) were less likely to receive surgical care at high-volume hospitals compared with patients who had private insurance. For patients with colorectal cancer, the effect of insurance differed by study period, and improved since 2011. For those on Medicaid, the odds of receiving care at a high-volume hospital were 0.51 during 2004 through 2007 and 0.99 during 2014 through 2016 (P for interaction = .001); for uninsured patients, the odds were 0.45 during 2004 through 2007 and 1.19 during 2014 through 2016 (P for interaction < .001) compared with patients who had private insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Uninsured, Medicare-insured, and Medicaid-insured patients are less likely to receive surgical care at high-volume hospitals. For uninsured and Medicaid-insured patients with colorectal cancer, the odds of receiving care at high-volume hospitals have improved since implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(10): 1467-1475, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514134

RESUMO

We determined the effect of sample size on performance of polygenic hazard score (PHS) models in prostate cancer. Age and genotypes were obtained for 40,861 men from the PRACTICAL consortium. The dataset included 201,590 SNPs per subject, and was split into training and testing sets. Established-SNP models considered 65 SNPs that had been previously associated with prostate cancer. Discovery-SNP models used stepwise selection to identify new SNPs. The performance of each PHS model was calculated for random sizes of the training set. The performance of a representative Established-SNP model was estimated for random sizes of the testing set. Mean HR98/50 (hazard ratio of top 2% to average in test set) of the Established-SNP model increased from 1.73 [95% CI: 1.69-1.77] to 2.41 [2.40-2.43] when the number of training samples was increased from 1 thousand to 30 thousand. Corresponding HR98/50 of the Discovery-SNP model increased from 1.05 [0.93-1.18] to 2.19 [2.16-2.23]. HR98/50 of a representative Established-SNP model using testing set sample sizes of 0.6 thousand and 6 thousand observations were 1.78 [1.70-1.85] and 1.73 [1.71-1.76], respectively. We estimate that a study population of 20 thousand men is required to develop Discovery-SNP PHS models while 10 thousand men should be sufficient for Established-SNP models.

15.
Scand J Urol ; 54(4): 290-296, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538224

RESUMO

Objectives: To examine the temporal association between blood transfusion and 90-day mortality in patients with bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy.Methods: This represents a retrospective cohort study of patients treated with radical cystectomy within the Premier Hospital network between 2003 and 2015. Patients outcomes were stratified those who received early blood transfusion (day of surgery) vs delayed blood transfusion (postoperative day ≥1) during the index admission. Primary end point was 90-day mortality following surgery.Results: The median age of 12,056 patients identified was 70 years. A total of 7,201 (59.7%) patients received blood transfusion. Within 90 days following surgery, 57 (2.2%), 162 (5.9%) and 123 (6.7%) patients in the early, delayed and both early and delayed transfused patients died respectively. Following multivariate logistic regression to account for patient (age and Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]) and hospital (surgeon volume, surgical approach and academic status) factors, delayed blood transfusion was independently associated with 90-day mortality (Odds ratio [OR], 2.64; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.98-3.53; p < 0.001). A sensitivity analysis defining early blood transfusion as <2 days postoperatively, increased 90-day mortality persisted in patients receiving delayed transfusion (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.63-3.00; p < 0.001). Older patients (≥77 years) with the highest CCI (≥2) had a 7% absolute increase in the predicted probability of 90-day mortality if they were transfused late compared to patients transfused early.Conclusion: Patient undergoing cystectomy may benefit from expedited transfusion to prevent subsequent clinical deterioration which may lead to patient mortality. Future work is needed to elucidate the optimal timing of blood transfusion.

16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1731-1738, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A polygenic hazard score (PHS), the weighted sum of 54 SNP genotypes, was previously validated for association with clinically significant prostate cancer and for improved prostate cancer screening accuracy. Here, we assess the potential impact of PHS-informed screening. METHODS: United Kingdom population incidence data (Cancer Research United Kingdom) and data from the Cluster Randomized Trial of PSA Testing for Prostate Cancer were combined to estimate age-specific clinically significant prostate cancer incidence (Gleason score ≥7, stage T3-T4, PSA ≥10, or nodal/distant metastases). Using HRs estimated from the ProtecT prostate cancer trial, age-specific incidence rates were calculated for various PHS risk percentiles. Risk-equivalent age, when someone with a given PHS percentile has prostate cancer risk equivalent to an average 50-year-old man (50-year-standard risk), was derived from PHS and incidence data. Positive predictive value (PPV) of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer was calculated using PHS-adjusted age groups. RESULTS: The expected age at diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer differs by 19 years between the 1st and 99th PHS percentiles: men with PHS in the 1st and 99th percentiles reach the 50-year-standard risk level at ages 60 and 41, respectively. PPV of PSA was higher for men with higher PHS-adjusted age. CONCLUSIONS: PHS provides individualized estimates of risk-equivalent age for clinically significant prostate cancer. Screening initiation could be adjusted by a man's PHS. IMPACT: Personalized genetic risk assessments could inform prostate cancer screening decisions.

