Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 8 de 8
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 109, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924840

RESUMO

We here present the first detailed study of the specimen KNM-RU 18340 from Rusinga Island (Kenya), the only known complete early Miocene chameleon skull, using micro-CT. This specimen represents one of the oldest chameleon fossils ever recovered. For the first time, the skull bone internal surfaces, their sutures, and elements contained inside the rocky matrix are observed. Our morphological comparisons and phylogenetic analyses place this specimen confidently in the genus Calumma and a new species, Calumma benovskyi sp. nov., is erected for it. Since all species of this genus are endemic to Madagascar, this fossil uniquely demonstrates the existence of Calumma on continental Africa in the past. Our results challenge the long-held view that chameleons originated on Madagascar and dispersed over water to Africa, and provide a strong evidence of an African origin for some Malagasy lineages. The Oligocene-early Miocene dispersal to Madagascar, using oceanic currents that favoured eastward dispersal at that time, is a highly supported scenario matching the suggested dispersal of lemurs to this island. This is consistent with a previously suggested hypothesis based on molecular data.


Assuntos
Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , África , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis/diagnóstico por imagem , Madagáscar , Masculino , Microtomografia por Raio-X
2.
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0133361, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26287673

RESUMO

A new partial cranium (UW 88-886) of the Plio-Pleistocene baboon Papio angusticeps from Malapa is identified, described and discussed. UW 88-886 represents the only non-hominin primate yet recovered from Malapa and is important both in the context of baboon evolution as well as South African hominin site biochronology. The new specimen may represent the first appearance of modern baboon anatomy and coincides almost perfectly with molecular divergence date estimates for the origin of the modern P. hamadryas radiation. The fact that the Malapa specimen is dated between ~2.026-2.36 million years ago (Ma) also has implications for the biochronology of other South African Plio-Pleistocene sites where P. angusticeps is found.


Assuntos
Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Papio hamadryas/anatomia & histologia , Papio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , África do Sul
3.
Science ; 333(6048): 1407-11, 2011 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21903805

RESUMO

The fossil record of the hominin pelvis reflects important evolutionary changes in locomotion and parturition. The partial pelves of two individuals of Australopithecus sediba were reconstructed from previously reported finds and new material. These remains share some features with australopiths, such as large biacetabular diameter, small sacral and coxal joints, and long pubic rami. The specimens also share derived features with Homo, including more vertically oriented and sigmoid-shaped iliac blades, greater robusticity of the iliac body, sinusoidal anterior iliac borders, shortened ischia, and more superiorly oriented pubic rami. These derived features appear in a species with a small adult brain size, suggesting that the birthing of larger-brained babies was not driving the evolution of the pelvis at this time.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Ossos Pélvicos/anatomia & histologia , Pelve/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Ílio/anatomia & histologia , Ísquio/anatomia & histologia , Locomoção , Masculino , Parto , Osso Púbico/anatomia & histologia , Sacro/anatomia & histologia , África do Sul
4.
Science ; 333(6048): 1411-7, 2011 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21903806

RESUMO

Hand bones from a single individual with a clear taxonomic affiliation are scarce in the hominin fossil record, which has hampered understanding the evolution of manipulative abilities in hominins. Here we describe and analyze a nearly complete wrist and hand of an adult female [Malapa Hominin 2 (MH2)] Australopithecus sediba from Malapa, South Africa (1.977 million years ago). The hand presents a suite of Australopithecus-like features, such as a strong flexor apparatus associated with arboreal locomotion, and Homo-like features, such as a long thumb and short fingers associated with precision gripping and possibly stone tool production. Comparisons to other fossil hominins suggest that there were at least two distinct hand morphotypes around the Plio-Pleistocene transition. The MH2 fossils suggest that Au. sediba may represent a basal condition associated with early stone tool use and production.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Ossos da Mão/anatomia & histologia , Mãos/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Ossos do Carpo/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Falanges dos Dedos da Mão/anatomia & histologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Hominidae/classificação , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Locomoção , Ossos Metacarpais/anatomia & histologia , Atividade Motora , África do Sul , Polegar/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas
6.
Science ; 328(5975): 195-204, 2010 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20378811

RESUMO

Despite a rich African Plio-Pleistocene hominin fossil record, the ancestry of Homo and its relation to earlier australopithecines remain unresolved. Here we report on two partial skeletons with an age of 1.95 to 1.78 million years. The fossils were encased in cave deposits at the Malapa site in South Africa. The skeletons were found close together and are directly associated with craniodental remains. Together they represent a new species of Australopithecus that is probably descended from Australopithecus africanus. Combined craniodental and postcranial evidence demonstrates that this new species shares more derived features with early Homo than any other australopith species and thus might help reveal the ancestor of that genus.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae/classificação , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Dentição , Feminino , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Esqueleto , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , África do Sul
7.
Science ; 328(5975): 205-8, 2010 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20378812

RESUMO

We describe the geological, geochronological, geomorphological, and faunal context of the Malapa site and the fossils of Australopithecus sediba. The hominins occur with a macrofauna assemblage that existed in Africa between 2.36 and 1.50 million years ago (Ma). The fossils are encased in water-laid, clastic sediments that were deposited along the lower parts of what is now a deeply eroded cave system, immediately above a flowstone layer with a U-Pb date of 2.026 +/- 0.021 Ma. The flowstone has a reversed paleomagnetic signature and the overlying hominin-bearing sediments are of normal polarity, indicating deposition during the 1.95- to 1.78-Ma Olduvai Subchron. The two hominin specimens were buried together in a single debris flow that lithified soon after deposition in a phreatic environment inaccessible to scavengers.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hominidae , Animais , Fenômenos Geológicos , Datação Radiométrica , África do Sul
8.
Clin Anat ; 23(4): 399-406, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20235180

RESUMO

The 7th cervical vertebrae of 240 cadavers of South African Zulu, White, and Colored population groups were examined to determine morphometric variation. White and Colored females had statistically significant narrower cervical anteroposterior diameters than their male counterparts, whereas no statistically significant difference between sexes of the Zulu population group was observed in this variable. In addition, although Zulu and Colored females had statistically significant narrower cervical transverse diameters than their male counterparts, there was no statistically significant variation between South African white males and females in this respect. The findings indicate that sexual dimorphism is more apparent in the vertebral centrum, across the three population groups, where males had significantly larger dimensions in centrum anteroposterior diameter, height, and width than their female counterparts. The study further reveals that sexual dimorphism is more apparent when one compares aspects of the 7th cervical vertebra between sexes within the same population group. Overall, the dimensions of the various variates of the vertebra are substantially smaller in women than in men. The smaller dimensions, particularly of the centrum, may be the result of lower skeletal mass in women and render them more vulnerable to fractures resulting from compression forces.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/anatomia & histologia , Variação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , /genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Populacionais/etnologia , Grupos Populacionais/genética , África do Sul/etnologia , /genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...