17.
Eur Urol ; 78(3): 316-320, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409115

RESUMO

Although men of African ancestry have a high risk of prostate cancer (PCa), no genes or mutations have been identified that contribute to familial clustering of PCa in this population. We investigated whether the African ancestry-specific PCa risk variant at 8q24, rs72725854, is enriched in men with a PCa family history in 9052 cases, 143 cases from high-risk families, and 8595 controls of African ancestry. We found the risk allele to be significantly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, more aggressive disease, and enriched in men with a PCa family history (32% of high-risk familial cases carried the variant vs 23% of cases without a family history and 12% of controls). For cases with two or more first-degree relatives with PCa who had at least one family member diagnosed at age <60 yr, the odds ratios for TA heterozygotes and TT homozygotes were 3.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.13-7.22) and 33.41 (95% CI = 10.86-102.84), respectively. Among men with a PCa family history, the absolute risk by age 60 yr reached 21% (95% CI = 17-25%) for TA heterozygotes and 38% (95% CI = 13-65%) for TT homozygotes. We estimate that in men of African ancestry, rs72725854 accounts for 32% of the total familial risk explained by all known PCa risk variants. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that rs72725854, an African ancestry-specific risk variant, is more common in men with a family history of prostate cancer and in those diagnosed with prostate cancer at younger ages. Men of African ancestry may benefit from the knowledge of their carrier status for this genetic risk variant to guide decisions about prostate cancer screening.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335060

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to examine the overall survival (OS) in patients diagnosed with high-grade T1 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with early radical cystectomy versus local treatment of the primary tumor, defined as endoscopic management with or without intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified 4900 patients with histologically confirmed, clinically non-metastatic high-grade T1 bladder cancer undergoing surgical intervention using the National Cancer Database for the period 2010 to 2015. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine predictors for the receipt of early radical cystectomy (defined as radical cystectomy within 90 days of diagnosis). We then employed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier curves to evaluate the OS according to surgical treatment (early radical cystectomy vs. local treatment). RESULTS: A minority (23.7%) of patients underwent early radical cystectomy. Independent predictors of undergoing early radical cystectomy included lower age, White race, and lower comorbidity status. The median OS was 74.0 months for patients diagnosed with high-grade T1 bladder cancer. The 1- and 5-year survival rates of patients undergoing early radical cystectomy were 94.8% and 71.0%, whereas they were 85.2% and 52.4%, for patients undergoing initial local treatment, respectively (P < .001). Compared with patients undergoing local treatment, patients undergoing early radical cystectomy had a lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.91; P = .002). CONCLUSION: In this cohort of patients presenting with high-grade T1 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, we found that early radical cystectomy was associated with an OS benefit compared with initial local treatment.

20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(3): e201839, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232449

RESUMO

Importance: While racial disparities in prostate cancer mortality are well documented, it is not well known how these disparities vary geographically within the US. Objective: To characterize geographic variation in prostate cancer-specific mortality differences between black and white men. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included data from 17 geographic registries within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2014. Inclusion criteria were men 18 years and older with biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer. Men missing data on key variables (ie, cancer stage, Gleason grade group, prostate-specific antigen level, and survival follow-up data) were excluded. Analysis was performed from September 5 to December 25, 2018. Exposure: Patient SEER-designated race (ie, black, white, or other). Main Outcomes and Measures: Fine and Gray competing-risks regression analyses were used to evaluate the difference in prostate-cancer specific mortality between black and white men. A stratified analysis by Gleason grade group was performed stratified as grade group 1 and grade groups 2 through 5. Results: The final cohort consisted of 229 771 men, including 178 204 white men (77.6%), 35 006 black men (15.2%), and 16 561 men of other or unknown race (7.2%). Mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 64.9 (8.8) years. There were 4773 prostate cancer deaths among white men and 1250 prostate cancer deaths among black men. Compared with white men, black men had a higher risk of mortality overall (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.39 [95% CI, 1.30-1.48]). In the stratified analysis, there were 4 registries in which black men had worse prostate cancer-specific survival in both Gleason grade group 1 (Atlanta, Georgia: AHR, 5.49 [95% CI, 2.03-14.87]; Greater Georgia: AHR, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.10-3.22]; Louisiana: AHR, 1.80 [95% CI, 1.06-3.07]; New Jersey: AHR, 2.60 [95% CI, 1.53-4.40]) and Gleason grade groups 2 through 5 (Atlanta: AHR, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.46-2.45]; Greater Georgia: AHR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.07-1.56]; Louisiana: AHR, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.07-1.54]; New Jersey: AHR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.24-1.87]), although the magnitude of survival difference was lower than for Gleason grade group 1 in each of these registries. The greatest race-based survival difference for men with Gleason grade group 1 disease was in the Atlanta registry. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that population-level differences in prostate cancer survival among black and white men were associated with a small set of geographic areas and with low-risk prostate cancer. Targeted interventions in these areas may help to mitigate prostate cancer care disparities at the national level.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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